Bacterial predation transforms the landscape and community assembly of biofilms
Curr Biol. 2021 Apr 1:S0960-9822(21)00375-4. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.036. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus attaches to the exterior of a Gram-negative prey cell, enters the periplasm, and harvests resources to replicate before lysing the host to find new prey.1-7 Predatory bacteria such as this are common in many natural environments,8-13 as are groups of matrix-bound prey cell clusters, termed biofilms.14-16 Despite the ubiquity of both predatory bacteria and biofilm-dwelling prey, the interaction between B. bacteriovorus and prey inside biofilms has received little attention and h...
Source: Current Biology - April 7, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Benjamin R Wucher Mennat Elsayed James S Adelman Daniel E Kadouri Carey D Nadell Source Type: research

Population turnover facilitates cultural selection for efficiency in birds
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 31:S0960-9822(21)00430-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.057. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCulture, defined as socially transmitted information and behaviors that are shared in groups and persist over time, is increasingly accepted to occur across a wide range of taxa and behavioral domains.1 While persistent, cultural traits are not necessarily static, and their distribution can change in frequency and type in response to selective pressures, analogous to that of genetic alleles. This has led to the treatment of culture as an evolutionary process, with cultural evolutionary theory arguing that culture exh...
Source: Current Biology - April 7, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Michael Chimento Gustavo Alarc ón-Nieto Lucy M Aplin Source Type: research

Bacterial predation transforms the landscape and community assembly of biofilms
Curr Biol. 2021 Apr 1:S0960-9822(21)00375-4. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.036. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus attaches to the exterior of a Gram-negative prey cell, enters the periplasm, and harvests resources to replicate before lysing the host to find new prey.1-7 Predatory bacteria such as this are common in many natural environments,8-13 as are groups of matrix-bound prey cell clusters, termed biofilms.14-16 Despite the ubiquity of both predatory bacteria and biofilm-dwelling prey, the interaction between B. bacteriovorus and prey inside biofilms has received little attention and h...
Source: Current Biology - April 7, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Benjamin R Wucher Mennat Elsayed James S Adelman Daniel E Kadouri Carey D Nadell Source Type: research

Population turnover facilitates cultural selection for efficiency in birds
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 31:S0960-9822(21)00430-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.057. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCulture, defined as socially transmitted information and behaviors that are shared in groups and persist over time, is increasingly accepted to occur across a wide range of taxa and behavioral domains.1 While persistent, cultural traits are not necessarily static, and their distribution can change in frequency and type in response to selective pressures, analogous to that of genetic alleles. This has led to the treatment of culture as an evolutionary process, with cultural evolutionary theory arguing that culture exh...
Source: Current Biology - April 7, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Michael Chimento Gustavo Alarc ón-Nieto Lucy M Aplin Source Type: research

Morphological stasis masks ecologically divergent coral species on tropical reefs
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 29:S0960-9822(21)00367-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.028. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCoral reefs are the epitome of species diversity, yet the number of described scleractinian coral species, the framework-builders of coral reefs, remains moderate by comparison. DNA sequencing studies are rapidly challenging this notion by exposing a wealth of undescribed diversity, but the evolutionary and ecological significance of this diversity remains largely unclear. Here, we present an annotated genome for one of the most ubiquitous corals in the Indo-Pacific (Pachyseris speciosa) and uncover, through a compre...
Source: Current Biology - April 3, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Pim Bongaerts Ira R Cooke Hua Ying Dagmar Wels Stijn den Haan Alejandra Hernandez-Agreda Christopher A Brunner Sophie Dove Norbert Englebert Gal Eyal Sylvain For êt Mila Grinblat Kyra B Hay Saki Harii David C Hayward Yu Lin Morana Mihaljevi ć Aurelie Mo Source Type: research

Morphological stasis masks ecologically divergent coral species on tropical reefs
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 29:S0960-9822(21)00367-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.028. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCoral reefs are the epitome of species diversity, yet the number of described scleractinian coral species, the framework-builders of coral reefs, remains moderate by comparison. DNA sequencing studies are rapidly challenging this notion by exposing a wealth of undescribed diversity, but the evolutionary and ecological significance of this diversity remains largely unclear. Here, we present an annotated genome for one of the most ubiquitous corals in the Indo-Pacific (Pachyseris speciosa) and uncover, through a compre...
Source: Current Biology - April 3, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Pim Bongaerts Ira R Cooke Hua Ying Dagmar Wels Stijn den Haan Alejandra Hernandez-Agreda Christopher A Brunner Sophie Dove Norbert Englebert Gal Eyal Sylvain For êt Mila Grinblat Kyra B Hay Saki Harii David C Hayward Yu Lin Morana Mihaljevi ć Aurelie Mo Source Type: research

