New Books related to Medical Microbiology
No abstract available (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BOOK REVIEW Source Type: research

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence and mortality of metallo-beta-lactamases in Iranian patients infected with metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Background and adjective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with morality and healthcare associated infections. P. aeruginosa producing metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) genes causing more problems especially in patients with underlying immunosuppressive background. The aim of this study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of MBLs in P. aeruginosa in Iranian patients. Search method: All available national and international databanks (PubMed, Science Direct and pages web address) were searched to find published studies from 2006 to March 2018. Quality of studies was assessed by STROBE. Because of t...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Photodynamic therapy of infection in burn patients
Burns are one of the very ordinary and destructive forms of trauma. Patients with significant thermal injury require urgent specialized care for minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered over 100 years ago by observing the killing of microorganisms when harmless dyes and visible light were combined in vitro. Since then it has primarily been developed as a treatment for cancer, ophthalmologic disorders and in dermatology. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

The immunomodulatory and antiallergic effects of human colonized probiotics
The rate of allergy is increasing particularly among infants due to several factors reaching up to 30%. Several materials components have been implicated in the development and excessive activation of the immune system, acting as irritants and allergic agents. In several studies, in Mediterranean inhabitants with a specific diet, the prevalence of allergies in children was low, whereas dietary supplements in the Western and Mediterranean countries had a different role in the regulation of immune responses and in the reduction of allergic reactions. Probiotics have been associated with reduction of allergic reactions mostly...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Genotyping and diversity of virulence genes among Shigella sonnei isolated from children with diarrhoea
In this study, 3540 stool specimens were obtained from children with diarrhoea in Tehran, Iran, from September 2016 through January 2018. PCR assays were performed to evaluate the presence of virulence genes among S. sonnei strains. The genetic relatedness of these strains was also assessed by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). A total of 50 S. sonnei strains were obtained, all of which harboured ipaH, sigA, and virA, whereas ial, invE, and sen were positive in 70% (n = 35), 62% (n = 31), and 54% (n = 27) of the strains, respectively. None of the S. sonnei strains carried set1A...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Investigating the presence of qacA/B and mecA genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from metro stations in Tehran city of Iran
Conclusion: In this study, there was a close relationship between resistance to methicillin and resistance to QACs in S. aureus isolated from metro stations. It has also been shown that these isolates carry antibiotic resistance genes and are resistant to most common antibiotics used to eradicate these bacteria, such as third-generation cephalosporins, methicillin, and oxacillin, which are considered as serious warning to society. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Influenza A virus and related secondary bacterial infections
Influenza infection is considered to be a serious respiratory disease in human. Annually, epidemics or even pandemics give rise to the frequent antigenetic variations of virus surface receptors, throughout the world. Bacterial infections followed by influenza are the biggest medical concerns associated with elevated mortality rates. These high morbidity and mortality rates, have become a priority in terms of health. Likewise, economic aspects of the issue have special importance also. In the present study, several articles have been investigated with regards to main key words including influenza A, secondary bacterial inf...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

Swine flu a seasonal pandemic, symptoms, diagnostics and prevention
H1N1 often is cause of annual epidemics in world particularly during winters and is a seasonal pandemic that has been a cause of many deaths. The display of various strains of H1N1 always creates confrontation to public health and the scientific communities. The key behind the repeated epidemics is the transformation of the viruses to escape the immunity that is induced by former infection or vaccination. The pandemic was declared, by the WHO, as officially over in August 2010. The H1N1 virus has become a regular flu virus which occurs seasonally, and causes outbreaks in many areas of the world. This mini review discusses ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

Development of a combined CMV-UL97 C592F and CMV-UL54 T503I resistance mutation during ganciclovir treatment in a kidney transplant recipient
In CMV high-risk kidney transplant recipients (KTR), recommended antiviral human cytomegalovirus (CMV) treatment can lead to nephrotoxicity and antiviral resistance. In this case report, we report the development of a combined CMV-UL97 C592F and CMV UL54 T503I resistance mutation in a high-risk KTR most probably linked to the previous treatment with valganciclovir (valGCV) and ganciclovir (GCV). Routine CMV screening, in addition with testing of CMV immunity and applied stewardship programs for ganciclovir might have been helpful in preventing the development of these mutations in this patient. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

