Preexisting < i > Trichinella spiralis < /i > infection attenuates the severity of < i > Pseudomonas aeruginosa < /i > -induced pneumonia
ConclusionsThese findings indicate that a prior infection withT.spiralis ameliorates experimental pulmonary inflammation and improves survival inP.aeruginosa pneumonia through a Th2-type response with eosinophils. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - May 2, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Shao Rong Long Source Type: research

Fifty years of struggle to control cutaneous leishmaniasis in the highest endemic county in Iran: A longitudinal observation inferred with interrupted time series model
by Mohammadreza Aflatoonian, Iraj Sharifi, Behnaz Aflatoonian, Ehsan Salarkia, Ahmad Khosravi, Razieh Tavakoli Oliaee, Mehdi Bamorovat, Abbas Aghaei Afshar, Zahra Babaei, Fatemeh Sharifi, Moslem Taheri Soodejani, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Abolhassan Nadim, Hamid Sharifi Negligible data are available following major social activities and environmental changes on leishmaniasis. Therefore, how interactions between these events influence cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) risk is not well-known. This longitudinal study was undertaken to explore the impact of interventions conducted between 1971 and 2020 in Bam c...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 29, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mohammadreza Aflatoonian Source Type: research

Human Seroprevalence for Dengue, Ross River, and Barmah Forest viruses in Australia and the Pacific: A systematic review spanning seven decades
Conclusions and significanceHuman serosurveys provide important information on the extent of human exposure to arboviruses across: (1) time, (2) place, and (3) person (e.g., age, gender, clinical presentation etc). Interpreting results obtained at these scales has the potential to inform us about transmission cycles, improve diagnostic surveillance, and mitigate future outbreaks. Future research should streamline methods and reduce bias to allow a better understanding of the burden of these diseases and the factors associated with seroprevalence. Greater consideration should be given to the interpretation of seroprevalence...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 29, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Eugene T. Madzokere Source Type: research

Exposure to multiple pathogens - serological evidence for Rift Valley fever virus, Coxiella burnetii, Bluetongue virus and Brucella spp. in cattle, sheep and goat in Mali
by Michel Mainack Dione, Amadou S éry, Cheick Abou Kounta Sidibé, Barbara Wieland, Abdou Fall An important problem for livestock production in Mali is occurrence of several infectious diseases. A particular challenge for control of pathogens that affect different species, especially in a system with mixed herds with cattle, sheep and goats. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate co-exp osure with Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Coxiella burnetii, bluetongue virus (BTV) and Brucella spp. in different livestock species in mixed herds. With the exception of BTV these pathogens are also zoonotic. A retrospective assessm...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 29, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Michel Mainack Dione Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and risk factors for severe scrub typhus in pediatric and elderly patients
by Xiu-Gang Guan, Yue-Hong Wei, Bao-Gui Jiang, Shi-Xia Zhou, An-Ran Zhang, Qing-Bin Lu, Zi-Wei Zhou, Jin-Jin Chen, Hai-Yang Zhang, Yang Ji, Yang Yang, Li-Qun Fang, Hao Li, Zhi-Cong Yang, Wei Liu BackgroundScrub typhus (ST) is a life-threatening infectious disease if appropriate treatment is unavailable. Large discrepancy of clinical severity of ST patients was reported among age groups, and the underlying risk factors for severe disease are unclear. MethodsClinical and epidemiological data of ST patients were collected in 55 surveillance hospitals located in Guangzhou City, China, from 2012 to 2018. Severe prognosis and re...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 29, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Xiu-Gang Guan Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of scrub typhus in Taiwan during 2006 –2016
In conclusion, our data indicate the widespread presence oftsa56 genotypes closely related to Thailand and Korean strains and the presence of the unique endemic strains TW-12, TW-22, TW-29, and TW-36 in Taiwan. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 29, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hsiang-Fei Chen Source Type: research

Ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool for Neural Pain in Leprosy
by Clarissa Neves Spitz, Roberto Mogami, Izabela Jardim Rodrigues Pitta, Mariana Andrea Vilas Boas Hacker, Anna Maria Sales, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Marcia Rodrigues Jardim Leprosy is still a prevalent disease in Brazil, representing 93% of all occurrences in the Americas. Leprosy neuropathy is one of the most worrying manifestations of the disease. Acute neuropathy usually occurs during reaction episodes and is called neuritis. Twenty-two leprosy patients were inclu ded in this study. These patients had neural pain associated with ulnar sensory neuropathy, with or without adjunct motor involvement. The neurological picture ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 29, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Clarissa Neves Spitz Source Type: research