Morphological stasis masks ecologically divergent coral species on tropical reefs
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 29:S0960-9822(21)00367-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.028. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCoral reefs are the epitome of species diversity, yet the number of described scleractinian coral species, the framework-builders of coral reefs, remains moderate by comparison. DNA sequencing studies are rapidly challenging this notion by exposing a wealth of undescribed diversity, but the evolutionary and ecological significance of this diversity remains largely unclear. Here, we present an annotated genome for one of the most ubiquitous corals in the Indo-Pacific (Pachyseris speciosa) and uncover, through a compre...
Source: Current Biology - April 3, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Pim Bongaerts Ira R Cooke Hua Ying Dagmar Wels Stijn den Haan Alejandra Hernandez-Agreda Christopher A Brunner Sophie Dove Norbert Englebert Gal Eyal Sylvain For êt Mila Grinblat Kyra B Hay Saki Harii David C Hayward Yu Lin Morana Mihaljevi ć Aurelie Mo Source Type: research

A breath of deadly air
Curr Biol. 2021 Feb 22;31(4):R161-R163. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.002.ABSTRACTAir pollution kills many more people every year than COVID-19 has in its first year but is receiving less attention. India is facing a pollution crisis from multiple sources, while European cities have mainly their motor vehicles to blame. Mounting evidence suggests that particle pollution may harm every organ of the body. Michael Gross reports.PMID:33795064 | DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.002 (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Michael Gross Source Type: research

An acentriolar centrosome at the C.  elegans ciliary base
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 24:S0960-9822(21)00362-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.023. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn animal cells, the functions of the microtubule cytoskeleton are coordinated by centriole-based centrosomes via γ-tubulin complexes embedded in the pericentriolar material or PCM.1 PCM assembly has been best studied in the context of mitosis, where centriolar SPD-2 recruits PLK-1, which in turn phosphorylates key scaffolding components like SPD-5 and CNN to promote expansion of the PCM polymer.2-4 To what extent these mechanisms apply to centrosomes in interphase or in differentiated cells remains unclear.5 H...
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Joachim Garbrecht Triin Laos Elisabeth Holzer Margarita Dillinger Alexander Dammermann Source Type: research

Centriole-less pericentriolar material serves as a microtubule organizing center at the base of C.  elegans sensory cilia
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 24:S0960-9822(21)00361-4. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.022. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDuring mitosis in animal cells, the centrosome acts as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC) to assemble the mitotic spindle. MTOC function at the centrosome is driven by proteins within the pericentriolar material (PCM), however the molecular complexity of the PCM makes it difficult to differentiate the proteins required for MTOC activity from other centrosomal functions. We used the natural spatial separation of PCM proteins during mitotic exit to identify a minimal module of proteins required for centrosomal MTOC...
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: J érémy Magescas Sani Eskinazi Michael V Tran Jessica L Feldman Source Type: research

Homeostatic synaptic scaling establishes the specificity of an associative memory
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 26:S0960-9822(21)00363-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.024. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCorrelation-based (Hebbian) forms of synaptic plasticity are crucial for the initial encoding of associative memories but likely insufficient to enable the stable storage of multiple specific memories within neural circuits. Theoretical studies have suggested that homeostatic synaptic normalization rules provide an essential countervailing force that can stabilize and expand memory storage capacity. Although such homeostatic mechanisms have been identified and studied for decades, experimental evidence that they play...
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Chi-Hong Wu Raul Ramos Donald B Katz Gina G Turrigiano Source Type: research

Modeling individual preferences reveals that face beauty is not universally perceived across cultures
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 30:S0960-9822(21)00352-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.013. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFacial attractiveness confers considerable advantages in social interactions,1,2 with preferences likely reflecting psychobiological mechanisms shaped by natural selection. Theories of universal beauty propose that attractive faces comprise features that are closer to the population average3 while optimizing sexual dimorphism.4 However, emerging evidence questions this model as an accurate representation of facial attractiveness,5-7 including representing the diversity of beauty preferences within and across cultures...
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Jiayu Zhan Meng Liu Oliver G B Garrod Christoph Daube Robin A A Ince Rachael E Jack Philippe G Schyns Source Type: research

