A review on an ongoing pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: the pathogenesis, epidemiology, immunological features, and currently available diagnostic tests
Some cases of pneumonia with indefinite origin were primarily described in late 2019 in China. The WHO termed the new virus as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and its disease as the coronavirus disease 2019. Currently, the main public health concern is prevention from infection and control of mortality. However, despite considerable efforts to control the infection, it became as a pandemic. Although there are still numerous unknowns about this virus, in this review, we will discuss the most recent evidence about the current status of epidemiologic and immunologic features as well as currently available ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: FOCUS ON COVID-19 Source Type: research

Guillain–Barre syndrome: a prevalent autoimmune disease during the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic
Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS), the most frequent cause of acute paralytic neuropathy, is an inflammatory polyneuropathy that is autoimmune in nature. Many infectious agents such as Campylobacter jejuni (the most commonly identified bacteria associated with GBS), cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus, measles virus, influenza A virus, and Mycoplasma pneumonia, as well as enterovirus D68 and Zika virus and noninfectious agents such as vaccines and surgeries have been reported to trigger GBS. Three main variants of GBS include the classic acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), which is the most comm...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: FOCUS ON COVID-19 Source Type: research

Frequency of underlying diseases, symptoms and mortality rate of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
This study was conducted based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol. Eighteen studies were selected to be finally analyzed. The mean percentage of mortality was 14% (I2 = 98.9, P  (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: FOCUS ON COVID-19 Source Type: research

Genetic and structure of novel coronavirus COVID-19 and molecular mechanisms in the pathogenicity of coronaviruses
The recently identified 2019 novel coronaviruses (2019-nCoV) has caused extra-human infections. 2019-nCoV identified a global threat that is causing an outbreak of unusual viral pneumonia in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronaviruses 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Considering the relatively high identity of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV, it is urgent to assess the cross-reactivity of anti-SARS-CoV antibodies with 2019-nCoV spike protein, which could have important implications for rapid development of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies against 2019-nCoV. The zinc metallopeptidase a...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: FOCUS ON COVID-19 Source Type: research

The coronavirus disease 2019 and effect on liver function: a hidden and vital interaction beyond the respiratory system
This study reviews the liver's markers’ characteristics in patients with COVID-19 to achieve novel insights in improving clinical treatment. Liver disease and chronic kidney disease patients are susceptible to COVID-19. There is limited information about the effects of SARS-COV-2 on patients with preexisting liver associated disorders, including chronic hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, primary biliary cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and more are yet to be understood. By considering conducted studies in this manner since ACE2 receptors, which are the primary receptors for SRAS-CoV-2, exist on the l...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: FOCUS ON COVID-19 Source Type: research

Current drugs with potential for coronavirus disease 2019 therapy: a literature review
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared as a pandemic by the WHO on 2020 a novel disease with no confirmed and precise therapeutic agent. Lopinavir/ ritonavir has shown no benefit in 199 COVID-19 hospitalized adult patients compared with standard care alone. Remdesivir has shown promising results in the first case of COVID-19 in the USA, but recent reports were disappointing and still are under more investigation in clinical trials. The arbidol (Umifenovir) and Favipiravir act well in postexposure prophylaxis and viral clearance. Interferons in combination with other antiviral agents, if administered in the early ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: FOCUS ON COVID-19 Source Type: research

Role of dietary supplement in viral infection with an outlook on corona virus disease-2019
In conclusion, by examining the effect of micronutrients on the immune function, nutrition principles with vitamins, nutraceuticals and probiotics may be useful in possible prevention and management of viral infections and COVID-19. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

mcr-mediated colistin resistance in South America, a One Health approach: a review
Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global human health problems in the 21st century. The balance between clinical need and resistance prevention is further compromised by agricultural antibiotic use as some countries have actively used colistin in animal production. Antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms have been found in humans, food, animals, plants, and the environment (water, soil, and air), and they can move between ecosystems. The problem of antimicrobial resistance is currently seen in the concept: One Health. This approach encourages interdisciplinary collaborative efforts that wor...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Extragastric infection of Helicobacter pylori and alopecia areata: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Alopecia areata is an autoimmune cutaneous disease, and the involved mechanism in its pathogenesis has not yet been properly identified. Based on the available evidences, the prevalence of alopecia areata is more common than other autoimmune disorders that caused by Helicobacter pylori infection such as autoimmune thyroiditis, psoriasis, celiac, and Sjogren's syndrome. In addition, previous published reports have shown that antibiotic therapy can cure alopecia areata. Hence, it seems that there is a probable relationship between infection with H. pylori and alopecia areata. In general, the main purpose of this study was to...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 and molecular pathway to enter target cells during infection
This study sets out to shed light on the SARS-CoV-2 and the main entrance pathways into target cells. This is expected to help researchers and clinicians develop new methods to diagnose coronavirus infection in a timely and efficient manner. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

