Grip Constancy but Not Perceptual Size Constancy Survives Lesions of Early Visual Cortex.
Abstract Object constancies are central constructs in theories of visual phenomenology. A powerful example is "size constancy," in which the perceived size of an object remains stable despite changes in viewing distance [1-4]. Evidence from neuropsychology [5], neuroimaging [6-11], transcranial magnetic stimulation [12, 13], single-unit and lesion studies in monkey [14-20], and computational modeling [21] suggests that re-entrant processes involving reciprocal interactions between primary visual cortex (V1) and extrastriate visual areas [22-26] play an essential role in mediating size constancy. It is se...
Source: Current Biology - July 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Whitwell RL, Sperandio I, Buckingham G, Chouinard PA, Goodale MA Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

The Tail of Kinesin-14a in Giardia Is a Dual Regulator of Motility.
Abstract Kinesin-14s are microtubule-based motor proteins that play important roles in mitotic spindle assembly [1]. Ncd-type kinesin-14s are a subset of kinesin-14 motors that exist as homodimers with an N-terminal microtubule-binding tail, a coiled-coil central stalk (central stalk), a neck, and two identical C-terminal motor domains. To date, no Ncd-type kinesin-14 has been found to naturally exhibit long-distance minus-end-directed processive motility on single microtubules as individual homodimers. Here, we show that GiKIN14a from Giardia intestinalis [2] is an unconventional Ncd-type kinesin-14 that uses its...
Source: Current Biology - July 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Tseng KF, Mickolajczyk KJ, Feng G, Feng Q, Kwok ES, Howe J, Barbar EJ, Dawson SC, Hancock WO, Qiu W Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Mechanochemical Crosstalk Produces Cell-Intrinsic Patterning of the Cortex to Orient the Mitotic Spindle.
Abstract Proliferating animal cells are able to orient their mitotic spindles along their interphase cell axis, setting up the axis of cell division, despite rounding up as they enter mitosis. This has previously been attributed to molecular memory and, more specifically, to the maintenance of adhesions and retraction fibers in mitosis [1-6], which are thought to act as local cues that pattern cortical Gαi, LGN, and nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA) [3, 7-18]. This cortical machinery then recruits and activates Dynein motors, which pull on astral microtubules to position the mitotic spindle. Here, we ...
Source: Current Biology - July 29, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Dimitracopoulos A, Srivastava P, Chaigne A, Win Z, Shlomovitz R, Lancaster OM, Le Berre M, Piel M, Franze K, Salbreux G, Baum B Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Highly Efficient Knockout of a Squid Pigmentation Gene.
This study represents a critical advancement toward making squid genetically tractable. PMID: 32735817 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 26, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Crawford K, Diaz Quiroz JF, Koenig KM, Ahuja N, Albertin CB, Rosenthal JJC Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Behavioral Signatures of a Developing Neural Code.
GJ Abstract During early life, neural codes must develop to appropriately transform sensory inputs into behavioral outputs. Here, we demonstrate a link between the maturity of neural coding in the visual brain and developmental changes in visually guided behavior. In zebrafish larvae, we show that visually driven hunting behavior improves from 4 to 15 days post-fertilization, becoming faster and more accurate. During the same period, population activity in parts of the optic tectum refines, improving decoding and information transmission for particular spatial positions. Remarkably, individual differences in...
Source: Current Biology - July 24, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Avitan L, Pujic Z, Mölter J, McCullough M, Zhu S, Sun B, Myhre AE, Goodhill GJ Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Climate and Urbanization Drive Mosquito Preference for Humans.
Abstract The majority of mosquito-borne illness is spread by a few mosquito species that have evolved to specialize in biting humans, yet the precise causes of this behavioral shift are poorly understood. We address this gap in the arboviral vector Aedes aegypti. We first collect and characterize the behavior of mosquitoes from 27 sites scattered across the species' ancestral range in sub-Saharan Africa, revealing previously unrecognized variation in preference for human versus animal odor. We then use modeling to show that over 80% of this variation can be predicted by two ecological factors-dry season intensity ...