Human footprint and protected areas shape elephant range across Africa
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 29:S0960-9822(21)00381-X. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.042. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOver the last two millennia, and at an accelerating pace, the African elephant (Loxodonta spp. Lin.) has been threatened by human activities across its range.1-7 We investigate the correlates of elephant home range sizes across diverse biomes. Annual and 16-day elliptical time density home ranges8 were calculated by using GPS tracking data collected from 229 African savannah and forest elephants (L. africana and L. cyclotis, respectively) between 1998 and 2013 at 19 sites representing bushveld, savannah, Sahel, and f...
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Jake Wall George Wittemyer Brian Klinkenberg Valerie LeMay Stephen Blake Samantha Strindberg Michelle Henley Fritz Vollrath Fiona Maisels Jelle Ferwerda Iain Douglas-Hamilton Source Type: research

OFF-transient alpha RGCs mediate looming triggered innate defensive response
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 29:S0960-9822(21)00364-X. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.025. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAnimals respond to visual threats, such as a looming object, with innate defensive behaviors. Here, we report that a specific type of retinal ganglion cell (RGC), the OFF-transient alpha RGC, is critical for the detection of looming objects. We identified Kcnip2 as its molecular marker. The activity of the Kcnip2-expressing RGCs encodes the size of the looming object. Ablation or suppression of these RGCs abolished or severely impaired the escape and freezing behaviors of mice in response to a looming object, while a...
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Fei Wang E Li Lei De Qiwen Wu Yifeng Zhang Source Type: research

Genomic and anatomical comparisons of skin support independent adaptation to life in water by cetaceans and hippos
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 27:S0960-9822(21)00301-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.057. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe macroevolutionary transition from terra firma to obligatory inhabitance of the marine hydrosphere has occurred twice in the history of Mammalia: Cetacea and Sirenia. In the case of Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), molecular phylogenies provide unambiguous evidence that fully aquatic cetaceans and semiaquatic hippopotamids (hippos) are each other's closest living relatives. Ancestral reconstructions suggest that some adaptations to the aquatic realm evolved in the common ancestor of Cetancodonta (Cetacea...
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Mark S Springer Christian F Guerrero-Juarez Matthias Huelsmann Matthew A Collin Kerri Danil Michael R McGowen Ji Won Oh Raul Ramos Michael Hiller Maksim V Plikus John Gatesy Source Type: research

A breath of deadly air
Curr Biol. 2021 Feb 22;31(4):R161-R163. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.002.ABSTRACTAir pollution kills many more people every year than COVID-19 has in its first year but is receiving less attention. India is facing a pollution crisis from multiple sources, while European cities have mainly their motor vehicles to blame. Mounting evidence suggests that particle pollution may harm every organ of the body. Michael Gross reports.PMID:33795064 | DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.002 (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Michael Gross Source Type: research

An acentriolar centrosome at the C.  elegans ciliary base
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 24:S0960-9822(21)00362-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.023. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn animal cells, the functions of the microtubule cytoskeleton are coordinated by centriole-based centrosomes via γ-tubulin complexes embedded in the pericentriolar material or PCM.1 PCM assembly has been best studied in the context of mitosis, where centriolar SPD-2 recruits PLK-1, which in turn phosphorylates key scaffolding components like SPD-5 and CNN to promote expansion of the PCM polymer.2-4 To what extent these mechanisms apply to centrosomes in interphase or in differentiated cells remains unclear.5 H...
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Joachim Garbrecht Triin Laos Elisabeth Holzer Margarita Dillinger Alexander Dammermann Source Type: research

Centriole-less pericentriolar material serves as a microtubule organizing center at the base of C.  elegans sensory cilia
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 24:S0960-9822(21)00361-4. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.022. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDuring mitosis in animal cells, the centrosome acts as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC) to assemble the mitotic spindle. MTOC function at the centrosome is driven by proteins within the pericentriolar material (PCM), however the molecular complexity of the PCM makes it difficult to differentiate the proteins required for MTOC activity from other centrosomal functions. We used the natural spatial separation of PCM proteins during mitotic exit to identify a minimal module of proteins required for centrosomal MTOC...
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: J érémy Magescas Sani Eskinazi Michael V Tran Jessica L Feldman Source Type: research