The role of gut microbiota in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is known as a functional gastrointestinal disorder that has different effects on the large intestine and caused malfunction of bowel and colon tissues, which leads to chronic diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, cramps, and bloating. Genetic pre determinants and environmental factors including; stress, age, diet, geographical features, use of antibiotics, and more importantly gut microbiota (GM) are implicated in the development of IBS. In the present review, by using free search engines providing biomedical and clinical literature (Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar) we have evalu...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Prevalence of Legionella pneumophila among patients suffering from pneumonia: a Middle East systematic review and meta-analysis
This study showed that the prevalence of L. pneumophila in clinical samples collected from patients was varied between 1.6 and 28.1%. The pooled prevalence of L. pneumophila in clinical samples was reported to 8.5%. Our systematic review and meta-analysis showed a considerable prevalence of L. pneumophila in countries located in the Middle East. Therefore, it should be considered in the identification of respiratory infections illness. It is also best to use both culture and molecular methods at the same time to diagnose the bacterium. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Bacterial and viral zoonotic infections: bugging the world
The zoonoses infectious diseases can be naturally transmitted between usually vertebrate animals and humans. The dispersion of zoonotic diseases varies greatly depending on geographical factors. For involved organisms in different regions, the severity and epidemiology are not considered to be the same for all infections. In the incidence procedure, animals and human act as an intermediate or final host. It is concluded that bacteria and viruses are the most widely known agents of zoonotic infections and cause a series of major diseases, such as anthrax, plague, brucellosis, rabies, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever, Z...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

A review of brucellosis in the Middle East and control of animal brucellosis in an Iranian experience
This study focuses on epidemiology human's and animal's brucellosis and disease control strategies. Test-and-slaughter technique and extensive livestock vaccination programs are used for eradication of brucellosis. Test-and-slaughter is a general policy in Middle Eastern countries to eradicate the disease. Under this program, the Rose Bengal plate test is used as a screening measure to identify the infected herd, whereas the complement fixation test is applied as a confirmatory test. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in 2015–2016 ranged between 7.2 and 18.1% in Kuwait and Jordan and ranged between 3 and 3.1% in Ir...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Can Helicobacter pylori serve as a trigger for oral lichen planus?
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic, inflammatory, T-cell-mediated autoimmune disorder that affects oral mucosa. OLP may be triggered by medications, particular foods, stress, and even pathogens. In this respect, numerous studies have addressed the potential association between OLP and different pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. Regarding the latter, some researchers attempted to link OLP to Helicobacter pylori infection. Indeed, the persistent survival of H. pylori within gastric mucosa provokes dysregulation of immune system and further development of autoimmunity in predisposed individuals. Contradictory results...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Clonal relatedness of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from the Middle East: a systematic review
This study showed that multidrug-resistant ST2Pas (belonging to CC2), ST195Ox, and ST208Ox (both belonging to CC92) have been repeatedly reported from numerous Middle Eastern countries. In the Pasteur scheme, blaVIM and blaIMP as carbapenmase genes have been mainly detected from Saudi Arabia. Moreover, blaOXA-58 encoding sequence types were from Turkey (ST2, ST109, and ST84) and Saudi Arabia (ST19, ST20, ST196, ST194). On the other hand, an analysis of the Oxford scheme revealed that there were five major clonal complexes, including CC218, CC109, CC99, CC236, and CC1151. Egyptian sequence types were the main producers of b...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Metallo-β-lactamase, extended spectrum β-lactamase and mcr-1 gene as major therapeutic challenges
Antibiotic resistance is a major problem worldwide. There are different types of resistance specially in Gram-negative bacteria. Emergence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella spp. is a main public health problem in the world. The β-lactamases are classified according to their functional similarities or molecular structures. There are two various families of β-lactamases that are found in bacteria. One of the causes of bacterial resistance is failure in treatment. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are associated with serine protease that are categorized in Amble...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Epidemiology of integrons among multidrug-resistant pathogens; an Asian update
Integrons are mobile genetic elements commonly found in the genome of bacteria, within plasmids, chromosomes, and transposons. They are recognized as important factors involved in genetic complexities, the formation of various phenotypes, and the emergence of bacterial adaptation. Integrons play a major role in capturing, expression, and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes and the resistance genes located on integrons can transmit from a strain to another one. Horizontal transmission of integrons is considered as the most important path of resistance genes transmission that leads to the emergence of multidrug resis...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Multifunctional dynamic toolbox: cordycepin plays a therapeutic role in various disorders
Cordyceps are edible medicinal mushrooms that contain therapeutic values and are used to treat various disorders in many parts of the world. There are two species of Cordyceps commonly used in traditional medicine, viz. Ophiocordyceps (Cordyceps) sinensis and Cordyceps militaris. Cordycepin is a purine nucleoside and a derivative of adenosine that is derived from these mushrooms and possesses multiple medicinal properties. These include immuno-booster, antioxidative, antitumour and antimicrobial properties. The present mini-review discusses the therapeutic role of cordycepin nucleoside through the systematic approach in va...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Prevalence of human trichostrongyliasis in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis
In this study, we aimed to identify the prevalence rate of Trichostrongylus infection in the Iranian general population to progress to a complete description of the disease situation in Iran for future use. English and Persian databases, such as PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar are the English databases and Magiran, Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Iran Doc, as well as dissertations of graduate student was searched. Our search resulted in 18 reports published between 1984 and 2015, including 13 published in Persian and five in English. The random errors method was used for ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Frequency of Helicobacter pylori virulence genes in water resources of western Iran by direct PCR
Conclusion: The frequency of H. pylori virulence genes in Sanandaj city water samples was remarkable by using direct PCR method. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