Source: Current Biology - July 23, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Rose NH, Sylla M, Badolo A, Lutomiah J, Ayala D, Aribodor OB, Ibe N, Akorli J, Otoo S, Mutebi JP, Kriete AL, Ewing EG, Sang R, Gloria-Soria A, Powell JR, Baker RE, White BJ, Crawford JE, McBride CS Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Categorical Rhythms Are Shared between Songbirds and Humans.
Abstract Rhythm is a prominent feature of music. Of the infinite possible ways of organizing events in time, musical rhythms are almost always distributed categorically. Such categories can facilitate the transmission of culture-a feature that songbirds and humans share. We compared rhythms of live performances of music to rhythms of wild thrush nightingale and domestic zebra finch songs. In nightingales, but not in zebra finches, we found universal rhythm categories, with patterns that were surprisingly similar to those of music. Isochronous 1:1 rhythms were similarly common. Interestingly, a bias toward small ra...
Source: Current Biology - July 22, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Roeske TC, Tchernichovski O, Poeppel D, Jacoby N Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Altered Hippocampal Place Cell Representation and Theta Rhythmicity following Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.
Abstract Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) leads to profound deficits in spatial memory and synaptic and cellular alterations to the hippocampus that last into adulthood. Neurons in the hippocampus called place cells discharge as an animal enters specific places in an environment, establish distinct ensemble codes for familiar and novel places, and are modulated by local theta rhythms. Spatial memory is thought to critically depend on the integrity of hippocampal place cell firing. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that hippocampal place cell firing is impaired after PAE by performing in vivo recordings from ...
Source: Current Biology - July 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Harvey RE, Berkowitz LE, Savage DD, Hamilton DA, Clark BJ Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Reciprocal Fitness Feedbacks Promote the Evolution of Mutualistic Cooperation.
ost C Abstract Mutually beneficial interactions are ubiquitous in nature and have played a pivotal role for the evolution of life on earth. However, the factors facilitating their emergence remain poorly understood. Here, we address this issue both experimentally and by mathematical modeling using cocultures of auxotrophic strains of Escherichia coli, whose growth depends on a reciprocal exchange of amino acids. Coevolving auxotrophic pairs in a spatially heterogeneous environment for less than 150 generations transformed the initial interaction that was merely based on an exchange of metabolic byproducts into a c...
Source: Current Biology - July 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Preussger D, Giri S, Muhsal LK, Oña L, Kost C Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Socially Parasitic Ants Evolve a Mosaic of Host-Matching and Parasitic Morphological Traits.
Abstract A basic expectation of evolution by natural selection is that species morphologies will adapt to their ecological niche. In social organisms, this may include selective pressure from the social environment. Many non-ant parasites of ant colonies are known to mimic the morphology of their host species, often in striking fashion [1, 2], indicating there is selection on parasite morphology to match the host (Batesian and/or Wasmannian mimicry [3]). However, ants that parasitize other ant societies are usually closely related to their hosts (Emery's rule) [4-8] and expected to be similar due to common ancestr...
Source: Current Biology - July 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Fischer G, Friedman NR, Huang JP, Narula N, Knowles LL, Fisher BL, Mikheyev AS, Economo EP Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Cytoskeletal Repair: Microtubule Orthopaedics to the Rescue.
PMID: 32693064 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Slep KC Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Female birdsong.
Abstract Naomi Langmore introduces female song in birds. PMID: 32693065 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Langmore NE Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Scavenger receptors.
Abstract Scavenger receptors (SRs) are a large family of cell-surface receptors that are diverse in their structure and biological function and are divided into different classes. SRs can bind to a range of ligands and enhance the elimination of altered-self or non-self targets. The functional mechanisms that lead to their clearance of harmful substances involve phagocytosis, endocytosis, adhesion, and signaling. PMID: 32693066 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Alquraini A, El Khoury J Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on human sleep and rest-activity rhythms.
Abstract In modern societies, human rest-activity rhythms and sleep result from the tensions and dynamics between the conflicting poles of external social time (e.g., work hours and leisure activities) and an individual's internal biological time. A mismatch between the two has been suggested to induce 'social jetlag' [1] and 'social sleep restriction', that is, shifts in sleep timing and differences in sleep duration between work days and free days. Social jetlag [2,3] and sleep restrictions [4] have repeatedly been associated with negative consequences on health, mental wellbeing, and performance. In a large-sca...