Homeostatic synaptic scaling establishes the specificity of an associative memory
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 26:S0960-9822(21)00363-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.024. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCorrelation-based (Hebbian) forms of synaptic plasticity are crucial for the initial encoding of associative memories but likely insufficient to enable the stable storage of multiple specific memories within neural circuits. Theoretical studies have suggested that homeostatic synaptic normalization rules provide an essential countervailing force that can stabilize and expand memory storage capacity. Although such homeostatic mechanisms have been identified and studied for decades, experimental evidence that they play...
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Chi-Hong Wu Raul Ramos Donald B Katz Gina G Turrigiano Source Type: research

Modeling individual preferences reveals that face beauty is not universally perceived across cultures
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 30:S0960-9822(21)00352-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.013. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFacial attractiveness confers considerable advantages in social interactions,1,2 with preferences likely reflecting psychobiological mechanisms shaped by natural selection. Theories of universal beauty propose that attractive faces comprise features that are closer to the population average3 while optimizing sexual dimorphism.4 However, emerging evidence questions this model as an accurate representation of facial attractiveness,5-7 including representing the diversity of beauty preferences within and across cultures...
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Jiayu Zhan Meng Liu Oliver G B Garrod Christoph Daube Robin A A Ince Rachael E Jack Philippe G Schyns Source Type: research

Human footprint and protected areas shape elephant range across Africa
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 29:S0960-9822(21)00381-X. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.042. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOver the last two millennia, and at an accelerating pace, the African elephant (Loxodonta spp. Lin.) has been threatened by human activities across its range.1-7 We investigate the correlates of elephant home range sizes across diverse biomes. Annual and 16-day elliptical time density home ranges8 were calculated by using GPS tracking data collected from 229 African savannah and forest elephants (L. africana and L. cyclotis, respectively) between 1998 and 2013 at 19 sites representing bushveld, savannah, Sahel, and f...
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Jake Wall George Wittemyer Brian Klinkenberg Valerie LeMay Stephen Blake Samantha Strindberg Michelle Henley Fritz Vollrath Fiona Maisels Jelle Ferwerda Iain Douglas-Hamilton Source Type: research

OFF-transient alpha RGCs mediate looming triggered innate defensive response
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 29:S0960-9822(21)00364-X. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.025. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAnimals respond to visual threats, such as a looming object, with innate defensive behaviors. Here, we report that a specific type of retinal ganglion cell (RGC), the OFF-transient alpha RGC, is critical for the detection of looming objects. We identified Kcnip2 as its molecular marker. The activity of the Kcnip2-expressing RGCs encodes the size of the looming object. Ablation or suppression of these RGCs abolished or severely impaired the escape and freezing behaviors of mice in response to a looming object, while a...
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Fei Wang E Li Lei De Qiwen Wu Yifeng Zhang Source Type: research

Genomic and anatomical comparisons of skin support independent adaptation to life in water by cetaceans and hippos
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 27:S0960-9822(21)00301-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.057. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe macroevolutionary transition from terra firma to obligatory inhabitance of the marine hydrosphere has occurred twice in the history of Mammalia: Cetacea and Sirenia. In the case of Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), molecular phylogenies provide unambiguous evidence that fully aquatic cetaceans and semiaquatic hippopotamids (hippos) are each other's closest living relatives. Ancestral reconstructions suggest that some adaptations to the aquatic realm evolved in the common ancestor of Cetancodonta (Cetacea...
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Mark S Springer Christian F Guerrero-Juarez Matthias Huelsmann Matthew A Collin Kerri Danil Michael R McGowen Ji Won Oh Raul Ramos Michael Hiller Maksim V Plikus John Gatesy Source Type: research

A breath of deadly air
Curr Biol. 2021 Feb 22;31(4):R161-R163. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.002.ABSTRACTAir pollution kills many more people every year than COVID-19 has in its first year but is receiving less attention. India is facing a pollution crisis from multiple sources, while European cities have mainly their motor vehicles to blame. Mounting evidence suggests that particle pollution may harm every organ of the body. Michael Gross reports.PMID:33795064 | DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.002 (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Michael Gross Source Type: research

