Parthenolide Destabilizes Microtubules by Covalently Modifying Tubulin.
Abstract Detyrosination of the α-tubulin C-terminal tail is a post-translational modification (PTM) of microtubules that is key for many biological processes.1 Although detyrosination is the oldest known microtubule PTM,2-7 the carboxypeptidase responsible for this modification, VASH1/2-SVBP, was identified only 3 years ago,8,9 precluding genetic approaches to prevent detyrosination. Studies examining the cellular functions of detyrosination have therefore relied on a natural product, parthenolide, which is widely believed to block detyrosination of α-tubulin in cells, presumably by inhibiting the acti...
Source: Current Biology - January 15, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Hotta T, Haynes SE, Blasius TL, Gebbie M, Eberhardt EL, Sept D, Cianfrocco M, Verhey KJ, Nesvizhskii AI, Ohi R Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Sparing land for secondary forest regeneration protects more tropical biodiversity than land sharing in cattle farming landscapes.
Abstract Effectively managing farming to meet food demand is vital for the future of biodiversity.1,2 Increasing yields on existing farmland can allow the abandonment (sparing) of low-yielding areas that subsequently recover as secondary forest.2-5 A key question is whether such "secondary sparing" conserves biodiversity more effectively than retaining wildlife-friendly habitat within farmland ("land sharing"). Focusing on the Colombian Choco-Andes, a global hotspot of threatened biodiversity,6 and on cattle farming, we examined the outcomes of secondary sparing and land sharing via simulated s...
Source: Current Biology - January 15, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Edwards FA, Massam MR, Cosset CCP, Cannon PG, Haugaasen T, Gilroy JJ, Edwards DP Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Mushroom body output differentiates memory processes and distinct memory-guided behaviors.
Abstract The mushroom body (MB) of Drosophila melanogaster has multiple functions in controlling memory and behavior.1-9 However, circuit mechanisms that generate this functional diversity are largely unclear. Here, we systematically probed the behavioral contribution of each type of MB output neuron (MBON) by blocking during acquisition, retention, or retrieval of reward or punishment memories. We evaluated the contribution using two conditioned responses: memory-guided odor choice and odor source attraction. Quantitative analysis revealed that these conditioned odor responses are controlled by different sets of ...
Source: Current Biology - January 15, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Ichinose T, Kanno M, Wu H, Yamagata N, Sun H, Abe A, Tanimoto H Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Island songbirds as windows into evolution in small populations.
, Nabholz B Abstract Due to their limited ranges and inherent isolation, island species have long been recognized as crucial systems for tackling a range of evolutionary questions, including in the early study of speciation.1,2 Such species have been less studied in the understanding of the evolutionary forces driving DNA sequence evolution. Island species usually have lower census population sizes (N) than continental species and, supposedly, lower effective population sizes (Ne). Given that both the rates of change caused by genetic drift and by selection are dependent upon Ne, island species are theoretically e...
Source: Current Biology - January 14, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Leroy T, Rousselle M, Tilak MK, Caizergues AE, Scornavacca C, Recuerda M, Fuchs J, Illera JC, De Swardt DH, Blanco G, Thébaud C, Milá B, Nabholz B Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

The rapid dissolution of dioecy by experimental evolution.
Abstract Evolutionary transitions from hermaphroditism to dioecy have been common in flowering plants,1,2 but recent analysis also points to frequent reversions from dioecy to hermaphroditism.2-4 Here, we use experimental evolution to expose a mechanism for such reversions, validating an explanation for the scattered phylogenetic distribution of dioecy. We removed males from dioecious populations of the wind-pollinated plant Mercurialis annua and allowed natural selection to act on the remaining females that occasionally produced male flowers; such "leaky" sex expression is common in both males and femal...
Source: Current Biology - January 14, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Cossard GG, Gerchen JF, Li X, Cuenot Y, Pannell JR Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

A cloacal opening in a non-avian dinosaur.
Abstract The Frankfurt specimen of Psittacosaurus sp. (SMF R 4970) from the Early Cretaceous Jehol deposits of Liaoning (Figure S1) exhibits the best preservation of scale-clad integument in any non-avian dinosaur yet described1. Preservation of colour patterns and countershading allowed a detailed reconstruction of this individual's physical appearance suggesting it was camouflaged for life in a shaded lighting environment2. It was previously noted that the cloacal region was preserved2, but its detailed anatomy was incorrectly reconstructed. We show here that the fine anatomy of the vent is remarkably well prese...
