Effects of high-fat diet on sympathetic neurotransmission in mesenteric arteries from Dahl salt-sensitive rat

Obesity hypertension is driven sympathetic neurotransmission to the heart and blood vessels. We tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hypertension is driven by sympathetic neurotransmission to mesenteric arteries (MA) in male but not female Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl ss) rat. Rats were fed a control diet (CD; 10  kcal% from fat) or HFD (60 kcal% from fat) beginning at 3 weeks (wk) of age; measurements were made at 10-, 17- and 24-wk. Body weight increased with HFD, age and sex. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was higher in HFD versus CD rats from both sexes at 17- and 24-wk.
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Source Type: research

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The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) contribution to long-term setting of blood pressure (BP) and hence hypertension has been a continuing controversy over many decades. However, the contribution of increased sympathetic vasomotor tone to the heart, kidney, and blood vessels has been suggested as a major influence on the development of high BP which affects 30–40% of the population. This is relevant to hypertension associated with chronic stress, being overweight or obese as well to chronic kidney disease. Treatments that have attempted to block the peripheral aspects of the SNS contribution have included surgery to ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
AbstractConclusive evidence demonstrates that the sympathetic nervous system activation is a hallmark of congestive heart failure. This has been shown via a variety of biochemical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging approaches for studying human sympathetic neural function. The sympathetic activation appears to be an early phenomenon in the clinical course of the disease, closely related to its severity and potentiated by the concomitant presence of other comorbidities, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and renal failure. The adrenergic overdrive in heart failure is associated with oth...
Source: Heart Failure Reviews - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Abstract Increases in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) have been implicated in obesity-induced risk for cardiovascular diseases, especially hypertension. Previous studies indicate that oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key brainstem region that regulates sympathetic outflow to peripheral tissues, plays a pathogenic role in obesity-mediated sympathoexcitation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not clear. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory genes an...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
In conclusion, HFD-induced hypertension is not driven by increased sympathetic neurotransmission to MA in male and female Dahl ss rats. PMID: 31731103 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
In conclusion, chronic treatment with NaHS and L-Cys are effective in reducing adipose tissue and ameliorating the cardiovascular changes induced by obesity; meanwhile, DL-PAG ameliorates metabolic variables. PMID: 31568786 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research
This article reviews the literature on CAN in obesity, pre-DM and MetS, to help determine a rationale for screening, early intervention treatment and formulate future resear ch questions in this highly prevalent condition.
Source: Diabetes Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ub NL Abstract Perivascular adipocytes residing in the vascular adventitia are recognized as distinct endocrine cells capable of responding to inflammatory stimuli and communicating with the sympathetic nervous system and adjacent blood vessel cells, thereby releasing adipocytokines and other signaling mediators to maintain vascular homeostasis. Perivascular adipocytes exhibit phenotypic heterogeneity (both white and brown adipocytes) and become dysfunctional in conditions, such as diet-induced obesity, thus promoting vascular inflammation, vasoconstriction, and smooth muscle cell proliferation to potentially cont...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research
In conclusion, in the absence of obesity, visceral adipose tissue possesses a pronounced anti-inflammatory phenotype during aging which is further enhanced by exercise. Methods of Inducing Cellular Damage are Rarely Relevant to Aging, and the Details Matter https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/08/methods-of-inducing-cellular-damage-are-rarely-relevant-to-aging-and-the-details-matter/ One of the major challenges in aging research is determining whether or not models of cellular or organismal damage and its consequences are in any way relevant to the natural processes of aging. One can hit a brick with...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Regular physical activity is a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to its positive effects in reducing several cardiovascular risk factors. Current guidelines on CVD suggest for healthy adults to perform at least 150 min/week of moderate intensity or 75 min/week of vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity. The current review explores the effects of physical activity on some risk factors, specifically: diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and hyperuricemia. Physical activity induces an improvement in insulin sensitivity and in glucose control independently ...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Tags: Reviews Source Type: research
Discussion Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare disorder. It is usually considered an autosomal recessive disorder but there is significant intra-familial variability. There are multiple genes (~20 currently) involved and it is believed that the phenotypic variability is due to “…differences in the total mutational load across different BBS associated genes….” It is a ciliopathy where mutation changes in proteins in the cilias causes problems in the cilia’s functioning particularly signaling. Cilia are important in signaling to maintain tissue and cellular homeostasis. Obviously screening o...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
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