Rappemonads are haptophyte phytoplankton
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 20:S0960-9822(21)00351-1. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.012. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRapidly accumulating genetic data from environmental sequencing approaches have revealed an extraordinary level of unsuspected diversity within marine phytoplankton,1-11 which is responsible for around 50% of global net primary production.12,13 However, the phenotypic identity of many of the organisms distinguished by environmental DNA sequences remains unclear. The rappemonads represent a plastid-bearing protistan lineage that to date has only been identified by environmental plastid 16S rRNA sequences.14-17 The phe...
Source: Current Biology - March 27, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Masanobu Kawachi Takuro Nakayama Motoki Kayama Mami Nomura Hideaki Miyashita Othman Bojo Lesley Rhodes Stuart Sym Richard N Pienaar Ian Probert Isao Inouye Ryoma Kamikawa Source Type: research

Rappemonads are haptophyte phytoplankton
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 20:S0960-9822(21)00351-1. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.012. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRapidly accumulating genetic data from environmental sequencing approaches have revealed an extraordinary level of unsuspected diversity within marine phytoplankton,1-11 which is responsible for around 50% of global net primary production.12,13 However, the phenotypic identity of many of the organisms distinguished by environmental DNA sequences remains unclear. The rappemonads represent a plastid-bearing protistan lineage that to date has only been identified by environmental plastid 16S rRNA sequences.14-17 The phe...
Source: Current Biology - March 27, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Masanobu Kawachi Takuro Nakayama Motoki Kayama Mami Nomura Hideaki Miyashita Othman Bojo Lesley Rhodes Stuart Sym Richard N Pienaar Ian Probert Isao Inouye Ryoma Kamikawa Source Type: research

Rappemonads are haptophyte phytoplankton
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 20:S0960-9822(21)00351-1. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.012. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRapidly accumulating genetic data from environmental sequencing approaches have revealed an extraordinary level of unsuspected diversity within marine phytoplankton,1-11 which is responsible for around 50% of global net primary production.12,13 However, the phenotypic identity of many of the organisms distinguished by environmental DNA sequences remains unclear. The rappemonads represent a plastid-bearing protistan lineage that to date has only been identified by environmental plastid 16S rRNA sequences.14-17 The phe...
Source: Current Biology - March 27, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Masanobu Kawachi Takuro Nakayama Motoki Kayama Mami Nomura Hideaki Miyashita Othman Bojo Lesley Rhodes Stuart Sym Richard N Pienaar Ian Probert Isao Inouye Ryoma Kamikawa Source Type: research

Rappemonads are haptophyte phytoplankton
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 20:S0960-9822(21)00351-1. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.012. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRapidly accumulating genetic data from environmental sequencing approaches have revealed an extraordinary level of unsuspected diversity within marine phytoplankton,1-11 which is responsible for around 50% of global net primary production.12,13 However, the phenotypic identity of many of the organisms distinguished by environmental DNA sequences remains unclear. The rappemonads represent a plastid-bearing protistan lineage that to date has only been identified by environmental plastid 16S rRNA sequences.14-17 The phe...
Source: Current Biology - March 27, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Masanobu Kawachi Takuro Nakayama Motoki Kayama Mami Nomura Hideaki Miyashita Othman Bojo Lesley Rhodes Stuart Sym Richard N Pienaar Ian Probert Isao Inouye Ryoma Kamikawa Source Type: research

Genetic origins, singularity, and heterogeneity of Basques
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 19:S0960-9822(21)00349-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBasques have historically lived along the Western Pyrenees, in the Franco-Cantabrian region, straddling the current Spanish and French territories. Over the last decades, they have been the focus of intense research due to their singular cultural and biological traits that, with high controversy, placed them as a heterogeneous, isolated, and unique population. Their non-Indo-European language, Euskara, is thought to be a major factor shaping the genetic landscape of the Basques. Yet there is still a lively debate abo...
Source: Current Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Andr é Flores-Bello Fr édéric Bauduer Jasone Salaberria Bernard Oyhar çabal Francesc Calafell Jaume Bertranpetit Lluis Quintana-Murci David Comas Source Type: research

An unusual tricosatriene is crucial for male fungus gnat attraction and exploitation by sexually deceptive Pterostylis orchids
In this study, we found a mixture of five hydrocarbons shared between Pterostylis orbiculata orchids and female Mycomya sp. (Mycetophilidae) fungus gnats, which included three alkanes, a C23 diene, and a C23 triene. The triene was an undescribed natural product, which we synthesized and confirmed to be (6Z,9Z)-1,6,9-tricosatriene. Field bioassays with a synthetic blend of the five hydrocarbons elicited attraction and sexual behavior from male gnats. The triene alone elicited attraction and low levels of sexual behavior, but the blend without it was unattractive, suggesting that this compound is a key component of orchid po...
Source: Current Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Tobias Hayashi Bj örn Bohman Adrian Scaffidi Rod Peakall Gavin R Flematti Source Type: research