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Blume C, Schmidt MH, Cajochen C Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Sleep in university students prior to and during COVID-19 Stay-at-Home orders.
Abstract Sleep health has multiple dimensions including duration, regularity, timing, and quality [1-4]. The Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak led to Stay-at-Home orders and Social Distancing Requirements in countries throughout the world to limit the spread of COVID-19. We investigated sleep behaviors prior to and during Stay-at-Home orders in 139 university students (aged 22.2 ± 1.7 years old [±SD]) while respectively taking the same classes in-person and remotely. During Stay-at-Home, nightly time in bed devoted to sleep (TIB, a proxy for sleep duration with regard to public health recommendati...
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Wright KP, Linton SK, Withrow D, Casiraghi L, Lanza SM, Iglesia H, Vetter C, Depner CM Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Let's emerge from the pandemic lockdown into a fairer academic world.
Abstract At the beginning of the pandemic, as universities were shutting, a meme did the rounds on social media. Some academics suggested that they were looking forward to increased productivity in grant and paper writing under lockdown. They cited the fact that Isaac Newton came up with his theory of gravity whilst quarantined during the bubonic plague. Globally, the reaction from many was to inwardly - or publicly - scream. PMID: 32693069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: King KC, Hurst GDD, Lewis Z Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

The strange mitochondrial genomes of Metschnikowia yeasts.
Abstract While sequencing and characterizing the mitochondrial genomes of 71 strains from the yeast genus Metschnikowia [1] (close cousin to the model species Candida albicans), we uncovered one of the most extreme examples of mitochondrial genome architectural diversity observed to date. These Metschnikowia mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) capture nearly the entire known gene-size and intron-content range for cox1 and cob across all eukaryotic life and show remarkable differences in structure and noncoding content. This genomic variation can be seen both among species and between strains of the same species, raising t...
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Lee DK, Hsiang T, Lachance MA, Smith DR Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Animal Navigation: Seabirds Home to a Moving Magnetic Target.
Abstract Shifts in the return locations of juvenile seabirds migrating from the Irish Sea to Argentina can be accurately predicted by changes in Earth's magnetic field, suggesting that these birds rely on a geomagnetic map for navigation. PMID: 32693071 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Putman NF Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Plant Biology: Plants Turn Down the Volume to Respond to Cell Swelling.
Abstract Turgor manipulation to induce plant cell swelling is one of the classic experiments undertaken in biology courses in schools and at universities. However, only now do we start to understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for detecting plant cell swelling. PMID: 32693072 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Bacete L, Hamann T Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Actin Cytoskeleton: Profilin Gives Cells an Edge.
Abstract A new study reports that the actin-monomer-binding protein profilin 1 dictates protrusion character at the cell edge. These findings help explain how distinct, tunable actin polymerization pathways collaborate to form higher-order cellular structures. PMID: 32693073 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Rotty JD Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Neuroscience: Sensing Absolute Cold.
Abstract To overwinter, animals must detect constant cold temperatures before adapting their behavior accordingly. A new study in Drosophila describes a circuit mechanism - from sensory neurons to higher brain centers - that encodes and relays persistent, absolute cold stimuli to modulate sleep. PMID: 32693074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Ng R, Su CY Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Genome Evolution: Domestication of the Allopolyploid Goldfish.
Abstract Goldfish are popular ornamental animals with morphologically highly diverse strains generated by artificial selection over the past millennium. New genome analyses reveal the genetics underlying some of the most iconic goldfish phenotypes and illuminate the domestication of these diverse strains following genome duplication. PMID: 32693075 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Braasch I Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Olfaction: Receptor Antagonistes.
Abstract Odor receptors of the mammalian olfactory system have long been known to be activated in combinatorial fashion by odorants. A large-scale study now reveals that inhibition of receptors by odorants is comparably prevalent and combinatorial. PMID: 32693076 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Rioux D, Carlson JR Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Plant Evolution: Divergent Plants, Divergent Functions for C1HDZ Orthologs.
