Influenza A virus and related secondary bacterial infections

Influenza infection is considered to be a serious respiratory disease in human. Annually, epidemics or even pandemics give rise to the frequent antigenetic variations of virus surface receptors, throughout the world. Bacterial infections followed by influenza are the biggest medical concerns associated with elevated mortality rates. These high morbidity and mortality rates, have become a priority in terms of health. Likewise, economic aspects of the issue have special importance also. In the present study, several articles have been investigated with regards to main key words including influenza A, secondary bacterial infections and pandemics. Then, attempts have been made to summarize the information in concise figures (was graphically visualized) and tables in addition to main literature. Until this date, a number of influenza pandemics have taken place with varying morbidity and mortality rates because of secondary bacterial infections followed by influenza. However, the 1918 pandemic had the highest death rate recorded. According to investigative studies, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common isolated bacteria in patients with secondary infections. Other bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenza, Streptococcus pyogenes, and to a lesser degree Legionella spp., are involved in these infections as well. Currently, it is known that various protease enzymes intensify the influenza virus infectivity. Another important aspect of influenza occurs i...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

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Passive measles immunity waned quickly, and most infants were no longer protected from measles by age 3 months, a study found; US experts say the age of vaccination should remain the same.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Pulmonary Medicine Headlines - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news
Re: Musings on malaria morbidity and mortality after the new Mosquirix® vaccine. Ghana Med J. 2019 Sep;53(3):252-253 Authors: Asante KP, Malm K, Darko DM, Koram KA PMID: 31741498 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Ghana Medical Journal - Category: African Health Tags: Ghana Med J Source Type: research
[This Day] To further demonstrate commitment of Canadian government to the fight against polio virus and strengthen routine immunisation (RI), the Director General West and Central African Bureau, Global Affairs Canada, Mr Tarik Khan, joined the Niger State Primary Healthcare Development Agency (SPHCDA) and WHO staff during the polio house-to-house vaccination exercise recently.
Source: AllAfrica News: Polio - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Materials Science and Engineering: CAuthor(s): P. Maheswari, S. Harish, M. Navaneethan, C. Muthamizhchelvan, S. Ponnusamy, Y. HayakawaAbstractTitanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit good anticancer and antibacterial activities. They are known to be environmentally friendly and stable, less toxic and excellent biocompatibility nature. Due to these properties, they are well suited for biological applications particularly in biomedical applications such as drug delivery and cancer therapy. In this paper Pure TiO2 nanoparticles modified with Withania somnifera (Ashwagan...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Authors: Katsi V, Antoniou CK, Manolakou P, Toutouzas K, Tousoulis D Abstract Evidence suggests a crucial role for vaccines in cardiovascular disease, mediated not only by disease prevention but also by immunomodulatory effects. In the present review, it will be attempted to briefly present the effects of pathogens and vaccines on the cardiovascular system, as well as potential mechanisms for development of vaccines against cardiovascular disease per se. Current epidemiological evidence regarding vaccine effectiveness in different categories of heart disease will be discussed, as well as current international guide...
Source: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Tags: Hellenic J Cardiol Source Type: research
This study was carried out to assess post-vaccination herd immunity against PPR and inter-vaccination population turnover in small ruminant flocks in Metema district, Northwest Ethiopia where frequent PPR outbreaks occur despite regular vaccination. A total of 412 serum samples were collected from selected small ruminants in 72 flocks (average flock size of 33.4 and standard deviation of 30) above three months of age in three kebeles immediately before a vaccination program. One month after the vaccination using freeze dried live attenuated vaccine, 359 serum samples were collected from randomly selected small ruminants in...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors leading to the development of clinical CMS, using data provided from the salmon producers. Daily production data from individual fishgroups in more than 120 salmon farms along the coast of Norway from fish put to sea in 2012-2014 was collected. The data included cause-specific mortalities, which was used to identify outbreaks of CMS and risk factors for disease.A model for describing the daily probability of outbreak of CMS in each fishgroup was developed. The model was run to find the most likely value for each of the parameters, given the observed outbreak d...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Adam Blackman says he "learned the hard way" why it is so important to be vaccinated against flu.
Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Saudi Journal of Biological SciencesAuthor(s): Ahmed Esmael, Mervat G. Hassan, Mahmoud M. Amer, Soheir Abdelrahman, Ahmed M. Hamed, Hagar A. Abd-raboh, Mohamed F. FodaAbstractThe unceasing emerging of multidrug-resistant bacteria imposes a global foremost human health threat and discovery of new alternative remedies are necessity. The use of plant essential oil in the treatment of many pathogenic bacteria is promising. Acne vulgaris is the most common skin complaint that fears many people about their aesthetic appearance. In this work we investigated the antibacter...
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Zhimin Chen, Kaihui Liu, Xiuxiang Liu, Yijun LouAbstractThe control strategies of emergency infectious diseases are constrained by limited medical resources. The fractional dose vaccination strategy as one of feasible strategies was proposed in response to global shortages of vaccine stockpiles. Although a variety of epidemic models have been developed under the circumstances of limited resources in treatment, few models particularly investigated vaccination strategies in resource-limited settings. In this paper, we develop ...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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