Pharmacological, non-pharmacological and stem cell therapies for the management of autism spectrum disorders: a focus on human studies

Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Francesca Pistollato, Tamara Yuliett Forbes-Hernández, Ruben Calderón Iglesias, Roberto Ruiz, Maria Elexpuru, Danila Cianciosi, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio BattinoAbstractIn the last decade, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has dramatically escalated worldwide. Currently available drugs mainly target some co-occurring symptoms of ASD, but are not effective on the core symptoms, namely impairments in communication and social interaction, and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors. On the other hand, transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells in ASD children has been shown promising to stimulate the recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation of tissue-residing native stem cells, reducing inflammation, and improving some ASD symptoms. Moreover, several comorbidities have also been associated with ASD, such as immune dysregulation, gastrointestinal issues and gut microbiota dysbiosis. Non-pharmacological approaches, such as dietary supplementations with certain vitamins, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, probiotics, some phytochemicals (e.g., luteolin and sulforaphane), or overall diet interventions (e.g., gluten free and casein free diets) have been considered for the reduction of such comorbidities and the management of ASD. Here, interventional studies describing pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments i...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Intrathecal autologous bone marrow (ABM) total nucleated cells transplantation (TNCT) has been reported to be a promising treatment for cerebral palsy (CP) and autistic disorders (AD). Children with CP and AD, are expected to be patients with difficult approach when doing venipuncture or taking them to the operating room. Considering pain and the nature of the procedures, bone marrow collection (BMC) and intrathecal procedures (ITP) must be performed under sedation. For short procedures, sevoflurane can be administrated using a face mask and, propofol, a typical intravenous agent is used for the induction of general anesth...
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 419 Source Type: research
This study shows that CA are released from periventricular and subpial regions to the cerebrospinal fluid and are present in the cervical lymph nodes, into which cerebrospinal fluid drains through the meningeal lymphatic system. We also show that CA can be phagocytosed by macrophages. We conclude that CA can act as containers that remove waste products from the brain and may be involved in a mechanism that cleans the brain. Moreover, we postulate that CA may contribute in some autoimmune brain diseases, exporting brain substances that interact with the immune system, and hypothesize that CA may contain brain markers that m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Purpose of review Administration of fecal material into the gastrointestinal tract, termed fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), is increasingly recognized as an effective treatment option for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). The impact of FMT on host microbial communities and subsequent disease states has also been explored in recent years for conditions as varied as inflammatory bowel disease especially ulcerative colitis, metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and autism and autism spectrum disorders. The purpose of this arti...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Tags: GASTROENTEROLOGY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Bradley Barth Source Type: research
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interactions and communication and stereotypical patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities. Even wit...
Source: Stem Cell Research and Therapy - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
ConclusionWe have used MSC-exo via intranasal administration to treat both BTBR and shank3 KO mice. The behavioral effect seemed 3 weeks post the treatment.The behavioral amelioration was seen in all the core symptoms including social interaction, repetitive behaviors, and vocal communication.
Source: Cytotherapy - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, scientists screened cells from old animals to identify any RBPs that change upon aging. The screening showed that one particular protein, Pumilio2 (PUM2), was highly induced in old animals. PUM2 binds mRNA molecules containing specific recognition sites. Upon its binding, PUM2 represses the translation of the target mRNAs into proteins. Using a systems genetics approach, the researchers then identified a new mRNA target that PUM2 binds. The mRNA encodes for a protein called Mitochondrial Fission Factor (MFF), and is a pivotal regulator of mitochondrial fission - a process by which mitochondria break u...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractAutism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three core symptoms that include social interaction deficits, cognitive inflexibility, and communication disorders. They have been steadily increasing in children over the past several years, with no effective treatment. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice are an accepted model of evaluating autistic-like behaviors as they present all core symptoms of ASD. We have previously shown that transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to the lateral ventricles of BTBR mice results in long lasting improvement in their autistic beha...
Source: Molecular Autism - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2018Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Nickesha C. Anderson, Meghan A. Van Zandt, Swechhya Shrestha, Daniel B. Lawrence, Jyoti Gupta, Christopher Y. Chen, Felicia A. Harrsch, Trinithas Boyi, Carolyn E. Dundes, Gloster Aaron, Janice R. Naegele, Laura GrabelAbstractGABAergic interneuron dysfunction has been implicated in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), autism, and schizophrenia. Inhibitory interneuron progenitors transplanted into the hippocampus of rodents with TLE provide varying degrees of seizure suppression. We investigated whether human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived int...
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
When Nichelle Obar learned she was pregnant with her second child last year, she never expected that her pregnancy, or her baby, would make history. But when the 40-year-old food-and-beverage coordinator from Hawaii and her fiancé Christopher Constantino went to their 18-week ultrasound, they learned something was wrong. The heart was larger than it should have been, and there was evidence that fluid was starting to build up around the organ as well. Both were signs that the fetus was working extra hard to pump blood to its fast-growing body and that its heart was starting to fail. Obar’s doctor knew what coul...
Source: TIME: Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Uncategorized medicine Source Type: news
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