A case report of a mucormycosis caused by Lichtheimia ramosa in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia
We present a fatal case of mucormycosis, affecting a 59-year-old woman with diabetes and acute myeloid leukemia. Palatal mucormycosis with sinonasal invasion was confirmed by mycological culture and histopathology. Exact species identification of Lichtheimia ramosa was performed by PCR-sequencing of ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 regions of the ribosomal genes. The patient was managed medically as surgical approach was not possible, and she unfortunately died. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Lichtheimia ramosa infection in Tunisia confirmed molecularly. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: CASE REPORTS Source Type: research

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in an Iranian HIV-positive patient: a case report
This article presents the clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in an Iranian HIV-positive patient. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: CASE REPORTS Source Type: research

Antibacterial, antibiofilm, and antipersister cells formation of green synthesis silver nanoparticles and graphene nanosheets against Klebsiella pneumoniae
The present work aimed to investigate the antibacterial, antibiofilm, and antipersistence effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) green synthesis, graphene nanosheets, and graphene–silver nanocomposite against Klebsiella pneumonia. Fifty isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected from different clinical specimens and identified using the Vitek-2 system (BioMe’rieux, France). The antibacterial effect of green AgNPs, graphene nanosheets, and graphene–silver nanocomposite on persistence K. pneumonia isolates were detected using agar well diffusion assay. The minimum inhibition concentrations was employed by usi...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Molecular typing, virulence traits and risk factors of pandrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii spread in intensive care unit centers of Baghdad city, Iraq
Objective: The virulence traits of pandrug-resistant (PDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains have not been fully disclosed. Our aim was the assessment of PDR-A. baumannii (PDR-AB) virulence traits and risk factors in the intensive care unit (ICU), Baghdad, Iraq. Methods: Among 689 samples, 200 of them were identified as A. baumannii. In the disk diffusion test, 150 of them were PDR-AB. The virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes were screened using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for genetic typing of strains. Results: The age ra...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Correlation of arginine metabolism with neurodegenerative diseases in infected cells with herpes simplex virus-1
In this study, it has been shown that most of the key enzymes involved in arginine metabolism in HEK 293-infected cells with HSV-1 has changed in MOIs 1 and 5. These changes are great along with changes in neurodegenerative diseases. Change in arginine metabolism key enzymes mRNA expression after infection with HSV-1 can reflect one of the most important mechanisms of HSV-1 involvement in neurodegenerative diseases. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from urinary tract infections and bovine mastitis
In this study, the prevalence of resistance to a wide range of antibiotic agents and the presence of virulence factors amongst S. epidermidis strains were observed. Failure to pay attention to the antibiotic-resistant strains of S. epidermidis can be a serious warning to the health of the community. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Detection of efflux pump genes conferring multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter Baumannii in Tehran province
Conclusion: The majority of A. baumannii isolates had antibiotic efflux pumps, and more than 73% of A. baumannii isolates were indicated to be resistant to the target antibiotics, indicating the significant role of efflux pumps in the development of resistance against these antibiotics. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Determination of virulence and quinolone resistance genes and biofilm production among uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical specimens in Iran
Conclusion: The fact that the infection can be highly affected by virulence factors of E. coli, let us to conclude that in the case of signs and symptoms of urinary tract infection, it is better to avoid wide use of antibiotics. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Detection of qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates from leukemia patients
This study indicated that the high frequency of antibiotic resistance, qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, could be a major concern and further studies are needed for infection control measures in the patients affected by leukemia disease in Iran. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

