The Recovery, Interpretation and Use of Ancient Pathogen Genomes.

The Recovery, Interpretation and Use of Ancient Pathogen Genomes. Curr Biol. 2020 Oct 05;30(19):R1215-R1231 Authors: Duchêne S, Ho SYW, Carmichael AG, Holmes EC, Poinar H Abstract The ability to sequence genomes from ancient biological material has provided a rich source of information for evolutionary biology and engaged considerable public interest. Although most studies of ancient genomes have focused on vertebrates, particularly archaic humans, newer technologies allow the capture of microbial pathogens and microbiomes from ancient and historical human and non-human remains. This coming of age has been made possible by techniques that allow the preferential capture and amplification of discrete genomes from a background of predominantly host and environmental DNA. There are now near-complete ancient genome sequences for three pathogens of considerable historical interest - pre-modern bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis), smallpox (Variola virus) and cholera (Vibrio cholerae) - and for three equally important endemic human disease agents - Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis), Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy) and Treponema pallidum pallidum (syphilis). Genomic data from these pathogens have extended earlier work by paleopathologists. There have been efforts to sequence the genomes of additional ancient pathogens, with the potential to broaden our understanding of the infectious disease burden common to past populations from the Bronze Age to the ...
Source: Current Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

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Authors: Napolitano M, Patruno C, D'Andrea M, Ferrillo M, Megna M, Fabbrocini G, Campora M, Barabino G, Forgione P PMID: 33034435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia - Category: Dermatology Tags: G Ital Dermatol Venereol Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the wound healing effects of babassu oil. In vitro, babassu oil increased the migration of L929 fibroblasts, inhibited the production of nitric oxide by LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, and increased the levels of INF-γ and IL-6 cytokines production. In vivo, babassu oil accelerated the healing process in a full-thickness splinted wound model, by an increase in the fibroblasts number, blood vessels, and collagen deposition in the wounds. The babassu oil also increased the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the wound site and showed an anti-inflammatory effec...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Microbiological ResearchAuthor(s): M.A. Abo-Kadoum, Mohammed Assad, Yongdong Dai, Nzungize Lambert, Ulrich Aymard Ekomi Moure, Adel Eltoukhy, Stech A.E. Nazou, Asmaa Moaaz, Jianping Xie
Source: Microbiological Research - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Krisna Moorthi Periyasamy, Uma Devi Ranganathan, Srikanth Prasad Tripathy, Ramalingam Bethunaickan
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
[Leadership] Chevron has revealed that it is spending over $5 million (about N1.9 billion) to support the federal government's fight against tuberculosis, malaria and HIV in the country since 2017.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
ACC Abstract Tuberculosis of the skull or calvarial tuberculosis (CTB) is rare. The literature until 2019 reported less than 60 cases of CTB in childhood. The authors describe two patients with CTB associated with other manifestations of TB, such as: spine and rib injuries, peripheral adenopathy, hepatic and splenic involvement who improved with chemotherapy. The patients were a four-year-old and an eight-year-old child, whose diagnoses were confirmed by histopathological, bacteriological or molecular investigation. Both were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and did not need orthopedic tre...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
Abstract Asymptomatic VL is a concern, considering the risk of transmission in highly endemic areas due to human-to-human transmission. The aim of this study was to report the sero-epidemiological prevalence in Bihar, India, a highly endemic area of VL, using the leishmanin skin test (LST) and the direct agglutination test (DAT). This was a cross-sectional study performed in Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India. Relatives of patients with VL were tested by LST and DAT. Other epidemiological data were evaluated and correlated with tests results. Forty individuals (either previous or current patients), and 109 household contac...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 and Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa and Espínola, 1964 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in rural communities in Northeast Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2020;62:e74 Authors: Ferreira ALDS, Santana MA, Santos LVBD, Monteiro DP, Campos JHF, Sena LLJ, Mendonça VJ Abstract Chagas disease is an important endemic morbidity in Latin America affecting millions of people in the American continent. It is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and transmitted through the feces of the insect vector belonging to the subfamily Triatominae. The prese...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
Abstract The study aimed to analyze the impact of health interventions carried out in the city of Palmas, Brazil, on the epidemiological and operational indicators of leprosy between 2007 and 2017. The intervention consisted of training healthcare personnel on the diagnosis and follow-up of patients and organizing the referral of patients to health units. Estimates of the impact were calculated by taking the differences between indicators reported in two equal periods of 1.5 years pre- and post-intervention, with a transition period of six months. During the study period, the database contained 1,875 notifications...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
We report an immunocompromised patient with talaromycosis mimicking histoplamosis. A 26-year-old HIV-positive man had suffered from rashes over the face, trunk, and extremities for three months. His physical examination showed centrally necrotic, ulcerated papules and nodules. A biopsied papule revealed granulomas containing numerous oval, yeast-like cells, some displaying central septation. Saboraud agar culture grew mold with diffuse red pigment consistent with T. marneffei. Careful histopathological examination and microbiological culture are important for the accurate diagnosis of fungal infections.
Source: Dermatology Online Journal - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
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