A novel series of putative < i > Brugia malayi < /i > histone demethylase inhibitors as potential anti-filarial drugs
by Tamara Kreiss, Tyler Eck, Brittany Hart, Sreedhar Tummalapalli, David Rotella, John Siekierka Filariasis, caused by a family of parasitic nematodes, affects millions of individuals throughout the tropics and is a major cause of acute and chronic morbidity. Current drugs are largely used in mass drug administration programs aimed at controlling the spread of disease by killing microfilariae , larval forms of the parasite responsible for transmission from humans to humans through insect vectors with limited efficacy against adult parasites. Although these drugs are effective, in some cases there are toxic liabilities. In...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 16, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tamara Kreiss Source Type: research

Cerebral paragonimiasis: Clinicoradiological features and serodiagnosis using recombinant yolk ferritin
This study retrospectively assessed the clinical and imaging characteristics of the 105 patients along with the evaluatio n of diagnostic potentials of recombinantP.westermani yolk ferritin (rPwYF) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) employing patients ’ sera and cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs). We analyzed 60 male and 45 female patients; 50 early-stage patients with non-calcified enhancing nodule(s) (median age, 38 years; interquartile range [IQR], 24.75–52; median symptom duration, 0.75 years; IQR, 0.2–2) and 54 chronic cases having calcified lesion(s) (median age, 33 years; IQR, 25–41; median symptom durati...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 16, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jeong-Geun Kim Source Type: research

The powerful synergistic effect of spiramycin/propolis loaded chitosan/alginate nanoparticles on acute murine toxoplasmosis
In conclusion, spiramycin/propolis loaded CS/Alg NPs showed the uppermost efficacy in the treatment of acute murine toxoplasmosis. The safe nature and the anti-parasitic effect of each of CS, Alg, spiramycin and prop olis encourage the synergistic use of spiramycin/propolis loaded CS/Alg NPs as a potent treatment for human toxoplasmosis. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 16, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Nancy Abd-elkader Hagras Source Type: research

Correction: Comparative dissection of the peripheral olfactory system of the Chagas disease vectors < i > Rhodnius prolixus < /i > and < i > Rhodnius brethesi < /i >
by Florencia Campetella, Rickard Ignell, Rolf Beutel, Bill S. Hansson, Silke Sachse (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 16, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Florencia Campetella Source Type: research

Bayesian latent class models for identifying canine visceral leishmaniosis using diagnostic tests in the absence of a gold standard
Conclusions/SignificanceUtilization of continuous DPP reader information can improve the correct discrimination between individuals that are negative for disease and those with clinical VL. These models provide a promising avenue for diagnostic testing in contexts with multiple, imperfect diagnostic tests. Specifically, they can easily be applied to human visceral leishmaniasis when diagnostic test results are available. Also, appropriate diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis has important consequences for curtailing spread of disease to humans. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 14, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Marie V. Ozanne Source Type: research

Efficacy of oral fluralaner (Bravecto) against < i > Tunga penetrans < /i > in dogs: A negative control, randomized field study in an endemic community in Brazil
by Katharine Costa dos Santos, Rafael Marin Chiummo, Anja Regina Heckeroth, Eva Zschiesche, Paula Elisa Brand ão Guedes, Tatiani Vitor Harvey, Anderson Vieira de Jesus, Anaiá da Paixão Sevá, Joana Thaisa Santos de Oliveira, Zelina dos Santos Freire, Jürgen Krücken, Fernando de Almeida Borges, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Renata Santiago Alberto Carlos The sand fleaTunga penetrans is one of the zoonotic agents of tungiasis, a parasitic skin disease of humans and animals. The dog is one of its main reservoirs. This negatively controlled, randomized, double-masked clinical trial evaluated the therapeutic and residua...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 14, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Katharine Costa dos Santos Source Type: research

Knowledge of Lassa fever, its prevention and control practices and their predictors among healthcare workers during an outbreak in Northern Nigeria: A multi-centre cross-sectional assessment
ConclusionThe level of knowledge of LF and its PC measures among the HCWs surveyed was suboptimal and participants ’ LF training status, place of work and occupational category were the significant predictors. In addition, LF knowledge overestimation on a global scale was observed among a majority of HCWs and this was also predicted by LF training status. Therefore, there is a critical need for health authorit ies in Nigeria to prioritize continuous on-the-job training of HCWs on priority neglected tropical diseases such as Lassa fever. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 14, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yusuf Hassan Wada Source Type: research