Source: Current Biology - January 13, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Vinther J, Nicholls R, Kelly DA Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Under-exploration of Three-Dimensional Images Leads to Search Errors for Small Salient Targets.
Abstract Advances in 3D imaging technology are transforming how radiologists search for cancer1,2 and how security officers scrutinize baggage for dangerous objects.3 These new 3D technologies often improve search over 2D images4,5 but vastly increase the image data. Here, we investigate 3D search for targets of various sizes in filtered noise and digital breast phantoms. For a Bayesian ideal observer optimally processing the filtered noise and a convolutional neural network processing the digital breast phantoms, search with 3D image stacks increases target information and improves accuracy over search with 2D im...
Source: Current Biology - January 13, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Lago MA, Jonnalagadda A, Abbey CK, Barufaldi BB, Bakic PR, Maidment ADA, Leung WK, Weinstein SP, Englander BS, Eckstein MP Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Primate Reproduction: When Timing Is Everything.
Abstract In species with intense male competition, reproducing at the wrong time can have dire consequences for females. A new study of wild gelada monkeys finds that females delay or accelerate puberty to moderate the risks of inbreeding and infanticide. PMID: 33434476 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Thompson ME Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Neuroscience: A Face's Journey through Space and Time.
Abstract Faces are complex objects of great variety, which the visual brain somehow manages to organize by similarity. Two such orderings in fact exist and one, a new study finds, is transformed into the other over time, enhancing a face's distinctiveness. PMID: 33434477 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Freiwald WA, Hosoya H Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

DNA Replication: An in  vivo Space-Time Continuum in the Ciliate Replication Band.
DNA Replication: An in vivo Space-Time Continuum in the Ciliate Replication Band. Curr Biol. 2021 Jan 11;31(1):R16-R17 Authors: Olins DE, Olins AL Abstract The replication band in the macronucleus of ciliated protozoa has fascinated microscopists since the 19th Century. It migrates through the nucleus, corresponding to a region of DNA replication and nascent chromatin assembly. A new study shows that calcium and actin filaments may participate in the formation and migration of the replication band. PMID: 33434478 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Olins DE, Olins AL Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Evolution: How Flowers Switch from Nectar to Oil as  a Pollinator Reward.
Evolution: How Flowers Switch from Nectar to Oil as a Pollinator Reward. Curr Biol. 2021 Jan 11;31(1):R18-R20 Authors: Renner SS Abstract When flowers provide nectar, they can count on visits, and potential pollen transport, by many kinds of nectar-drinking animals. Yet, some flowers instead offer fatty oils that certain specialized bees gather with their forelegs. A recent study reveals how such a switch occurred and may have contributed to the formation of a new species. PMID: 33434479 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Renner SS Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Phagocytosis: Sweet Repulsions via the Glycocalyx.
Abstract New work shows that the glycocalyx meshwork on the surface of macrophages prevents phagocytic receptors from binding their ligands by two means - electrostatic charge and steric hindrance. Components of this barrier are present on pathogenic and malignant targets that elude phagocytosis. PMID: 33434480 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Maschalidi S, Ravichandran KS Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Prediction and Learning: Understanding Uncertainty.
Abstract We build models of the world around us to guide perception and learning in the face of uncertainty. New evidence reveals a neurocomputational mechanism that links predictive processes across cognitive domains. PMID: 33434481 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Yon D Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Hypoxia: Uncharged tRNA to the Rescue!
AE Abstract A new study has identified genes that protect Caenorhabditis elegans from hypoxic stress. Genomic approaches and whole-organism proteomics reveal a regulatory interaction between a threonyl-tRNA synthetase and ribosome biogenesis that modulates global translation and hypoxic sensitivity. PMID: 33434482 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Mulroney TE, Pöyry T, Willis AE Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Karin Nordstr öm.
Karin Nordström. Curr Biol. 2021 Jan 11;31(1):R3-R4 Authors: Nordström K Abstract Interview with Karin Nordström, who studies hoverfly motion vision at Flinders University. PMID: 33434484 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Nordström K Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Evolution: How Animals Come of Age.
Abstract Animals display a diversity of life cycles, including larvae in some lineages but not in others. A new study reveals a shared genetic toolkit in many animals that regulates the transition to the juvenile form, from an embryo or a larva. PMID: 33434485 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Paps J Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Pupillometry: Arousal State or State of Mind?