Finding a chink in the armor: Update, limitations, and challenges toward successful antivirals against flaviviruses
by Thamil Vaani Komarasamy, Nur Amelia Azreen Adnan, William James, Vinod RMT Balasubramaniam Flaviviruses have caused large epidemics and ongoing outbreaks for centuries. They are now distributed in every continent infecting up to millions of people annually and may emerge to cause future epidemics. Some of the viruses from this group cause severe illnesses ranging from hemorrhagic to neu rological manifestations. Despite decades of research, there are currently no approved antiviral drugs against flaviviruses, urging for new strategies and antiviral targets. In recent years, integrated omics data-based drug repurposing ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 28, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Thamil Vaani Komarasamy Source Type: research

Prevalence of < i > Strongyloides stercoralis < /i > infection and associated clinical symptoms among schoolchildren living in different altitudes of Amhara National Regional State, northwest Ethiopia
by Tadesse Hailu Jember, Arancha Amor, Endalkachew Nibret, Abaineh Munshea, Maria Flores-Chavez, Thuy-Huong Ta-Tang, Jose M Saugar, Agust ín Benito, Melaku Anegagrie BackgroundStrongyloides stercoralis is a parasite that causes strongyloidiasis in humans. It is prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics where poor sanitation is a common problem. The true prevalence ofS.stercoralis in Ethiopia is underestimated due to the lack of a “Gold” standard diagnostic method. Moreover, its prevalence across altitudinal gradient in Amhara Region has not been studied. MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted among 844 schoolchil...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 28, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tadesse Hailu Jember Source Type: research

COX-2 is required to mediate crosstalk of ROS-dependent activation of MAPK/NF- κB signaling with pro-inflammatory response and defense-related NO enhancement during challenge of macrophage-like cell line with < i > Giardia duodenalis < /i >
by Yudan Zhao, Yongwu Yang, Min Liu, Xuening Qin, Xiran Yu, Huimin Zhao, Xiaoyun Li, Wei LiGiardia duodenalis, the causative agent of giardiasis, is among the most important causes of waterborne diarrheal diseases around the world.Giardia infection may persist over extended periods with intestinal inflammation, although minimal. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is well known as an important inducer of inflammatory response, while the role it played in noninvasiveGiardia infection remains elusive. Here we investigated the regulatory function of COX-2 inGiardia-induced pro-inflammatory response and defense-related nitric oxide (NO) ge...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 28, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yudan Zhao Source Type: research

Effect of a single dose of 8 mg moxidectin or 150 μg/kg ivermectin on < i > O < /i > . < i > volvulus < /i > skin microfilariae in a randomized trial: Differences between areas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia and Ghana and impact of intensity of infection
by Didier Bakajika, Eric M. Kanza, Nicholas O. Opoku, Hayford M. Howard, Germain L. Mambandu, Amos Nyathirombo, Maurice M. Nigo, Kambale Kasonia Kennedy, Safari L. Masembe, Mupenzi Mumbere, Kambale Kataliko, Kpehe M. Bolay, Simon K. Attah, George Olipoh, Sampson Asare, Michel Vaillant, Christine M. Halleux, Annette C. Kuesel BackgroundOur study in CDTI-na ïve areas in Nord Kivu and Ituri (Democratic Republic of the Congo, DRC), Lofa County (Liberia) and Nkwanta district (Ghana) showed that a single 8 mg moxidectin dose reduced skin microfilariae density (microfilariae/mg skin, SmfD) better and for longer than a single 150...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 27, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Didier Bakajika Source Type: research

Pilot trial using mass field-releases of sterile males produced with the incompatible and sterile insect techniques as part of integrated < i > Aedes aegypti < /i > control in Mexico
Conclusions/SignificanceOur study, the first open-field pilot implementation ofWolbachia IIT-SIT in Mexico and Latin-America, confirms that inundative male releases can significantly reduce natural populations ofAe.aegypti. More importantly, we present successful pilot results of the integration ofWolbachia IIT-SIT within a IVM plan implemented by Ministry of Health personnel. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 26, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Abdiel Mart ín-Park Source Type: research

A critical appraisal of the ENLIST severity scale for erythema nodosum leprosum
by Bhushan Kumar, Hitaishi Mehta, Tarun Narang, Sunil Dogra (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 26, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Bhushan Kumar Source Type: research

Correction: Laboratory demonstration of the vertical transmission of Rift Valley fever virus by < i > Culex tarsalis < /i > mosquitoes
by Nicholas A. Bergren, Erin M. Borland, Daniel A. Hartman, Rebekah C. Kading (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 26, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Nicholas A. Bergren Source Type: research

Identification of asymptomatic < i > Entamoeba histolytica < /i > infection by a serological screening test: A cross-sectional study of an HIV-negative men who have sex with men cohort in Japan
Conclusions/SignificanceOur serological screening approach constitutes a potentially practical epidemiological strategy. Active epidemiological surveys, in combination with an effective screening strategy for asymptomatically infected individuals, should be applied to help reduce sexually transmittedE.histolytica infections. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 25, 2022 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yasuaki Yanagawa Source Type: research