The association between diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota of Iranian women with and without human papillomavirus infection
In this study, 69 vaginal samples with and without manifestation of HPV were obtained from women referring to a gynecology clinic and extracted DNA was introduced to real-time PCR looking for the HPV serotypes and bacterial load by using bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Results: Out of 64 samples, 16 isolates were normal, 13 isolates were clearance or HPV-negative, and 16 isolates were persistence or HPV-positive. Lactobacillus spp. is the predominant vaginal microbiota in normal women and its count became lower at HPV-negative and finally became zero at HPV-positive group. We could approve a significant increase in the col...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

The antibacterial effect of infantile fecal Lactobacillus against Escherichia coli causing healthcare-associated infection
Conclusion: L. plantarum had considerable inhibitory activity against E. coli isolates with HAIs-origin that were resistant to the most conventional antibiotics. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Reviews in Medical Microbiology become Reviews and Research in Medical Microbiology
No abstract available (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease 2019: fundamentals, chronology and vaccine evolution
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel coronavirus, which is recognized as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The recent pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a concern of major public health emergency globally. The virus is highly contagious, enters through nasopharyngeal route into lungs and infects respiratory tracts and later disseminate to other organs in the body. If body immune response fails to eliminate or over responds to infection in affected persons, the condition turns to severe acute respiratory syndrome or pneumonia, multiple organ failure, septic shock and finally...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

Multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from human clinical and animal meat samples
The current research was done to study the prevalence rate and molecular typing of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from human and animal samples. One-hundred and seventy-four animal meat and 128 human clinical samples were collected and subjected to bacterial culture. A. baumannii isolates were confirmed using the Loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Approved strains were subjected to molecular typing using the multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis method. Forty-four out of 174 (25.28%) raw meat and 64 out of 128 (50%) human samples were positive for A. baumannii strains. Ovine meat (39.28%) and...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

The role of plants and macrofungi as a source of novel antimicrobial agents
Antibiotic resistance presents a significant challenge to clinical, veterinary and plant health and is now recognized by the WHO as a major emerging problem of global significance. Recently, there has been a paucity of new antibiotics being developed, thus refocussing investigations into natural antimicrobials, especially from plants. Historically, plants have been a rich source of medicines, ranging from chemotherapeutic compounds, anti-inflammatories to antimicrobial agents, where such therapeutic activity has been recognized and exploited by traditional medicine in many countries, particularly in Asia. This review wishe...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

A case of primary extragenital cutaneous gonorrhea involving the finger
A case of primary extragenital cutaneous gonorrhea affecting the left middle finger of a 16-year-old female patient is presented. The patient denied a history of sexual activity and the only reported symptoms were finger pain and associated lymphangitis. Wound culture was obtained from an incision, and drainage procedure was performed at an emergency room of a community hospital. Laboratory diagnosis was made at a clinical microbiology laboratory using Gram stain, agar culture, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Concurrent blood cultures had no growth at 5 days....
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