Abstract Ortholog identification inferred by phylogenetic analyses does not always correlate with functional conservation. The recent functional characterization of the C1HDZ transcription factor in the early-diverging land plant Marchantia polymorpha reveals its role in biotic stress responses, contrary to its orthologs in flowering plants. PMID: 32693077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Monte I Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Population Genomics: How Do Cape Honey Bees Do Without Sex?
Abstract The Cape honey bee, Apis mellifera capensis, is able to produce female offspring asexually. This phenomenon has now been shown to have a simple genetic basis. PMID: 32693078 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Webster MT Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Behavior: How a Global Social Lockdown Unlocks Time for Sleep.
Abstract Two new studies show that the social lockdown imposed as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has helped unlock more time for sleep. Although daily stress during the lockdown increased, and sleep quality decreased, sleep behaviour was generally healthier. PMID: 32693079 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Kantermann T Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Dopamine: Don't Underestimate the Force.
Abstract Dopamine is implicated in reward processing and movement. A new study describes an unexpectedly tight relationship between dopamine activity and the forwards and backwards forces an animal exerts in response to rewards, suggesting a potential reconciliation of these two roles. PMID: 32693080 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Jenkins G, Walton M Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Sleep: The Sensory Disconnection of Dreams.
Abstract It has been known for some time that the brain can react selectively to meaningful sensory stimuli during sleep. A recent study shows that this ability may be selectively suppressed during rapid eye movements of sleep. PMID: 32693081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Siclari F Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Immunity: Neutrophil Quorum at the Wound.
Abstract How is neutrophil swarming initiated after an injury? A new study provides evidence of exquisite coordination between these immune cells, akin to quorum sensing in unicellular microorganisms, to protect tissues from invading pathogens. PMID: 32693082 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Palomino-Segura M, Hidalgo A Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Making Feeding Decisions in the Drosophila Nervous System.
Abstract Feeding is one of the most fundamental activities of animals. Whether an animal will eat or not depends on sensory cues concerning nutrient availability and quality as well as on its growth, hormonal and metabolic state. These diverse signals, which originate from different regions of the body and act on different time scales, must be integrated by the nervous system to enable an appropriate feeding response. Here, we review recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster larvae that aim to elucidate the central circuits that underlie food intake, based on a serial section electron microscopic volume of an enti...
Source: Current Biology - July 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Miroschnikow A, Schlegel P, Pankratz MJ Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Host Genotype and Colonist Arrival Order Jointly Govern Plant Microbiome Composition and Function.
Abstract The composition of host-associated microbiomes can have important consequences for host health and fitness [1-3]. Yet we still lack understanding of many fundamental processes that determine microbiome composition [4, 5]. There is mounting evidence that historical contingency during microbiome assembly may overshadow more deterministic processes, such as the selective filters imposed by host traits [6-8]. More specifically, species arrival order has been frequently shown to affect microbiome composition [9-12], a phenomenon known as priority effects [13-15]. However, it is less clear whether priority effe...
Source: Current Biology - July 15, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Leopold DR, Busby PE Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Sequential Molt in a Feathered Dinosaur and Implications for Early Paravian Ecology and Locomotion.
Abstract Feather molt is an important life-history process in birds, but little is known about its evolutionary history. Here, we report on the first fossilized evidence of sequential wing feather molt, a common strategy among extant birds, identified in the Early Cretaceous four-winged dromaeosaurid Microraptor. Analysis of wing feather molt patterns and ecological properties in extant birds imply that Microraptor maintained its flight ability throughout the entire annual cycle, including the molt period. Therefore, we conclude that flight was essential for either its daily foraging or escaping from predators. Ou...
Source: Current Biology - July 14, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Kiat Y, Balaban A, Sapir N, O'Connor JK, Wang M, Xu X Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Ultra-black Camouflage in Deep-Sea Fishes.
We present evidence suggesting pressure to reduce reflected bioluminescence led to the evolution of ultra-black skin (reflectance
Source: Current Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Davis AL, Thomas KN, Goetz FE, Robison BH, Johnsen S, Osborn KJ Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Genome Size Affects Fitness in the Eukaryotic Alga Dunaliella tertiolecta.
