Genetic Recombination between Human and Animal Parasites Creates Novel Strains of Human Pathogen

by Wendy Gibson, Lori Peacock, Vanessa Ferris, Katrin Fischer, Jennifer Livingstone, James Thomas, Mick Bailey Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a tropical arbovirosis characterized by sudden fever, headache, rash, and severe arthralgia. The disease has been suggested to act as a trigger for several autoimmune disorders, especially rheumatoid arthritis. This abstract reports 2 cases of Sj ögren syndrome (SS) following CHIK infection. Both patients were female and presented with fever, arthralgia, rash, and arthritis during CHIK outbreak in Recife, Brazil. After several months, they developed severe sicca symptoms and 1 of them presented with parotid enlargement.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
Mucosal leishmaniosis (ML) is a chronic infection that affects the upper respiratory tract or oral mucosa, caused by Leishmania protozoan parasites. Four male patients between the ages of 60 and 94 years presented with oral lesions of ML. All of them presented with destruction of the nasal septum and infiltrative lesions in the soft palate, with a granulomatous and erythematous base. One of the patients presented with edema and erythema in the nose and middle face. The histopathologic exam was performed in all the cases, but, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was necessary in 2 cases to confirm the diagnosis.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsThrough review of the literature on flu vaccination in immunocompromised patients we show how this could be extrapolated to patients with significant burns. We propose a guideline to aid in the decision to prescribe flu vaccine to patients with significant burns taking into account age, % TBSA burn and comorbidity. The decision to recommend the flu vaccine in this group should be considered on an individual basis. However, flu vaccination represents a simple, low-risk measure which could prevent the dangerous complications of influenza in an at risk group.
Source: Burns - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
GIDEON what’s new summary: December 13 to December 15, 2019 Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (45 updates) 45 DiseasesMap Infectious Diseases – Diseases (237 updates) 12 Clinical notes73 Diseases152 Country notesMap Infectious Diseases – Vaccines (1 updates) 1 Vaccine Microbiology – Bacteria (1 updates) 1 Bacteria The post Update: December 15, 2019 appeared first on GIDEON - Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Online Network.
Source: GIDEON blog - Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: Tags: What's New Source Type: blogs
Abstract In recent years, there have been numerous calls by researchers to adopt multi-disciplinary and international perspectives to address the HIV pandemic. Meaningful and prudent public health policy should be based on sound empirical data and research. Henceforth, our study aims to contribute to the current literature by conducting a comprehensive global mapping and determine the landscapes of HIV/AIDS research covering the years between 1983 and 2017. Bibliometric and content analysis was used to describe trends in research productivity, usages, research collaborations, and clusters of research topics. Explo...
Source: AIDS Reviews - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research
acute;, Cabrera R PMID: 31834328 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Archivos de Cardiologia de Mexico - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Arch Cardiol Mex Source Type: research
72 measles-related deaths have been recorded since the outbreak started.
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
A resurgence of measles cases has been seen in all WHO Regions since 2017. In the Asia Pacific Region, outbreaks of measles have been reported from countries where measles has previously been eliminated (including Australia, Cambodia, Japan, New Zealand, Republic of Korea) and in endemic countries with high incidence rates (including Lao PDR, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam).
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: news Source Type: news
In this study, SS attached to plant bodies were subjected to acid and heat treatments, followed by grinding, to obtain 10–40-nm siliceous sponge spicules (SSS). SSS and polylactic acid (PLA) were then combined to create 50–450-nm PLA/SSS composite nanofibers. The morphology and bioactivity of the electrospun PLA/SSS nanofibers were examined; the tensile, thermal, and water-resistant properties of the fibers were also evaluated. Our results showed a dramatic enhancement in the thermal and tensile properties of PLA with increasing SSS content; specifically, a 3 wt% increase in SSS content resulted in a 47&nb...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Abstract Given that the C580Y polymorphism in the Plasmodium falciparum propeller domain of the kelch 13 gene (pfk13) was documented in Guyana, monitoring for mutations associated with antimalarial resistance was undertaken in neighboring Roraima state in Brazil. Polymorphisms in the pfmdr1 and pfk13 genes were investigated in 275 P. falciparum samples. No pfk13 mutations were observed. Triple mutants 184F, 1042D, and 1246Y were observed in 100% of the samples successfully sequenced for the pfmdr1 gene, with 20.1% of these having an additional mutation at codon 1034C. Among them, 2.5% of samples harbored two copie...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
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