Validation of the isothermal < i > Schistosoma haematobium < /i > Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) assay, coupled with simplified sample preparation, for diagnosing female genital schistosomiasis using cervicovaginal lavage and vaginal self-swab samples
Conclusions/SignificanceThese results supplement previous findings, highlighting that the use of genital self-swab sampling for diagnosing FGS should be explored further whilst also demonstrating that rapid and portable DNA isolation methods can be used to detectS.haematobium DNA within clinical samples using RPA. Although further development and assessment is needed, it was concluded that the Sh-RPA, coupled with simplified sample preparation, shows excellent promise as a rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool capable of diagnosing FGS at the point-of-care in resource-poor schistosomiasis-endemic settings. (Source: PLoS Negl...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 14, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: John Archer Source Type: research

Community perceptions and acceptability of mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases in Asia-Pacific countries: A systematic scoping review of qualitative research
ConclusionFor many countries in the Asia-Pacific region, the “low hanging fruit has been picked” in terms of where mass drug administration has worked and transmission has been stopped. The settings that remain–such as remote areas of Fiji and Papua New Guinea, or large, highly populated, multi-cultural urban settings in India and Indonesia–present hu ge challenges going forward. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 11, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Elke Mitchell Source Type: research

Predicting future community-level ocular < i > Chlamydia trachomatis < /i > infection prevalence using serological, clinical, molecular, and geospatial data
by Christine Tedijanto, Solomon Aragie, Zerihun Tadesse, Mahteme Haile, Taye Zeru, Scott D. Nash, Dionna M. Wittberg, Sarah Gwyn, Diana L. Martin, Hugh J. W. Sturrock, Thomas M. Lietman, Jeremy D. Keenan, Benjamin F. Arnold Trachoma is an infectious disease characterized by repeated exposures toChlamydia trachomatis (Ct) that may ultimately lead to blindness. Efficient identification of communities with high infection burden could help target more intensive control efforts. We hypothesized that IgG seroprevalence in combination with geospatial layers, machine learning, and model-based geostatistics would be able to accura...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 11, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Christine Tedijanto Source Type: research

Detection of multiple mycetoma pathogens using fungal metabarcoding analysis of soil DNA in an endemic area of Sudan
This study demonstrated that soil DNA metabarcoding can elucidate the presence of multiple mycetoma-causative fungi, which may contribute to accurate diagnosis for patient treatment and geographical mapping. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 11, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hiroki Hashizume Source Type: research

Double-antigen sandwich ELISA based on chimeric antigens for detection of antibodies to < i > Trypanosoma cruzi < /i > in human sera
Conclusions/SignificanceDAgS-ELISA is a promising tool for immunodiagnosis, and despite the high AUC values, the performance of this assay was different from the values obtained by our group when using these antigens in the indirect ELISA, for this reason, improvements are being considered to increase the sensitivity of the DAgS-ELISA. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 11, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Nat ália Erdens Maron Freitas Source Type: research

Qualitative evidence syntheses of attitudes and preferences to inform guidelines on infant feeding in the context of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) transmission risk
ConclusionsAn EVD outbreak causes multi-level disruption that negatively impacts infant feeding and child care practices. Negative impacts have multiple causes and successful planning for Ebola outbreaks requires that nutrition of infants and young children is a priority. Lessons from the Ebola pandemic have wider applicability to other pandemic contexts including Covid-19. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 10, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fiona Campbell Source Type: research

Drug development for the treatment of onchocerciasis: Population pharmacokinetic and adverse events modeling of emodepside
Conclusions/SignificancePharmacokinetic modeling and simulation was used to derive an optimized, body weight-based dosing regimen, which allows for achievement of extended emodepside exposures above target concentrations while maintaining acceptable tolerability margins. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 10, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Frauke Assmus Source Type: research

Degenerate sequence-based CRISPR diagnostic for Crimean –Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
by Hongzhao Li, Alexander Bello, Greg Smith, Dominic M. S. Kielich, James E. Strong, Bradley S. Pickering CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats), an ancient defense mechanism used by prokaryotes to cleave nucleic acids from invading viruses and plasmids, is currently being harnessed by researchers worldwide to develop new point-of-need diagnostics. In CRISPR diagnostics, a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) containing a “spacer” sequence that specifically complements with the target nucleic acid sequence guides the activation of a CRISPR effector protein (Cas13a, Cas12a or Cas12b), leading to collateral cl...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 10, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hongzhao Li Source Type: research