Abstract Genome size is tightly coupled to morphology, ecology, and evolution among species [1-5], with one of the best-known patterns being the relationship between cell size and genome size [6, 7]. Classic theories, such as the "selfish DNA hypothesis," posit that accumulating redundant DNA has fitness costs but that larger cells can tolerate larger genomes, leading to a positive relationship between cell size and genome size [8, 9]. Yet the evidence for fitness costs associated with relatively larger genomes remains circumstantial. Here, we estimated the relationships between genome size, cell size, e...
Source: Current Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Malerba ME, Ghedini G, Marshall DJ Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Comprehensive Chromosome End Remodeling during Programmed DNA Elimination.
Abstract Germline and somatic genomes are in general the same in a multicellular organism. However, programmed DNA elimination leads to a reduced somatic genome compared to germline cells. Previous work on the parasitic nematode Ascaris demonstrated that programmed DNA elimination encompasses high-fidelity chromosomal breaks and loss of specific genome sequences including a major tandem repeat of 120 bp and ~1,000 germline-expressed genes. However, the precise chromosomal locations of these repeats, breaks regions, and eliminated genes remained unknown. We used PacBio long-read sequencing and chromosome confo...
Source: Current Biology - July 13, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Wang J, Veronezi GMB, Kang Y, Zagoskin M, O'Toole ET, Davis RE Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

O2-Dependent Protein Internalization Underlies Astrocytic Sensing of Acute Hypoxia by Restricting Multimodal TRPA1 Channel Responses.
Abstract Hypoxia sensors are essential for regulating local oxygen (O2) homeostasis within the body. This is especially pertinent within the CNS, which is particularly vulnerable to O2 deprivation due to high energetic demand. Here, we reveal hypoxia-monitoring function exerted by astrocytes through an O2-regulated protein trafficking mechanism within the CNS. Strikingly, cultured mouse astrocytes isolated from the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG) and retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) region are capable of rapidly responding to moderate hypoxia via the sensor cation channel transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 but,...
Source: Current Biology - July 9, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Uchiyama M, Nakao A, Kurita Y, Fukushi I, Takeda K, Numata T, Tran HN, Sawamura S, Ebert M, Kurokawa T, Sakaguchi R, Stokes AJ, Takahashi N, Okada Y, Mori Y Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Non-retroviral Endogenous Viral Element Limits Cognate Virus Replication in Aedes aegypti Ovaries.
Abstract Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are viral sequences integrated in host genomes. A large number of non-retroviral EVEs was recently detected in Aedes mosquito genomes, leading to the hypothesis that mosquito EVEs may control exogenous infections by closely related viruses. Here, we experimentally investigated the role of an EVE naturally found in Aedes aegypti populations and derived from the widespread insect-specific virus, cell-fusing agent virus (CFAV). Using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, we created an Ae. aegypti line lacking the CFAV EVE. Absence of the EVE resulted in increased CFAV replication in ov...
Source: Current Biology - July 9, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Suzuki Y, Baidaliuk A, Miesen P, Frangeul L, Crist AB, Merkling SH, Fontaine A, Lequime S, Moltini-Conclois I, Blanc H, van Rij RP, Lambrechts L, Saleh MC Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

The Structural Basis for Kinetochore Stabilization by Cnn1/CENP-T.
Abstract Chromosome segregation depends on a regulated connection between spindle microtubules and centromeric DNA. The kinetochore mediates this connection and ensures it persists during anaphase, when sister chromatids must transit into daughter cells uninterrupted. The Ctf19 complex (Ctf19c) forms the centromeric base of the kinetochore in budding yeast. Biochemical experiments show that Ctf19c members associate hierarchically when purified from cell extract [1], an observation that is mostly explained by the structure of the complex [2]. The Ctf3 complex (Ctf3c), which is not required for the assembly of most ...
Source: Current Biology - July 9, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Hinshaw SM, Harrison SC Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Periodic Oscillations of Myosin-II Mechanically Proofread Cell-Cell Connections to Ensure Robust Formation of the Cardiac Vessel.