Abstract Norepinephrine and acetylcholine regulate brain activity during changes in arousal and attention that are also reflected in fluctuations of the pupil. New research suggests that during goal-directed behavior, serotonin is also associated with pupil dilation. PMID: 33434486 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Joshi S Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Cell Division: Chromatin Dynamics Shape Insect Holocentromeres.
Abstract Centromeres, the chromosomal loci that ensure chromosome segregation by directing kinetochore assembly, are typically marked by the histone CENP-A. A study in CENP-A-deficient insects finds that virtually any chromosomal region with low nucleosome turnover can assemble kinetochores, highlighting the extraordinary plasticity of holocentromeres. PMID: 33434487 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Gassmann R Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

The Regulation of Drosophila Sleep.
Abstract Sleep is critical for diverse aspects of brain function in animals ranging from invertebrates to humans. Powerful genetic tools in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster have identified - at an unprecedented level of detail - genes and neural circuits that regulate sleep. This research has revealed that the functions and neural principles of sleep regulation are largely conserved from flies to mammals. Further, genetic approaches to studying sleep have uncovered mechanisms underlying the integration of sleep and many different biological processes, including circadian timekeeping, metabolism, social intera...
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Shafer OT, Keene AC Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Coral bleaching.
Abstract Tracy Ainsworth and Barbara Brown introduce the causes and consequences of coral bleaching. PMID: 33434489 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Ainsworth TD, Brown BE Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Lasso locomotion expands the climbing repertoire of snakes.
Abstract The diverse ways and environments in which animals move are correlated with morphology1, but morphology is not sufficient to predict how animals move because behavioral innovations can create new capacities. We document a new mode of snake locomotion - 'lasso locomotion' - that allows the brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) to ascend much larger smooth cylinders than any previously known behavior. This lasso locomotion may facilitate exploiting resources that might otherwise be unobtainable and contribute to the success and impact of this highly invasive species. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID: 33434490 [PubMe...
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Savidge JA, Seibert TF, Kastner M, Jayne BC Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Neurophysiology: The Three-Dimensional Building Blocks of Object Vision.
Abstract A new study of the macaque visual cortex has revealed that visual area V4 performs substantial analysis of solid shape structure. The findings draw new attention to the embedding of local three-dimensional shape analysis into the early cortical stages of visual processing. PMID: 33434491 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - January 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Leopold DA, Afraz A Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Heterogeneous Hunter-Gatherer and Steppe-Related Ancestries in Late Neolithic and Bell Beaker Genomes from Present-Day France.
te;n L, Guilaine J, Orlando L Abstract The transition from the Late Neolithic to the Bronze Age has witnessed important population and societal changes in western Europe.1 These include massive genomic contributions of pastoralist herders originating from the Pontic-Caspian steppes2,3 into local populations, resulting from complex interactions between collapsing hunter-gatherers and expanding farmers of Anatolian ancestry.4-8 This transition is documented through extensive ancient genomic data from present-day Britain,9,10 Ireland,11,12 Iberia,13 Mediterranean islands,14,15 and Germany.8 It remains, however, large...
Source: Current Biology - January 6, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Seguin-Orlando A, Donat R, Der Sarkissian C, Southon J, Thèves C, Manen C, Tchérémissinoff Y, Crubézy E, Shapiro B, Deleuze JF, Dalén L, Guilaine J, Orlando L Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Ligation of newly replicated DNA controls the timing of DNA mismatch repair.
Abstract Mismatch repair (MMR) safeguards genome stability through recognition and excision of DNA replication errors.1-4 How eukaryotic MMR targets the newly replicated strand in vivo has not been established. MMR reactions reconstituted in vitro are directed to the strand containing a preexisting nick or gap,5-8 suggesting that strand discontinuities could act as discrimination signals. Another candidate is the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) that is loaded at replication forks and is required for the activation of Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease.7-9 Here, we discovered that overexpression of DNA liga...
Source: Current Biology - January 5, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Reyes GX, Kolodziejczak A, Devakumar LJPS, Kubota T, Kolodner RD, Putnam CD, Hombauer H Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

femaleless Controls Sex Determination and Dosage Compensation Pathways in Females of Anopheles Mosquitoes.
Abstract The insect sex determination and the intimately linked dosage compensation pathways represent a challenging evolutionary puzzle that has been solved only in Drosophila melanogaster. Analyses of orthologs of the Drosophila genes identified in non-drosophilid taxa1,2 revealed that evolution of sex determination pathways is consistent with a bottom-up mode,3 where only the terminal genes within the pathway are well conserved. doublesex (dsx), occupying a bottom-most position and encoding sex-specific proteins orchestrating downstream sexual differentiation processes, is an ancient sex-determining gene presen...