The connectome predicts resting-state functional connectivity across the Drosophila brain
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 23:S0960-9822(21)00343-2. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAnatomical connectivity can constrain both a neural circuit's function and its underlying computation. This principle has been demonstrated for many small, defined neural circuits. For example, connectome reconstructions have informed models for direction selectivity in the vertebrate retina1,2 as well as the Drosophila visual system.3 In these cases, the circuit in question is relatively compact, well-defined, and has known functions. However, how the connectome constrains global properties of large-scale networks, ...
Source: Current Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Maxwell H Turner Kevin Mann Thomas R Clandinin Source Type: research

Europe as a bridgehead in the worldwide invasion history of grapevine downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 22:S0960-9822(21)00348-1. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEurope is the historical cradle of viticulture, but grapevines (Vitis vinifera) have been increasingly threatened by pathogens of American origin. The invasive oomycete Plasmopara viticola causes downy mildew, one of the most devastating grapevine diseases worldwide. Despite major economic consequences, its invasion history remains poorly understood. We analyzed a comprehensive dataset of ∼2,000 samples, collected from the most important wine-producing countries, using nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences and...
Source: Current Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Michael C Fontaine Fr édéric Labbé Yann Dussert Laurent Deli ère Sylvie Richart-Cervera Tatiana Giraud Fran çois Delmotte Source Type: research

Dorsal CA1 hippocampal place cells form a multi-scale representation of megaspace
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 22:S0960-9822(21)00342-0. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.003. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSpatially firing "place cells" within the hippocampal CA1 region form internal maps of the environment necessary for navigation and memory. In rodents, these neurons have been almost exclusively studied in small environments (
Source: Current Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Bruce Harland Marco Contreras Madeline Souder Jean-Marc Fellous Source Type: research

Sexual deception of a beetle pollinator through floral mimicry
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 19:S0960-9822(21)00376-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.037. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSexual mimicry is a complex multimodal strategy used by some plants to lure insects to flowers for pollination.1-4 It is notable for being highly species-specific and is typically mediated by volatiles belonging to a restricted set of chemical compound classes.3,4 Well-documented cases involve exploitation of bees and wasps (Hymenoptera)5,6 and flies (Diptera).7-9 Although beetles (Coleoptera) are the largest insect order and are well known as pollinators of both early and modern plants,10,11 it has been unclear whet...
Source: Current Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Callan Cohen William R Liltved Jonathan F Colville Adam Shuttleworth Jerrit Weissflog Ale š Svatoš Benny Bytebier Steven D Johnson Source Type: research

Genetic origins, singularity, and heterogeneity of Basques
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 19:S0960-9822(21)00349-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBasques have historically lived along the Western Pyrenees, in the Franco-Cantabrian region, straddling the current Spanish and French territories. Over the last decades, they have been the focus of intense research due to their singular cultural and biological traits that, with high controversy, placed them as a heterogeneous, isolated, and unique population. Their non-Indo-European language, Euskara, is thought to be a major factor shaping the genetic landscape of the Basques. Yet there is still a lively debate abo...
Source: Current Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Andr é Flores-Bello Fr édéric Bauduer Jasone Salaberria Bernard Oyhar çabal Francesc Calafell Jaume Bertranpetit Lluis Quintana-Murci David Comas Source Type: research

An unusual tricosatriene is crucial for male fungus gnat attraction and exploitation by sexually deceptive Pterostylis orchids
In this study, we found a mixture of five hydrocarbons shared between Pterostylis orbiculata orchids and female Mycomya sp. (Mycetophilidae) fungus gnats, which included three alkanes, a C23 diene, and a C23 triene. The triene was an undescribed natural product, which we synthesized and confirmed to be (6Z,9Z)-1,6,9-tricosatriene. Field bioassays with a synthetic blend of the five hydrocarbons elicited attraction and sexual behavior from male gnats. The triene alone elicited attraction and low levels of sexual behavior, but the blend without it was unattractive, suggesting that this compound is a key component of orchid po...
Source: Current Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Tobias Hayashi Bj örn Bohman Adrian Scaffidi Rod Peakall Gavin R Flematti Source Type: research