Abstract Actomyosin networks provide the major contractile machinery for regulating cell and tissue morphogenesis during development. These networks undergo dynamic rearrangements, enabling cells to have a broad range of mechanical actions. How cells integrate different mechanical stimuli to accomplish complicated tasks in vivo remains unclear. Here, we explore this problem in the context of cell matching, where individual cells form precise inter-cellular connections between partner cells. To study the dynamic roles of actomyosin networks in regulating precise cell matching, we focused on the process of hear...
Source: Current Biology - July 9, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Zhang S, Teng X, Toyama Y, Saunders TE Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Functional Architecture of Motion Direction in the Mouse Superior Colliculus.
Abstract Motion vision is important in guiding animal behavior. Both the retina and the visual cortex process object motion in largely unbiased fashion: all directions are represented at all locations in the visual field. We investigate motion processing in the superior colliculus of the awake mouse by optically recording neural responses across both hemispheres. Within the retinotopic map, one finds large regions of ∼500 μm size where neurons prefer the same direction of motion. This preference is maintained in depth to ∼350 μm. The scale of these patches, ∼30 degrees of visual angle, ...
Source: Current Biology - July 9, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Li YT, Turan Z, Meister M Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

CLAVATA Was a Genetic Novelty for the Morphological Innovation of 3D Growth in Land Plants.
rrison CJ PMID: 32634407 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Whitewoods CD, Cammarata J, Venza ZN, Sang S, Crook AD, Aoyama T, Wang XY, Waller M, Kamisugi Y, Cuming AC, Szövényi P, Nimchuk ZL, Roeder AHK, Scanlon MJ, Harrison CJ Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Topological Adaptation of Transmembrane Domains to the Force-Modulated Lipid Bilayer Is a Basis of Sensing Mechanical Force.
PMID: 32634408 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Kim J, Lee J, Jang J, Ye F, Hong SJ, Petrich BG, Ulmer TS, Kim C Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Balanced lethal systems.
PMID: 32634409 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Wielstra B Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Predicting biotic responses to future climate warming with classic ecogeographic rules.
Abstract Models for future environmental change all involve global warming, whether slow or fast. Predicting how plants and animals will respond to such warming can be aided by using ecogeographic biological 'rules', some long-established, that make predictions based on observations in nature, as well as plausible physiological and ecological expectations. Bergmann's rule is well known, namely that warm-blooded animals are generally smaller in warm climates, but six further temperature-related rules - Allen's rule, Gloger's rule, Hesse's rule, Jordan's rule, Rapoport's rule and Thorson's rule - are also worth cons...
Source: Current Biology - July 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Tian L, Benton MJ Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Virus and eukaryote fusogen superfamilies.
PMID: 32634411 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Vance TDR, Lee JE Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Release and targeting of polycystin-2-carrying ciliary extracellular vesicles.
PMID: 32634412 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Wang J, Nikonorova IA, Gu A, Sternberg PW, Barr MM Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Coconut oil, conservation and the conscientious consumer.
PMID: 32634413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Meijaard E, Abrams JF, Juffe-Bignoli D, Voigt M, Sheil D Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Cell Division: Interkinetic Nuclear … Mechanics.
Cell Division: Interkinetic Nuclear… Mechanics. Curr Biol. 2020 Jul 06;30(13):R759-R761 Authors: Cammarota CM, Bergstralh D Abstract New work reveals that interkinetic nuclear migration - the movement of nuclei towards the apical surface of dividing epithelial cells - is mechanically regulated, relying on a balance of forces between the mitotic cell and the surrounding tissue. PMID: 32634414 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Cammarota CM, Bergstralh D Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Insect Neurobiology: How a Small Spot Stops a Fly.
Abstract Animals often respond to small moving features very differently than they do to large moving fields. A new study finds that viewing small spots causes walking fruit flies to stop in their tracks, and identifies the cellular pathway that processes this signal. PMID: 32634415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Palavalli-Nettimi R, Theobald J Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Sensory Ecology: In Sea Snake Vision, One Plus One Makes Three.
Abstract Snake genomes encode only two opsins for use in retinal cones, limiting their adaptive flexibility and color vision. Research now shows that, by using alternative opsin alleles, some sea snakes may add a third opsin spectral class to their retinas. PMID: 32634416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Biology)
Source: Current Biology - July 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Cronin TW Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research