Source: Current Biology - January 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Krzywinska E, Ferretti L, Li J, Li JC, Chen CH, Krzywinski J Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

A general-purpose mechanism of visual feature association in visual word identification and beyond.
Abstract As writing systems are a relatively novel invention (slightly over 5 kya),1 they could not have influenced the evolution of our species. Instead, reading might recycle evolutionary older mechanisms that originally supported other tasks2,3 and preceded the emergence of written language. Accordingly, it has been shown that baboons and pigeons can be trained to distinguish words from nonwords based on orthographic regularities in letter co-occurrence.4,5 This suggests that part of what is usually considered reading-specific processing could be performed by domain-general visual mechanisms. Here, we tested th...
Source: Current Biology - January 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Vidal Y, Viviani E, Zoccolan D, Crepaldi D Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Testing Implications of the Omnigenic Model for the Genetic Analysis of Loci Identified through Genome-wide Association.
Abstract Organismal phenotypes usually have a quantitative distribution, and their genetic architecture can be studied by genome-wide association (GWA) mapping approaches. In most of such studies, it has become clear that many genes of moderate or small effects contribute to the phenotype.1-4 Hence, the attention has turned toward the loci falling below the GWA cut-off, which may contribute to the phenotype through modifier interactions with a set of core genes, as proposed in the omnigenic model.5 One can thus predict that both moderate effect GWA-derived candidate genes and randomly chosen genes should have a si...
Source: Current Biology - January 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Zhang W, Reeves GR, Tautz D Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Mechanochemical feedback mediates tissue bending required for seedling emergence.
Abstract Tissue bending is vital to plant development, as exemplified by apical hook formation during seedling emergence by bending of the hypocotyl. How tissue bending is coordinated during development remains poorly understood, especially in plants where cells are attached via rigid cell walls. Asymmetric distribution of the plant hormone auxin underlies differential cell elongation during apical hook formation. Yet the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate spatial correlation between asymmetric auxin distribution, methylesterified homogalacturonan (HG) pectin, and mechanical properties of t...
Source: Current Biology - January 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Jonsson K, Lathe RS, Kierzkowski D, Routier-Kierzkowska AL, Hamant O, Bhalerao RP Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Lightening the Perceived Prosthesis Weight with Neural Embodiment Promoted by Sensory Feedback.
In this study, we explored this matter using intraneural sensory feedback in a transfemoral (above-knee) amputee. We hypothesized that providing neural feedback would affect the integration of the prosthesis in the amputee's body schema, hence influencing the prosthesis weight perception. The results indicate that, after performing an over-ground walking task, the sensory feedback allowed a 23% decrease in prosthesis heaviness perception compared to the no feedback condition. Our hypothesis was confirmed by a significant increase in the embodiment of the prosthesis (by 60.5%) and confidence (by 36%) while walking with the ...
Source: Current Biology - January 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Preatoni G, Valle G, Petrini FM, Raspopovic S Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Ubiquitous Selfish Toxin-Antidote Elements in Caenorhabditis Species.
Abstract Toxin-antidote elements (TAs) are selfish genetic dyads that spread in populations by selectively killing non-carriers. TAs are common in prokaryotes, but very few examples are known in animals. Here, we report the discovery of maternal-effect TAs in both C. tropicalis and C. briggsae, two distant relatives of C. elegans. In C. tropicalis, multiple TAs combine to cause a striking degree of intraspecific incompatibility: five elements reduce the fitness of>70% of the F2 hybrid progeny of two Caribbean isolates. We identified the genes underlying one of the novel TAs, slow-1/grow...
Source: Current Biology - January 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Ben-David E, Pliota P, Widen SA, Koreshova A, Lemus-Vergara T, Verpukhovskiy P, Mandali S, Braendle C, Burga A, Kruglyak L Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Pulsatile contractions promote apoptotic cell extrusion in epithelial tissues.
Abstract Extrusion is a mechanism used to eliminate unfit, excess, or dying cells from epithelial tissues. The initial events guiding which cells will be selectively extruded from the epithelium are not well understood. Here, we induced damage in a subset of epithelial cells in the developing zebrafish and used time-lapse imaging to examine cell and cytoskeletal dynamics leading to extrusion. We show that cell extrusion is preceded by actomyosin contractions that are pulsatile. Our data show that pulsatile contractions are induced by a junctional to medial re-localization of myosin. Analysis of cell area during co...