The reemergence of glanders as a zoonotic and occupational infection in Iran and neighboring countries
Glanders is a zoonotic infection, and because of recent outbreaks among Equidae family, the possibility of its reemergence among human populations is a crisis. The causative agent is Burkholderia mallei, a Gram-negative, aerobic and highly contagious bacterium causing severe impacts with low infectious dose transmitted via direct contact to respiratory secretions, skin exudates of animals and fomite. Despite high mortality rate, no proper vaccination has been developed to hinder the infection spread. The disease is more prevalent in Australia and Southeast Asia, but has been eradicated in developed countries. Glanders&rsqu...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Nanobody and aptamer as targeting moiety against bacterial toxins: therapeutic and diagnostic applications
Infectious diseases are common life-threatening problems mediated by pathogen micro-organisms that cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, there is an increasing rate of the bacterial infections and emergence of the new antibiotic resistance in human societies. On the other hand, early detection of the bacterial infection present in biological samples suffers from extended time, high cost, and laborious methods. Therefore, there is a permanent need for robust diagnostic and therapeutic tools against bacterial agents. Recently, specific targeting bio-molecules, such as aptamer and nanobody have been appeared as ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

The grape seed extract: a natural antimicrobial agent against different pathogens
This study is an updated overview of the antimicrobial effect of GSE against different pathogens. The available reports from various studies retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases regarding the antimicrobial effect of GSE was evaluated. The GSE is rich sources of phenolic compounds. GSE can inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria depended on its concentrations, phenolic content, and tested bacterial species. The GSE is more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. It has also been shown to have inhibitory effects against several cl...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Immunostimulatory and antibacterial activity of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and its purified exopolysaccharide against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Burkholderia cepacia
This study was aimed to extract, purified, and characterize the EPS from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. Cremoris and to evaluate the immunostimulatory and antibacterial activities of EPS against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Burkholderia cepacia strains. Nine EPSs producing L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strains were isolated from local dairy products and the isolated bacteria were identified by using API 50. Eight B. cepacia strains were isolated from different specimens in the hospitals of Medical city, Baghdad. Furthermore, genotypic and phenotypic detection of antibiotic resistance were determin...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Differentiation of Brucella species by repetitive element palindromic PCR
Brucellosis is one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases among animals and humans. It is a well known fact that the differentiation and rapid typing of Brucella spp. is crucial for the early detection of infection, prevention of infection progress, and/or introducing treatment solutions. Analyzing the sequences could be an effective method in achieving these purposes. The aim of this study was to analyze palindromic sequences for Brucella spp., differentiation using the rep-PCR method. The authors collected 80 animal samples, which were suspected to brucellosis infection. After the cultivation of Brucella, identification...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Comparative study of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in vaginal tract of individual with bacterial vaginosis and healthy control by quantitative PCR
Conclusion: The current study promotes our understanding about the vaginal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. among patients and healthy individuals in Iran. Confirming the link between the frequency of lactobacilli and bacterial vaginosis could help us develop new prebiotics and probiotics for this disorder. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Resistance-related determinants in clinically relevant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from teaching therapeutic centers, Tehran, Iran
Conclusion: The frequency of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates in our hospitals was high and disk diffusion testing using FOX or oxacillin and/or FOX minimal inhibitory concentration E test as an alternative to PCR for identification of methicillin-resistant S. aureus is suggested. This study highlights the hypothesis that rapid testing plays an important role in antibiotic stewardship by getting patients on targeted therapy faster. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Expression of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes among Escherichia coli clinical isolates from blood and stool samples
Conclusion: The results exhibited that the expression of virulence genes among clinical isolates of E. coli is not the same or similar in various conditions or from various clinical origins. Thus determining the profile of gene expression in each of clinical situations can be helpful in tracking the infectious pathogens. ESBL-producing strains possibly have regulatory factors for inducing higher virulence gene expression. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Cranial aspergillosis in immunocompetent patient: a case report
In this report, a 44-year-old man with no history of recent surgery or immunodeficiency had an episode of falling. A cranial mass close to the cerebrum revealed to be as aspergillosis abscess throughout the operation. This case is showing the significance of assuming a cranial mass as aspergilloma in the differential diagnosis. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: MYCOLOGY Source Type: research

Gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric platform technology as rapid and efficient bacterial pathogens detection method from various sources
Rapid, sensitive, and reliable bacterial pathogens detection is a chief requirement. The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have numerous applications such as in the detection of biomolecules for their high surface to volume ratio and unique optical property facilitating development of highly efficient AuNPs-based bio-sensing tools. Although various molecular detection methods, such as PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification are sensitive and convenient, these techniques need elaborate work and require special skills to increase their specificity. Smartly fabricated gold nanoparticle (GNPs) play a role as pr...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: METHODS Source Type: research

