In Memoriam: Daniel Callahan (1930 –2019)
(Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - August 20, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

A Case Study of Combined Perception-Based and Perception-Free Spinal Cord Stimulator Therapy for the Management of Persistent Pain after a Total Knee Arthroplasty
We present a 71-year-old Caucasian non-Hispanic male who presented with chronic left knee pain after undergoing a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) 18  months prior. Following his TKA, he reported doing well in the acute post-operative period but began to develop progressively worsening left knee pain at approximately the third post-operative week. He underwent a successful spinal cord stimulator (SCS) trial and subsequent implantation of two 16- contact Boston Scientific leads with a Boston Scientific Spectra WaveWriterTM SCS system. Upon first post-procedural follow-up, and moreover at his 6-month follow-up, the patient...
Source: Pain and Therapy - August 20, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Opioids and the Predilection for Violence in the Pain Clinic: A Physician ’s Perspective
This article is based on previously conducted studies and does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - August 20, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Stopping or Decreasing Opioid Therapy in Patients on Chronic Opioid Therapy
AbstractWith the rising concerns about long-term opioid use, particularly in patients with chronic noncancer pain, more and more patients are being considered for decreased doses or discontinuation of opioid therapy. This is a challenging clinical situation for both patient and clinician and should be presented in a shared decision-making model so that the patient understands the risks of opioid therapy and how the therapy will be discontinued. The patient should be aware of the long-range plan and its milestones. It is imperative that alternate pain control treatments be made available to the patient early, and that the p...
Source: Pain and Therapy - August 3, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Impact of Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA) Smart Pump-Electronic Health Record (EHR) Interoperability with Auto-Documentation on Chart Completion in a Community Hospital Setting
This study is the first to evaluate the association between auto-documentation of opioid administration provided by PCA smart pump —electronic health record (EHR) interoperability and the completion of PCA opioid administration charting tasks.MethodsThis retrospective cohort study was conducted at Lancaster General Hospital, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Patients were assigned to pre-auto-documentation (n = 55) or post-auto-documentation groups (n = 58) based on whether they received PCA therapy prior to or after PCA-EHR interoperability was implemented. Charting of PCA therapy included documen...
Source: Pain and Therapy - July 26, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Associations Between Headache-Free Days and Patient-Reported Outcomes Among Migraine Patients: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Survey Data in Europe
This study aimed to assess the associations between the number of headache-free days (HFDs) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI), and healthcare resource utilization (HRU) in patients with migraine in the EU5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom).MethodsThis retrospective cross-sectional study collected survey responses from adults aged  ≥ 18 years from the 2017 National Health and Wellness Survey (N = 62,000). Migraine patients with a physician’s diagnosis of migraine and who had experienced at least 4 month...
Source: Pain and Therapy - July 26, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Viscosupplementation for Management of Knee Osteoarthritis from an Indian Perspective: An Expert Consensus Report
ConclusionIn this pioneering attempt, the document lays down structured, expert consensus-based statements to guide and align practitioners on the appropriate use of IAHA in the Indian setting.FundingDr. Reddy ’s Laboratories Ltd. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - July 15, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Effect of Migraine Headache on Productivity of Patients According to Migraine Disability Assessment Score: A Cross-Sectional Study
ConclusionsThe majority of migraine patients were found to have severe disability, which affected their daily work and social activities. Despite an increase in disability rate due to migraine, people do not seek regular medical care for this type of headache in Pakistan. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - July 9, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Work-Related Factors Associated with Low Back Pain Among Nurse Professionals in East and West Wollega Zones, Western Ethiopia, 2017: A Cross-Sectional Study
The objective of this research was therefore to investigate the prevalence and work-related factors associated with low back pain among nurses in public hospitals in western Ethiopia.MethodsA health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2017. A sample of 422 nurses was selected using systematic random sampling technique. The standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal survey was interviewer-administered for data collection. The association of different explanatory variables with LBP was explored using a binary logistic regression analysis. The significance of associations was ascertained at ap value of
Source: Pain and Therapy - June 28, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

