Injection Techniques for Common Chronic Pain Conditions of the Foot: A Comprehensive Review

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis is a comprehensive literature review of the available evidence and techniques of foot injections for chronic pain conditions. It briefly describes common foot chronic pain syndromes and then reviews available injection techniques for each of these syndromes, weighing the available evidence and comparing the available approaches.Recent FindingsFoot and ankle pain affects 20% of the population over 50 and significantly impairs mobility and ability to participate in activities of daily living (ADLs), as well as increases fall risk. It is commonly treated with costly surgery, at times with questionable efficacy. Injection therapy is challenging when the etiology is anatomical or compressive. Morton ’s neuroma is a budging of the interdigital nerve. Steroid, alcohol, and capsaicin injections provide some benefit, but it is short lived. Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection provided long-term relief and could prove to be a viable treatment option. Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is most likely secondary t o repeat tendon stress—platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) and prolotherapy have been trialed for this condition, but more evidence is required to show efficacy. Similar injections were trials for plantar fasciitis and achieved only short-term relief; however, some evidence suggests that PRP injections red uce the frequency of required therapy. Tarsal tunnel syndrome, a compressive neuropathy carries a risk of permanent neural injury if left untreated. Injecti...
Source: Pain and Therapy - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Conclusions: The data suggest that there is not a meaningful association between crouch gait and knee pain. Having patella alta was associated with pain. Further studies that use validated pain questionnaires are needed to understand the multifactorial etiology of knee pain within ambulatory individuals with CP. Level of Evidence: Level III—case-control study.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Cerebral Palsy Source Type: research
Conclusions: When considering a child with an irritable knee, a heterogeneity of potential underlying pathologies and combinations of pathologies are possible. Importantly, the age of the patient and CRP can guide a clinician when considering further workup. Older patients with a higher admission CRP value warrant an immediate magnetic resonance imaging, as they are likely to have osteomyelitis, which was associated with worse outcomes when compared with patients with isolated septic arthritis. Level of Evidence: Level III—retrospective research study.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Selected Topics Source Type: research
Conclusion: There are several risk factors for subsequent contralateral SCFE. On the basis of the available data, younger patients with a high PSA of the unaffected hip would most likely benefit from prophylactic fixation of the unaffected hip. Level of Evidence: Level II.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Hip Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to identify depression using the Mental Component Score (MCS-12) of the Short Form-12 (SF-12) survey and to correlate with patient outcomes. Summary of Background Data. The impact of preexisting depressive symptoms on health-care related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes following lumbar spine fusion is not well understood. Methods. Patients undergoing lumbar fusion between one to three levels at a single center, academic hospital were retrospectively identified. Patients under the age of 18 years and those undergoing surgery for infection, trauma, tumor, or revision, and less than 1-ye...
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: CLINICAL CASE SERIES Source Type: research
Conclusion. The spontaneous incidence rate of vertebral body infection among OVF patients was 0.7%; however, the occurrence of this complication led to serious events. Clinicians should pay attention to the possibility of bacillemia in elderly or immunocompromised OVF patients. Level of Evidence: 4
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: CLINICAL CASE SERIES Source Type: research
Conclusion. Although intent-to-treat analysis failed to show significant differences in patients treated surgically, results of the as-treated analysis determined statically greater improvements in those patients with spondylolisthesis who were treated surgically as compared to those treated nonoperatively. Level of Evidence: 2
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: LITERATURE REVIEW Source Type: research
Conclusion. Ten years after its inception, SPORT has made strides in standardization and optimization of treatment for spinal pathologies. SPORT has provided clinicians with insight about outcomes of surgical and nonoperative treatment of IDH. Results showed significantly greater improvements in patients treated surgically. Level of Evidence: 3
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: LITERATURE REVIEW Source Type: research
Conclusion. Ten years after its inception, SPORT has made strides in standardization and optimization of treatment for spinal pathologies. SPORT has provided clinicians with insight about outcomes of surgical and nonoperative treatment of spinal stenosis. Results showed significantly greater improvement through 4 year follow up in those patients that received surgical treatment, however the difference between the surgical and nonsurgical groups diminished at 8 year follow up. Level of Evidence: 3
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: LITERATURE REVIEW Source Type: research
Conclusion. In lumbar fusion, rhBMP-2 exhibited a higher fusion success rate and reduced the risk of re-operation. No difference in complication rate is between rhBMP (rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7) and ICBG. We suggest rhBMP especially rhBMP-2 as an effective substitute for ICBG for lumbar fusion. Level of Evidence: 1
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: LITERATURE REVIEW Source Type: research
Study Design. Retrospective, database review. Objective. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between preoperative opioid use and postoperative infection requiring operative wound washout in elective lumbar fusion patients. Summary of Background Data. Numerous peer-reviewed publications have conducted multivariate analyses of risk factors for surgical site infection. However, few have explored preoperative opioid use. Opioids have been widely prescribed preoperatively for pain management, but their effect on postsurgical infection is currently inconclusive. Methods. We retrospectively queried...
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: SURGERY Source Type: research
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