Polymorphism of IL-12 gene (rs568408G/A) and susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the central area of Iran
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related chronicity infection, which is determined by inflammation, is the main etiological factor for this disease. Cytokines are a group of endogenous proteins which have a key role in regulating the inflammatory responses and defeating infectious diseases. IL-12 plays a main role in the clearance of infections especially by viruses such as HBV. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and genetic history have an important role about the level and function of cytokines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of IL-12A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs568408 G/A) with chronic HBV ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

Inhibitory effects of curcumin on sequel of infections and their signaling pathways: a review
This study reviewed the inhibitory effects of curcumin on infections. Based on these studies, the plant drug of curcumin is a therapeutic effective agent for the advancement of treatment against the types of pathogens including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Nevertheless, it seems that be essential for more researches, especially about parasites and fungi that have been performed fewer studies about the effect of curcumin on them. Curcumin exerts its effects on sequel of infections and their agents via influence on signaling pathways, cell cycle, drug synergism, inducing apoptosis and inhibition of virulence fact...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: ANTIBIOTICS Source Type: research

First occurrence of pediatric urinary tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a teaching hospital in Tunisia
We report here two cases of urinary tract infections occurred in pediatrics patients with vesicoureteral reflux and renal stones. It becomes essential to consider pneumococcal UTI in the presence of clinical signs and symptoms associated co-existing predisposing factors. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates in Tehran, Iran
Conclusion: Our study demonstrated presence of high molecular diversity among S. epidermidis isolates. In addition, the main conclusion was that some MLVA types can be disseminated over the wards and between the hospitals. In other hand, resistance to various antibiotics in S. epidermidis isolates and prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis and multidrug resistant S. epidermidis isolates to be increasing. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Multiple carbapenemase gene production by Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from burn patients in Iran
Conclusion: A high level of class D and class B carbapenemases among A. baumannii strains in the burn settings is a crisis in the eradication of infections caused by MDR, XDR and PDR strains. Therefore, the uncontrolled consumption of last-line antibiotics should be restricted and infection control strategies must be implemented accurately. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Akkermansia muciniphila bacteria: a new perspective on the management of obesity: an updated review
Conclusion: A. muciniphila supplementation and the use of other approaches such as prebiotics or food components that increase the abundance of this bacterium in the gut microbiota population could be a novel valuable approach in the management of obesity. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Multilocus sequence typing and antibiotic resistant patterns of the meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from different clinical specimens
Conclusion: ST238 strains, which were previously not found as MRSA, could now widely distribute in Iranian population. In addition, the resistance rate of MRSA strains against multiple classes of antibiotics should be considered when selecting empirical antibiotics for MRSA infections in Iran. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

An overview of tetracyclines and related resistance mechanisms
Tetracyclines are one of the most well known antimicrobial agents. These are often prescribed against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. The latest studies indicate that the resistance to tetracyclines is rising throughout the world. The aim of this study was to find out more about the reasons behind bacterial resistance to tetracycline. We performed a selective literature search by studying several articles which mentioned tetracyclines and their resistance mechanisms in various bacteria. We found that a rise in antibiotic resistance to tetracyclines is alarming. The most important mechanisms are ribosomal protect...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Export pathways and mechanisms in secretion of proteins among bacterial pathogens
A large population of bacteria represents one of the common and widely distributed pathogens affecting cultivated animals and humans, in general. Protein secretion is a crucial aspect of bacterial life processes, which is important not only for pathogenesis but also for their virulence. The current review attempts to provide a concise overview of the secretory systems operating in bacteria (T1SS–T9SS), basic organizations of the systems, the molecules secreted by them and the functions achieved thereafter. In addition, the scope extends to understanding the role of secretory proteins in pathogenesis. (Source: Reviews...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Direct detection, capsular typing and β-lactamase resistance genes in Haemophilus influenzae isolated from sinusitis samples
Conclusion: Our data suggest that the conventional PCR can help increase detection rates of bacterial cause of sinusitis and resistance genes in clinical samples for effective treatment in individual sensitive to invasive infection. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Overview development and applications of CRISPR-Cas systems after a decade of research with a glance at anti-CRISPR proteins
CRISPR and its associated proteins that are called, the CRISPR-Cas systems, confers adaptive immunity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and also most archaea. Unlike the restriction modification system that provides a defense against any foreign DNA lacking a protective methyl-tag in the target site, the CRISPR-Cas systems are invader-specific, adaptive, and heritable. This immunity is gained by integrating short fragments of foreign DNA into CRISPR loci. CRISPR-derived transcripts assemble with Cas proteins to target similar foreign nucleic acids for degradation. Moreover, in recent years investigation of anti-CR...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Virulence factors genotyping of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates from Baghdad
Seventy of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates had been collected from some Hospitals in Baghdad city from October to December 2017. The 70 isolates were taken from diverse clinical specimens. All K. pneumoniae isolates were identified based on API 20 E and Vitek2 compact system. Antibiotics sensitivity test was carried out toward 10 antibiotics using discs diffusion method. The level of antibiotics resistance was 81.42% for Ceftriaxone, whereas the low level of antibiotics resistance was 37.14% for Piperacillin. K. pneumoniae isolates were typed genotypically by using two different methods of amplification, multiplex-PCR and e...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Anticariogenic and antibiofilm of purified bacteriocin of Lactobacillus curvatus and immunomodulatory effect of L. curvatus in streptococcal bacteremia
The objective of this study was purification and characterization of curvatcin LHM from Lactobacillus curvatus, evaluation of its antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis and evaluation the effect of minimum inhibitory concentration of curvatcin LHM and chlorohexidine on biofilm formation as well as, study the effect of L. curvatus as immunomodulator. Curvatcin LHM was isolated and purified from L. curvatus culture. Purified and crude curvatcin LHM exhibited bactericidal action against S. mutans and S. sanguinis isolates in vitro. Significant differences (P  (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