The Epidemiology of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia in China: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study
AbstractIntroductionFew studies have examined the epidemiology of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in China. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HZ and PHN in China, and to examine the clinical characteristics of patients identified with PHN.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study conducted in 24 hospitals in seven cities in China. Prevalence of HZ and PHN was determined by physician (n = 100) chart review of patients (n = 36,170) aged ≥ 40 years seeking medical care over a 30- to 60-day period. The health history of patients identifie...
Source: Pain and Therapy - June 19, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Pain in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionsPain in CIDP is an underexplored field. Future research should focus on the natural history, phenomenology, and management of pain in CIDP. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - June 14, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Pain Control in Latin America: The Optimized Role of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Cancer and Noncancer Pain
AbstractPain is a terrible health problem that transcends borders and nationalities, although there may be significant differences among regions regarding pain management. In Latin America (LatAm, composed of the many nations of Central America, South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean), access to healthcare, pain management, and opioid analgesics can vary. Despite an international U.S.-led trend toward greater control in opioid prescribing, the role of opioids in the management of severe pain in LatAm is probably smaller than it should be, as opioid consumption in LatAm overall is low. Buprenorphine is a strong opioidwith...
Source: Pain and Therapy - May 17, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Rescue Analgesic Medication Use by Patients Treated with Triamcinolone Acetonide Extended-Release for Knee Osteoarthritis Pain: Pooled Analysis of Three Phase 2/3 Randomized Clinical Trials
ConclusionsIn patients with painful OAK, reduced rescue medication use may be a potential benefit of TA-ER and further supports its analgesic efficacy. Additional research is needed to assess whether TA-ER impacts the use of other common oral analgesics (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids) for patients with OAK.FundingFlexion Therapeutics, Inc., Burlington, MA, USA.Plain Language SummaryPlain language summary available for this article. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - May 7, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Comparative Human Factors Evaluation of Two Nasal Naloxone Administration Devices: NARCAN ® Nasal Spray and Naloxone Prefilled Syringe with Nasal Atomizer
Under section “Introduction”, the first sentence in the 4th paragraph was incorrectly published. The correct sentence is given below. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - May 6, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review of Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment
AbstractThoracic outlet syndrome, a group of diverse disorders, is a collection of symptoms in the shoulder and upper extremity area that results in pain, numbness, and tingling. Identification of thoracic outlet syndrome is complex and a thorough clinical examination in addition to appropriate clinical testing can aide in diagnosis. Practitioners must consider the pathology of thoracic outlet syndrome in their differential diagnosis for shoulder and upper extremity pain symptoms so that patients are directed appropriately to timely therapeutic interventions. Patients with a definitive etiology who have failed conservative...
Source: Pain and Therapy - April 29, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Intravenous Oxycodone Versus Other Intravenous Strong Opioids for Acute Postoperative Pain Control: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that intravenous oxycodone provides better analgesic efficacy than fentanyl and sufentanil, and comparable efficacy to morphine with less adverse events such as sedation. No studies comparing intravenous oxycodone with pethidine or hydromorphone were identified in this review. Better alignment of study methodologies for future research in this area is recommended to provide the best evidence base for a meta-analysis.FundingMundipharma Singapore Holding Pte Ltd, Singapore. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - April 19, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

When the Best of Intentions Leads to Bad Outcomes
AbstractThere is no question that the opioid use problem in America has reached unacceptable proportions. What is in question, however, is the best way to address this problem. Unfortunately, this is a multidimensional problem that will not be solved with a simple unidimensional solution. This commentary examines the multidimensional nature of this problem and the resultant guidelines that have been proposed to address it. There is a cautionary tale of the historical dangers of applying an “obvious” solution to a problem, only to find that more investigation and an iterative approach can actually lead to the co...
Source: Pain and Therapy - April 2, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

The Effect of Medical Exercise Therapy on Pressure Sensitivity in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Cohort Pilot Study
AbstractIntroductionWhile continued research into pain and exercise may address the underlying mechanisms, the mechanisms through which exercise may act are still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of medical exercise therapy on pressure sensitivity in knee osteoarthritis patients, and to assess whether the decreased pain perception after medical exercise therapy can be explained by changes in pressure sensitivity.MethodsWe adopted acohort design in which 16 patients with long term pain were tested before and after 3  months of medical exercise therapy intervention. Pain was detect...
Source: Pain and Therapy - March 30, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Comparative Human Factors Evaluation of Two Nasal Naloxone Administration Devices: NARCAN ® Nasal Spray and Naloxone Prefilled Syringe with Nasal Atomizer
ConclusionsNARCAN® Nasal Spray requires fewer steps and is easier to administer than a naloxone PFS-NA. Thus, using NARCAN® Nasal Spray should increase the likelihood that nonmedical personnel correctly deliver naloxone in time-critical, high-stress opioid overdose rescue situations.FundingADAPT Pharma, Inc. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - March 15, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

A Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy Device for Non-Specific Low Back Pain: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
AbstractIntroductionLow back pain (LBP) poses a significant burden of disease worldwide, and identifying safe and effective non-pharmacologic treatment options for LBP is a research priority. The aim of this study was to pilot a clinical trial of a portable pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy device for subjects with mixed duration non-specific LBP.MethodsThis work was a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, parallel-group study conducted at a chiropractic school outpatient clinic. The primary end point was functional capacity measured by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at baseline, 6  weeks, and 12&n...
Source: Pain and Therapy - March 12, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Musculoskeletal Pain and Picky Eating: The Role of Negative Self-Labeling
ConclusionsThere may be an association between musculoskeletal pain and negative beliefs about one ’s own eating behaviors. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - March 12, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

CBD as the New Medicine in the Pain Provider ’s Armamentarium
(Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - March 12, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Clinical Results and Complications of Shoulder Manipulation under Ultrasound-Guided Cervical Nerve Root Block for Frozen Shoulder: A Retrospective Observational Study
This study aimed to investigate the confirmatory hypothesis testing that the MUC has a significant clinical effect on FS refractory to conservative treatments and to assess its adverse events.MethodsThis is a retrospective observational study on patients with FS treated in the past 8  years. Although 77 patients were eligible for this study, only 68 were enrolled. The patients were evaluated immediately before the MUC and at 1, 3, and 6 months after with the use of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association shoulder score. Simultaneously, ranges of motion of the affected shoulder we re measured in two directions: forwa...
Source: Pain and Therapy - February 11, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

An Update of Current Cannabis-Based Pharmaceuticals in Pain Medicine
The objective of this review is to provide clinicians with an update of currently available and promising developmental cannabis pharmaceutical derivatives which may stand to greatly be nefit patients with otherwise difficult-to-treat chronic conditions. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - February 5, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Poppy Seed Tea: A Short Review and Case Study
AbstractUnwashed poppy seeds are widely available online through private websites or via well-known sellers such as eBay and Amazon. These seeds can be used to produce a tea that contains an opioid content sufficient to produce psychoactive effects and to cause withdrawal symptoms when discontinued abruptly, yet their sale and distribution is legal in the United States. Clinicians may not be aware of poppy seed tea and some individuals may use it habitually or as an analgesic. There is a paucity of literature on this topic, although a few cases of poppy seed tea intoxication and dependence have been reported. A clinical ca...
Source: Pain and Therapy - February 5, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Chronic Pain in the Elderly with Cognitive Decline: A Narrative Review
AbstractThe presence of pain in elderly persons with cognitive decline is often neglected, under-reported, underestimated, misdiagnosed and not adequately treated, with consequences that have a strong impact on health, independence in activities of daily living and quality of life. There is no empirical evidence that people with dementia experience less pain; therefore, in patients with severe cognitive impairment the progression of cognitive decline dramatically affects the ability to verbalize the presence of pain. Self-assessment scales are considered the “gold standard” for pain assessment, but the presence...
Source: Pain and Therapy - January 21, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Combination of NSAIDs and Muscle Relaxants in the Management of Acute Low Back Pain
ConclusionFixed dose combination of chlorzoxazone and ibuprofen demonstrated superior efficacy than ibuprofen monotherapy in acute low back pain. Both drugs were well-tolerated and should be considered as judicious therapeutic options in patients with acute low back pain.Trial RegistrationThis trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registry of India —CTRI/2016/10/007348.FundingDr. Reddy ’s Laboratories Ltd. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - January 16, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

A Novel Application of an Adjustable Catheter in Acute Radicular Pain Management
ConclusionsThe caudal approach with adjustable catheter showed similar but more lasting effects on the acute severe radicular pain when compared to other epidural injections techniques; it is extremely target-specific and thus allows the use of small doses of corticosteroids; moreover, the adjustable catheter makes the procedure free from the risk of major complications.FundingNo funding or sponsorship was received for this study. Sponsorship for article publication fees were funded by TSS Medical SRL. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - January 8, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