The connectome predicts resting-state functional connectivity across the Drosophila brain
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 23:S0960-9822(21)00343-2. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAnatomical connectivity can constrain both a neural circuit's function and its underlying computation. This principle has been demonstrated for many small, defined neural circuits. For example, connectome reconstructions have informed models for direction selectivity in the vertebrate retina1,2 as well as the Drosophila visual system.3 In these cases, the circuit in question is relatively compact, well-defined, and has known functions. However, how the connectome constrains global properties of large-scale networks, ...
Source: Current Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Maxwell H Turner Kevin Mann Thomas R Clandinin Source Type: research

Europe as a bridgehead in the worldwide invasion history of grapevine downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 22:S0960-9822(21)00348-1. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEurope is the historical cradle of viticulture, but grapevines (Vitis vinifera) have been increasingly threatened by pathogens of American origin. The invasive oomycete Plasmopara viticola causes downy mildew, one of the most devastating grapevine diseases worldwide. Despite major economic consequences, its invasion history remains poorly understood. We analyzed a comprehensive dataset of ∼2,000 samples, collected from the most important wine-producing countries, using nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences and...
Source: Current Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Michael C Fontaine Fr édéric Labbé Yann Dussert Laurent Deli ère Sylvie Richart-Cervera Tatiana Giraud Fran çois Delmotte Source Type: research

Dorsal CA1 hippocampal place cells form a multi-scale representation of megaspace
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 22:S0960-9822(21)00342-0. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.003. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSpatially firing "place cells" within the hippocampal CA1 region form internal maps of the environment necessary for navigation and memory. In rodents, these neurons have been almost exclusively studied in small environments (
Source: Current Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Bruce Harland Marco Contreras Madeline Souder Jean-Marc Fellous Source Type: research

Sexual deception of a beetle pollinator through floral mimicry
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 19:S0960-9822(21)00376-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.037. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSexual mimicry is a complex multimodal strategy used by some plants to lure insects to flowers for pollination.1-4 It is notable for being highly species-specific and is typically mediated by volatiles belonging to a restricted set of chemical compound classes.3,4 Well-documented cases involve exploitation of bees and wasps (Hymenoptera)5,6 and flies (Diptera).7-9 Although beetles (Coleoptera) are the largest insect order and are well known as pollinators of both early and modern plants,10,11 it has been unclear whet...
Source: Current Biology - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Callan Cohen William R Liltved Jonathan F Colville Adam Shuttleworth Jerrit Weissflog Ale š Svatoš Benny Bytebier Steven D Johnson Source Type: research

Increased LRRK2 kinase activity alters neuronal autophagy by disrupting the axonal transport of autophagosomes
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 18:S0960-9822(21)00305-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.061. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTParkinson's disease-causing mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene hyperactivate LRRK2 kinase activity and cause increased phosphorylation of Rab GTPases, important regulators of intracellular trafficking. We found that the most common LRRK2 mutation, LRRK2-G2019S, dramatically reduces the processivity of autophagosome transport in neurons in a kinase-dependent manner. This effect was consistent across an overexpression model, neurons from a G2019S knockin mouse, and human induced pluripotent stem...
Source: Current Biology - March 25, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: C Alexander Boecker Juliet Goldsmith Dan Dou Gregory G Cajka Erika L F Holzbaur Source Type: research

Increased LRRK2 kinase activity alters neuronal autophagy by disrupting the axonal transport of autophagosomes
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 18:S0960-9822(21)00305-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.061. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTParkinson's disease-causing mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene hyperactivate LRRK2 kinase activity and cause increased phosphorylation of Rab GTPases, important regulators of intracellular trafficking. We found that the most common LRRK2 mutation, LRRK2-G2019S, dramatically reduces the processivity of autophagosome transport in neurons in a kinase-dependent manner. This effect was consistent across an overexpression model, neurons from a G2019S knockin mouse, and human induced pluripotent stem...
Source: Current Biology - March 25, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: C Alexander Boecker Juliet Goldsmith Dan Dou Gregory G Cajka Erika L F Holzbaur Source Type: research