The relationship between inflammatory markers extracted from complete blood count and active pulmonary tuberculosis
Conclusion: RPR is a novel useful inflammatory marker easily done and calculated from a routine CBC report which can be used as a supportive available markers to help the management of patients suffering from active PTB. The inclusion of RPR in all CBC reports is recommended. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

The diabetes pandemic and associated infections: suggestions for clinical microbiology
There are 425 million people with diabetes mellitus in the world. By 2045, this figure will grow to over 600 million. Diabetes mellitus is classified among noncommunicable diseases. Evidence points to a key role of microbes in diabetes mellitus, both as infectious agents associated with the diabetic status and as possible causative factors of diabetes mellitus. This review takes into account the different forms of diabetes mellitus, the genetic determinants that predispose to type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (especially those with possible immunologic impact), the immune dysfunctions that have been documented in diabete...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

Mayo Clinic Antimicrobial Therapy Quick Guide by John W. Wilson and Lynn L. Estes (Editors), ISBN 9780190696924
No abstract available (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of some medicinal plants against multidrug resistance pathogens
Medicinal plants are traditionally used for the treatment of human infections. The aim of the current study was to evaluate antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities; the crude of hexane, methanol and chloroform extracts from the leaves of Catharanthus roseus, Bixa orellana, Azadirachta indica and Dracaena sanderiana was assayed against two fungi and four bacteria using broth microdilution method and MTT assay. The methanol leaf extracts of B. orellana showed a significant activity against Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentrations 5...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Silymarin and curcumin effects on virulence and carbapenemase genes among multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolates
Objective : Silymarin and curcumin antimicrobial properties have been previously described against some infectious agents. The aims of the current study were the investigation of the antibacterial effects of these compounds on the expression of fimA, cdt, blaIMP1 and blaOXA-48 and AcrAB-TolC genes among multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolates. Methods : A total of five carbapenemase-producing E. coli strains were included. All of them carried blaIMP1 and blaOXA-48, ACR-AB, cdt, fimA and QepA genes. The antibiotic susceptibility test, imipenem, cefotaxime and ceftazidime minimum inhibitory concentration ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Carbapenem and colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: worldwide spread and future perspectives
Carbapenems and colistin antibiotics are the major weapons against multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacea, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter koseri, Serratia spp., Morganella morganii and Salmonella spp. have been reported as carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae members. Carbapenem resistance mostly occurs by means of some enzymes such as classes A, B and D carbapenemases. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases, K. pneumoniae carbapenemase, imipenemase metallo-β-lactamase, V...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Drug resistance of clinical and environmental isolates of Brucella species in Iran: a meta-analysis
Conclusion: Our study revealed that the prevalence of drug resistance of Brucella species isolated from clinical and environmental samples in Iran was acceptable and low. However, care should be exercised in the use of common antibiotics for the treatment of brucellosis to prevent the spread of drug resistance. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Urinary tract infections: raising problem in developing countries
Urinary tract infections are the most common infections worldwide, which can involve the urethra, bladder and kidney and are caused by Gram-negative bacteria, followed by Gram-positive bacteria or fungi. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species are the most common uropathogens. Misuse of antibiotics and passage of resistance genes between uropathogens play main role in increasing drug resistance. Increase of multidrug resistance and emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among uropathogens are concerned worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance patterns vary from time-to-time and across different regions. Hence, treatment...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Probiotics and their increasing importance in human health and infection control
Probiotics include a group of microorganisms with numerous effects acting as normal flora and masking binding sites of pathogens and inhibition of their colonization. Most common probiotic species include Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacilli and Saccharomyces boulardii. Some other beneficial properties of probiotics include cancer prevention, reduction of blood cholesterol and its absorption from the intestine (by bile digestion), stimulation and strengthen of the immune system, treatment and prevention of acute diarrhea, reducing inflammation in the intestines, and food allergies or eczema in children, improving the symptom...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Sterilization procedures for CO2 incubators
Cell culture methods are utilized ubiquitously in science and pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Sterility is one crucial factor for maintenance of cells and creation of valid data from experiments. As cells are usually cultured in CO2 incubators, those are one bottleneck in terms of sterility in a cell culture lab. This review gives an overview on the different sterilization procedures for CO2 incubators on the market with emphasize to considerations from a practical point of view. It compares sterilization by dry heat, steam, gas and ultraviolet radiation in terms of validity and practicability in accordance with int...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Hospital Hygiene Source Type: research