The Role of Lofexidine in Management of Opioid Withdrawal
AbstractFear of withdrawal symptoms has been cited by survey respondents as the main reason that they continued to use opioids. Lofexidine is an α2-adrenergic agonist that decreases the sympathetic outflow that results in the characteristic symptoms of opioid withdrawal. A structural analog of clonidine, lofexidine has a higher affinity and specificity for the α2a receptors and does not reinforce opioid dependence. Withdrawal symptoms correlate approximately to the half-life of the opioid; patient factors such as age, duration of opioid exposure, physical status, and other considerations may influence the natur...
Source: Pain and Therapy - December 18, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Pain Intensity Factors Changing Breakthrough Pain Prevalence in Patients with Advanced Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of a Cross-Sectional Observational International Study
ConclusionsThe reported BTP prevalence is dependent on the cutoff for background PI in the BTP definition, population background PI during the assessment period, and defined cutoff for the difference between worst and average PI.FundingNTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - November 10, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Practice Patterns and Treatment Challenges in Acute Postoperative Pain Management: A Survey of Practicing Physicians
ConclusionsOpioids remain an integral component of multimodal acute analgesic therapy for acute postoperative pain in hospitalized patients. The use of all IV analgesic medications is limited by concerns over AEs, particularly with opioids and in high-risk patients. There remains a key unmet need for effective analgesic medications that are associated with a lower risk of AEs.FundingTrevena, Inc. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - October 26, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Physical Therapy Approaches in the Treatment of Low Back Pain
AbstractGlobally, in 2016, low back pain (LBP) contributed 57.6 million of total years lived with disability. Low Back Pain Guidelines regularly recommend the use of physical exercise for non-specific LBP. Early non-pharmacological treatment is endorsed. This includes education and self-management, and the recommencement of normal activities and exercise, with the addition of psychological programs in those whose symptoms persist. The aim of physical treatments is to improve function and prevent disability from getting worse. There is no evidence available to show that one type of exercise is superior to another, and parti...
Source: Pain and Therapy - September 18, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Trends of Co-Morbid Depression in Hospitalized Patients with Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: An Analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample
ConclusionsThe occurrence of co-morbid depression in hospitalized patients with FBSS increased from 20% in 2011 to 23% in 2015. While direct hospital costs and length of stay remained relatively stable, the number of inpatient procedures performed trended upwards. The exact etiology for this increase in depression prevalence is unknown; additional studies are needed to shed further insight. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - September 14, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Systematic Review of Pain Medicine Content, Teaching, and Assessment in Medical School Curricula Internationally
ConclusionsThis systematic review has revealed that pain medicine education at medical schools internationally does not adequately respond to societal needs in terms of the prevalence and public health impact of inadequately managed pain. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - July 30, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Observational Study Evaluating the Economic Impact of Breakthrough Pain in Cancer Patients in Clinical Practice in Spain: The IMDI Study
ConclusionsThe study showed the results of the first real-life prospective study evaluating the cost of illness of BTP in cancer patients demonstrating that the presence of breakthrough pain in a cancer patient causes a very significant increase in healthcare costs.FundingKyowa Kirin Farmac éutica, S.L.U. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - July 5, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

A Review of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Central and Peripheral Effects of Diclofenac
AbstractDiclofenac is widely used to manage chronic inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis, and extra-articular rheumatism. Its various mechanisms of action make it particularly effective in treating nociceptive pain, but it is also an alternative for treating spinal and chronic central pain. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are the most frequently encountered arthritic conditions in adults. The management of nociceptive pain requires a sequential hierarchical approach, with the initial NSAID treatment being characterized by the rep...
Source: Pain and Therapy - June 5, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