Source: Current Biology - December 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Atieh Y, Wyatt T, Zaske AM, Eisenhoffer GT Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Perceptual history propagates down to early levels of sensory analysis.
Abstract One function of perceptual systems is to construct and maintain a reliable representation of the environment. A useful strategy intrinsic to modern "Bayesian" theories of perception1-6 is to take advantage of the relative stability of the input and use perceptual history (priors) to predict current perception. This strategy is efficient1-7 but can lead to stimuli being biased toward perceptual history, clearly revealed in a phenomenon known as serial dependence.8-14 However, it is still unclear whether serial dependence biases sensory encoding or only perceptual decisions.15,16 We leveraged on t...
Source: Current Biology - December 23, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Cicchini GM, Benedetto A, Burr DC Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

A Novel Ca2+ Signaling Pathway Coordinates Environmental Phosphorus Sensing and Nitrogen Metabolism in Marine Diatoms.
Abstract Diatoms are a diverse and globally important phytoplankton group, responsible for an estimated 20% of carbon fixation on Earth. They frequently form spatially extensive phytoplankton blooms, responding rapidly to increased availability of nutrients, including phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). Although it is well established that diatoms are common first responders to nutrient influxes in aquatic ecosystems, little is known of the sensory mechanisms that they employ for nutrient perception. Here, we show that P-limited diatoms use a Ca2+-dependent signaling pathway, not previously described in eukaryotes, t...
Source: Current Biology - December 23, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Helliwell KE, Harrison EL, Christie-Oleza JA, Rees AP, Kleiner FH, Gaikwad T, Downe J, Aguilo-Ferretjans MM, Al-Moosawi L, Brownlee C, Wheeler GL Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Multiple Niche Compartments Orchestrate Stepwise Germline Stem Cell Progeny Differentiation.
In this study, we have identified four IGS subpopulations, which form linearly arranged niche compartments for controlling GSC maintenance and multi-step progeny differentiation. Single-cell analysis of the adult ovary has identified four IGS subpopulations (IGS1-IGS4), the identities and cellular locations of which have been further confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. IGS1 and IGS2 physically interact with GSCs and mitotic cysts to control GSC maintenance and cyst formation, respectively, whereas IGS3 and IGS4 physically interact with 16-cell cysts to regulate meiosis, oocyte development, and cyst morphologica...
Source: Current Biology - December 22, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Tu R, Duan B, Song X, Chen S, Scott A, Hall K, Blanck J, DeGraffenreid D, Li H, Perera A, Haug J, Xie T Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Alycia Mosley Austin.
Abstract Interview with Alycia Mosley Austin, who directs graduate recruitment, professional development, and diversity initiatives at the University of Rhode Island. PMID: 33352120 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Austin AM Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Female genitalia.
Abstract In this Quick guide, Nadia Sloan and Leigh Simmons introduce the diverse and fascinating biology of female genitalia. PMID: 33352121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Sloan NS, Simmons LW Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Searching for boundary extension.
Abstract Bainbridge and Baker [1] argue that boundary extension (BE), false memory beyond a view, is an artifact of stimulus selection. They dismiss theoretical explanations that include scene construction [2,3], and suggest removal of BE from textbooks. Their empirical work is an admirable study of scene errors, but the bridge between their data and their sweeping conclusions about BE is not well-grounded. They claim that BE is considered 'universal' and, thus, their observation of contraction (loss of peripheral content) in addition to extension violates a fundamental premise. They claim that reliance on narrow ...
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Intraub H Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Reply to Intraub.
Abstract Intraub posits the existence of two separate processes in scene memory: one in which we automatically extrapolate the visual information in a scene beyond its boundaries (scene construction), and one in which we normalize our memories to either a schema or an average (normalization). She claims that scene construction will lead to transformations exclusively in the direction of boundary extension (BE), while normalization will produce bidirectional transformations of both BE and the opposite effect of boundary contraction (BC). Thus, because we observed both BE and BC in our study [1], our paradigm must b...
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Bainbridge WA, Baker CI Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

A mummified Pleistocene gray wolf pup.