Immunogenicity of a Brucella abortus 55-kDa recombinant surface protein conjugated with detoxified lipopolysaccharide in black and albino type C mouse model
Conclusion: The conjugation of BC55 + dLPS induced responses significantly higher than each of the dLPS, PBS, and BC55 protein components. In addition, the dLPS + BC55 conjugate not only had efficient results in the induction of immune responses as a new vaccination strategy, it (also) can reduce the number of B. abortus in spleen. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

A multiplex real-time PCR technique for simultaneous detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae among asymptomatic pregnant women
Conclusion: The real-time PCR was the most advantageous method due to its higher sensitivity and specificity and rapidity in results, especially among asymptomatic patients. L. monocytogenes and S. agalactiae infections need to be diagnosed rapidly because of complications occurred among infants and asymptomatic pregnant women. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization and sequence analysis of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Babylon Province, Iraq
The current study was aimed to detect qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD and qnrS genes in quinolone-resistance extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates that recovered from patients with urinary tract infection in Babylon Province, Iraq. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) was regarded as the most important causative agent of urinary tract infections. Fluoroquinolones are regularly used in the management of these infections; on the other hand, in recent years, an increasing rate of quinolone resistance has been stated globally. Clinical isolates of UPEC were collected from patients with infection of urinar...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Evaluation of probiotic potentials of Lactobacillus isolated from traditional fermented foods of Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India
The current study deals with isolation of Lactobacillus species from naturally fermented foods of Garo Hills region of Meghalaya and to characterize the selected isolates for exploring their probiotic potentials. Out of eight selected isolates, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (K4E) and Lactobacillus helveticus (K14) were found to tolerate pH 2 and pH 3 for 1.5 and 3 h. Lactobacillus fermentum (K16) could survive efficiently at 0.5% bile salts after 1.5 and 3 h and reduced cholesterol efficiently (60.64%) as compared with the other isolates. The isolates K4E and L. fermentum (K7) exhibited the highest cell surface hydrophobicit...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Transmission and colonization of Streptococcus mutans in children
The present article aims to review the current knowledge about acquisition, transmission and colonization of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), especially in children. S. mutans is the primary species associated with the development of dental caries in children. Various serological strains of this bacteria have been identified. A recently discovered strain, serotype k, of S. mutans is strongly associated with causing systemic disease and endocarditis. Being transmitted primarily from the saliva of the mother, this bacterium colonizes the mouth of an infant as soon as the primary teeth erupt. There is an interplay of various...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Shadow of the third pandemic: a review of the epidemiology, microbiology, ecology, clinical features, molecular diagnosis and treatment of plague
Yersinia pestis has caused three plague pandemics. The third pandemic created a legacy of disease in 16 countries with The Democratic Republic of Congo and Madagascar most affected. Phylogenetically, Y. pestis gained pathogenicity and the ability to spread via fleas due to the acquisition of plasmids Pst and Fra. Recently, contaminated soil has been implicated as an additional transmission route. In well resourced settings, plague diagnosis was transformed in the 2000s by PCR and ELISA. More recently, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight has enabled species identification within 6 min. However, thes...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Clostridium difficile infection: a review
Clostridium difficile, as one of the main bacterial causes of diarrhea, is an important healthcare-associated pathogen. It is also the main causative agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The C. difficile infection is a life threatening disease, and there is an urgent need to control its spread in healthcare centers. This review summarizes the most recent work on epidemiology and interactions between host and C. difficile. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 29, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

“The Politics of Fear” - Médecins Sans Frontières and the West African Ebola Epidemic
No abstract available (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research