A Review of the Burden of Trauma Pain in Emergency Settings in Europe
AbstractTrauma pain represents a large proportion of admissions to emergency departments across Europe. There is currently an unmet need in the treatment of trauma pain extending throughout the patient journey in emergency settings. This review aims to explore these unmet needs and describe barriers to the delivery of effective analgesia for trauma pain in emergency settings. A comprehensive, qualitative review of the literature was conducted using a structured search strategy (Medline, Embase and Evidence Based Medicine Reviews) along with additional Internet-based sources to identify relevant human studies published in t...
Source: Pain and Therapy - June 2, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Pain in Platin-Induced Neuropathies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionPeripheral neuropathy is a common complication in patients receiving platins and can be particularly painful. There is significant heterogeneity among studies regarding the method for diagnosing peripheral neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies are the gold standard and should be performed in patients receiving platins and complaining of neuropathic symptoms post-treatment. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - June 1, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

A Review of the Opioid Epidemic: What Do We Do About It?
AbstractThe opioid epidemic, with its noticeable increase in opioid prescriptions and related misuse, abuse and resultant deaths in the previous 12  years, is a particularly North American phenomenon. Europe, and particularly low- and middle-income countries, appear to be less influenced by this problem. There is undisputable value in using opioids not only in the treatment of acute pain, but in cancer pain as well. However, opioids are prog ressively being prescribed more and more for chronic non-cancer pain, despite inadequate data on their efficacy. In this paper, we describe the current prevalence of opioid misuse...
Source: Pain and Therapy - June 1, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Tapentadol Extended Release in the Treatment of Severe Chronic Low Back Pain and Osteoarthritis Pain
AbstractTapentadol is a novel pain reliever with apparently synergistic dual mechanisms of action, capable of addressing both nociceptive and neuropathic components of chronic pain. As an effective analgesic with good tolerability, tapentadol may be appropriate for patients suffering from severe chronic pain associated with low back pain (LBP) or osteoarthritis (OA). Efficacy studies of tapentadol in populations of patients with severe chronic LBP or OA pain suggest that tapentadol is non-inferior to oxycodone. Its tolerability, especially with respect to gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, may be better than that of other...
Source: Pain and Therapy - June 1, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Psychometric and Linguistic Properties of the Italian Adolescent Pain Assessment Scales: A Systematic Review
ConclusionValid and reliable psychometric tools specifically organized to provide a cultural and linguistic evaluation of the patient are indeed the most recommended instruments to assess the intensity of the pain experienced by the patient, as they may provide useful information to implement a health policy aimed at identifying the best assistance programs. (Source: Pain and Therapy)
Source: Pain and Therapy - June 1, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

A Pharmacological Rationale to Reduce the Incidence of Opioid Induced Tolerance and Hyperalgesia: A Review
AbstractChronic pain is an important health and social problem. Misuse and abuse of opioids in chronic non-cancer pain management seem to be a huge problem, in some countries. This could probably affect the normal use of such analgesics in patients in need of them. Basic and clinical researches should find the solution to mitigate the potential damage. Dysregulation of mast cell and microglia activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis and management of chronic pain. Persistent mast cell activation sensitizes nociceptors and initiates central nervous system inflammatory processes, involving microglial cell activ...
Source: Pain and Therapy - June 1, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Pain Agreements and Healthcare Utilization in a Veterans Affairs Primary Care Population: A Retrospective Chart Review
AbstractIntroductionThe prevalence of chronic pain is enormous. In America, the management of chronic pain and opioids remains a critical focus. Guidelines recommend pain agreements as part of the management of chronic pain and opioids; however, evidence of improvement in patient outcomes is lacking. An aspect of patient outcome includes utilization of healthcare resources, such as emergency department visits and hospitalizations. It remains uncertain whether the use of pain agreements lessens healthcare utilization.MethodsRetrospective chart review of a Midwest Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. Subjects were veterans ...
Source: Pain and Therapy - June 1, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

A Brief History of the Opioid Epidemic and Strategies for Pain Medicine
This article summarizes the history of opioid use and explores the causes for the present day epidemic. Recent trends in opioid-related data demonstrate an almost fourfold increase in overdose deaths from 1999 to 2008. Tragically, opioids claimed over 64,000 lives just last year. Some solutions have undergone legislation, including the limitation of numbers of opioids postsurgery, as well as growing national prevalence of enhanced recovery after surgery protocols which focus on reduced postoperative opioid consumption and shortened hospital stays. Stricter prescribing practices and prescription monitoring programs have bee...
Source: Pain and Therapy - June 1, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research