Abstract In July 2016, a mummified carcass of an ancient wolf (Canis lupus) pup (specimen YG 648.1) was discovered in thawing permafrost in the Klondike goldfields, near Dawson City, Yukon, Canada (Figure 1A). The wolf pup mummy was recovered along a small tributary of Last Chance Creek during hydraulic thawing that exposed the permafrost sediment in which it was preserved. This mummified wolf pup is important to the local Tr'ondëk Hwëch'in people, who named it Zhùr, meaning 'wolf' in the Hän language of their community. Here, we report detailed morphometric, isotopic, and genetic analyses of...
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Meachen J, Wooller MJ, Barst BD, Funck J, Crann C, Heath J, Cassatt-Johnstone M, Shapiro B, Hall E, Hewitson S, Zazula G Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Evolutionary Biology: Viral Rhodopsins Illuminate Algal Evolution.
ld JM Abstract A new metagenomics study has shown that marine viruses recently acquired genes encoding light-gated ion channels from green algae. These so-called channelrhodopsin genes may allow the viruses to manipulate the swimming behavior of the algae they infect. PMID: 33352125 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Gallot-Lavallée L, Archibald JM Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Meiosis: Is Spermatogenesis Stress an Opportunity for Evolutionary Innovation?
Abstract During a brief increase in temperature, cells undergoing spermatogenesis, but not oogenesis, activate transposons. This sexual dimorphism suggests that temperature stress during spermatogenesis provides a unique opportunity for transposons to mobilize and modify genomes, driving evolutionary change without substantially affecting reproduction. PMID: 33352126 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Bhalla N Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Evolutionary Biology: A New Phylogenetic Framework for an Iconic Plant Radiation.
Scotland RW Abstract Studies in island systems underpin much of our knowledge of macroevolution. A new study of the Galápagos giant daisies adds to this tradition. A time-calibrated phylogeny is presented that offers insights into the factors associated with diversification, providing a framework for further studies to investigate processes underlying these findings. PMID: 33352127 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Carruthers T, Muñoz-Rodríguez P, Scotland RW Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Cell Biology: Size Scaling of Mitotic Spindles.
Abstract An investigation of how mitotic spindle size scales with cell size in early zebrafish embryos reveals fundamental principles of spindle organization. Spindle size depends primarily on microtubule number, which is regulated by a reaction-diffusion system when cells are large, and by signals from the plasma membrane when they are small. PMID: 33352128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Mitchison TJ Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Human Migrations: Tales of the Pacific.
Abstract The mode and tempo of human dispersal to the far-flung Pacific Islands has been a source of fascination for centuries. New ancient DNA data from the archipelago of Vanuatu shed light on the ancient migrations that shaped the history of human settlement in the Pacific. PMID: 33352129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Friedlaender JS, Tucci S Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Cell Biology: Pardon the Intrusion.
Abstract Whilst tissues form during development, some cells are extruded from epithelial monolayers. Rather than dying or differentiating, a new study shows that displaced cells can reintegrate after dividing. Surprisingly, this 'intrusion' pathway shares common features with axon guidance. PMID: 33352130 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Williams SE, Lough KJ Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Evolution: Groundhog Day for a Lab Bacterium.
Abstract A new study that regularly resets the background community to time zero shows how eco-evolutionary dynamics affect bacteria living in a diverse community. PMID: 33352131 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Barraclough TG Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Transgenerational Inheritance: That Pathogen Gut Feeling.
Abstract Recognizing and remembering dangerous pathogens is of the utmost importance for an animal's survival. Nematodes use a digested bacterial small RNA molecule as a cue of pathogenicity. Inheritance of this RNA even protects the progeny from infection. PMID: 33352132 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Rechavi O Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Vector Control: Wolbachia Expands Its Protective Reach from Humans to Plants.
Abstract RNA viral titers are often suppressed in insects co-infected with the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. This property has been used to suppress transmission of the ragged rice stunt virus from its insect host, the brown planthopper, to the rice plant. PMID: 33352133 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Sullivan W Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Plant Development: Coordinating across Space and Time.
Abstract Organ development requires coordination between gene expression patterns and cellular processes across developmental axes to generate consistent shapes. A new study shows that, in plants, this coordination may be in part mediated by precise spatial hormone synthesis, regulated by a conserved family of genes. PMID: 33352134 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Richardson A Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Primary Cilia: A Closer Look at the Antenna of Cells.
Abstract A recent study reports the three-dimensional structure of a primary cilium with unprecedented clarity. The results highlight the architectural differences with motile cilia and provoke a reassessment of the relationship between the ciliary cytoskeleton and microtubule-based transport in cilia. PMID: 33352135 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - December 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Brown A, Zhang R Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research