Dynamic regulation of anterior-posterior patterning genes in living Drosophila embryos
This study provides key insights into the link between transcriptional bursting, enhancer-promoter interaction, and spatiotemporal patterning of gene expression during animal development.PMID:33761316 | DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.050 (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - March 24, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Takashi Fukaya Source Type: research

CENTRORADIALIS maintains shoot meristem indeterminacy by antagonizing THORNIDENTITY1 in Citrus
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 18:S0960-9822(21)00295-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.051. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDifferential regulation of stem cell activity in shoot meristems contributes to the wide variation in shoot architecture.1-3 In most Citrus species, a thorn meristem and a dormant axillary meristem co-localize at each leaf base, offset from each other in a spiral phyllotactic pattern. We recently identified THORNIDENTITY1 (TI1) and THORNIDENTITY2 (TI2), encoding TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factors, as necessary for the termination of meristem proliferation and concomitant thorn production in ...
Source: Current Biology - March 24, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Fei Zhang Yewei Wang Vivian F Irish Source Type: research

Dynamic regulation of anterior-posterior patterning genes in living Drosophila embryos
This study provides key insights into the link between transcriptional bursting, enhancer-promoter interaction, and spatiotemporal patterning of gene expression during animal development.PMID:33761316 | DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.050 (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - March 24, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Takashi Fukaya Source Type: research

CENTRORADIALIS maintains shoot meristem indeterminacy by antagonizing THORNIDENTITY1 in Citrus
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 18:S0960-9822(21)00295-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.051. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDifferential regulation of stem cell activity in shoot meristems contributes to the wide variation in shoot architecture.1-3 In most Citrus species, a thorn meristem and a dormant axillary meristem co-localize at each leaf base, offset from each other in a spiral phyllotactic pattern. We recently identified THORNIDENTITY1 (TI1) and THORNIDENTITY2 (TI2), encoding TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factors, as necessary for the termination of meristem proliferation and concomitant thorn production in ...
Source: Current Biology - March 24, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Fei Zhang Yewei Wang Vivian F Irish Source Type: research

ABCG transporters export cutin precursors for the formation of the plant cuticle
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 19:S0960-9822(21)00300-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.056. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe plant cuticle is deposited on the surface of primary plant organs, such as leaves, fruits, and floral organs, forming a diffusion barrier and protecting the plant against various abiotic and biotic stresses. Cutin, the structural polyester of the plant cuticle, is synthesized in the apoplast. Plasma-membrane-localized ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters of the G family have been hypothesized to export cutin precursors. Here, we characterize SlABCG42 of tomato representing an ortholog of AtABCG32 in Arabidopsi...
Source: Current Biology - March 23, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Carolina Elejalde-Palmett Ignacio Martinez San Segundo Im ène Garroum Laurence Charrier Damien De Bellis Antonio Mucciolo Aurore Guerault Jie Liu Viktoria Zeisler-Diehl Asaph Aharoni Lukas Schreiber B énédicte Bakan Mads H Clausen Markus Geisler Christ Source Type: research

Retrorubral field is a hub for diverse threat and aversive outcome signals
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 18:S0960-9822(21)00299-2. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.055. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAdaptive fear scales to the degree of threat and requires diverse neural signals for threat and aversive outcome. We propose that the retrorubral field (RRF), a midbrain region containing A8 dopamine, is a neural origin of such signals. To reveal these signals, we recorded RRF single-unit activity while male rats discriminated danger, uncertainty, and safety. Many RRF neurons showed firing extremes to danger and safety that framed intermediate firing to uncertainty. The remaining neurons showed unique, threat-selecti...
Source: Current Biology - March 23, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Mahsa Moaddab Michael A McDannald Source Type: research

Prdm9 and meiotic cohesin proteins cooperatively promote DNA double-strand break formation in mammalian spermatocytes
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 22;31(6):1351. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.002.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33756132 | DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.002 (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - March 23, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Tanmoy Bhattacharyya Michael Walker Natalie R Powers Catherine Brunton Alexander D Fine Petko M Petkov Mary Ann Handel Source Type: research

Lesley Weaver
Curr Biol. 2021 Mar 22;31(6):R272-R273. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.01.025.ABSTRACTInterview with Lesley Weaver, who uses the Drosophila ovary as a model to study how inter-organ communication downstream of nuclear receptor signaling influences oogenesis at Indiana University.PMID:33756133 | DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2021.01.025 (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - March 23, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Lesley Weaver Source Type: research