In-vitro antifungal susceptibility of the genus Sporothrix and correlation with treatment options for sporotrichosis: a systematic review
Sporotrichosis is an infection with global distribution caused by the dimorphic fungi of the genus Sporothrix, whose main pathogenic species include Sporothrix schenckii, Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, and Sporothrix luriei. Itraconazole and amphotericin B are the most used antifungals for the treatment. The aim of this review was to compile the in-vitro susceptibility data of Sporothrix spp. found in literature and correlate this data with the treatment guidelines for sporotrichosis. The systematic review was performed according to the Cochrane methodology and with PICOS (Participants, Intervention, Comparat...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Combinatorial treatment of sophoraflavanone G and rhein with ampicillin, oxacillin, or oxytetracycline synergistically increased antibacterial activity against oral bacteria
In this study, antibacterial activities of sophoraflavanone G and rhein were investigated against oral bacteria using the microdilution assay, the checkerboard assay, the growth curve assay, and the disc diffusion assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) values of sophoraflavanone G were 1.56 μg/ml against Streptococcus mutans and Fusobacterium nucleatum, 3.125 μg/ml against Streptococcus sobrinus and Actinomyces viscosus, and more than 100 μg/ml against Porphyromonas gingivalis after 24 h treatment, respectively. MIC values of rhein were 100 μg/ml against Strep. mutans and Strep. sobrinus, and 25...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Dissemination of blaOXA-48 like, blaNDM, blaKPC, blaIMP-1, blaVIM genes among carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in Southeastern Turkey: first report of Klebsiella pneumoniae co-producing blaOXA-48-like, blaVIM and blaIMP-1 genes
Conclusion: We detected blaOXA-48-like gene most frequently in our region. To our knowledge, this is the first report of K. pneumoniae-co-producing blaOXA-48-like, blaVIM and blaIMP-1 genes. The coexistence of these genes is alarming and causes both infection control and treatment problems. Effective infection control measures are essential to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

Perspectives of using photodynamic therapy as antimicrobial therapy in endodontics
In times of multidrug resistance of bacteria, photodynamic therapy (PDT) seems to be promising in many fields of medicine, including endodontics, especially in the case of previous failures of root canal treatment and periapical lesions formation. PDT is based on the use of a light source and photosensitizers (PSs). Irradiation caused by the appropriately selected wavelength of light initiates the formation of singlet oxygen and/or free radicals, which provides the antimicrobial activity responsible for effective disinfection. In this manuscript, we compare the findings from all available papers of authors who perform thei...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: MICROBIOLOGY Source Type: research

The current advances and future perspectives of lateral flow immunoassay for infectious diseases
Although much progresses have been made, preventing and curing infectious diseases have proven increasingly unable to keep pace with the spread of these pandemics. Therefore, there is fueled demanding for accurate, speed, affordable, and convenient diagnostic assays. Recent years, tremendous efforts to develop the point-of-care (POC) testing have provided plenty of solutions to meet above requirements, their application will be especially useful in resource-limited countries and areas. In this perspective, we discuss the recent advances and emerging potentials of POC diagnostic, mainly focusing on lateral flow immunoassay ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Distribution of clinical Candida species and their susceptibility to antifungal agents
Conclusion: Valuable information and data on distribution and susceptibility of Candida strains were obtained. These data may be valuable from epidemiological point of view as well as for proper and optimal therapy of Candida infections in our region (Şanliurfa, Turkey). (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the healthcare facility setting
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen that has become an important cause of infection in humans and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Severe infections usually affect immunocompromised patients or those with chronic debilitating diseases. Its significance as a pathogen is exacerbated by its resistance to antibiotics, virulence factors and its ability to adapt to a wide range of environments. P. aeruginosa can have multiple intrinsic or acquired mechanisms of resistance, frequently with high resistance rates to various antimicrobial classes. In recent years, the worldwide spread of ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients
The objective of this study is to analyze the bacteriological profile of the patients with COPD and also to study their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern, which may help to scheme a proper antibiotic treatment to the COPD patients, which will have a beneficial effect in preventing the morbidity and mortality of the disease. A narrative review of the literature was carried out after a bibliographical search on the database PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus and active search lists of bibliographical references of articles selected up to November 2019. According to various studies addressed, the causative agents in COPD from ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Factors affecting vaccine uptake rate: the story of measles, mumps and rubella
Vaccine uptake can greatly impact on the ability of a country or region to eliminate a disease, which could be detrimental to society if allowed free reign. A high vaccine coverage can produce herd immunity, which confers protection upon the unvaccinated individuals within the population. Although some countries take a voluntary approach to vaccination policies, other countries have mandatory vaccination for specific pathogens. There is a clear inverse correlation between vaccine uptake and incidence of disease and in many countries a trivalent vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella is included in the vaccination sched...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

Micronutrient zinc roles in adjunctive therapy for COVID-19 by enhancing patients immunoregulation and tolerance to the pathogen
This study is to review the literature on how zinc status may affect susceptibility and outcomes of a viral infection, as well as to explore the possible beneficial effects of supplementing zinc to alleviate COVID-19 duration and severity. We propose zinc supplementation as a viable therapeutic approach when used alone or in combination with other drugs to combat cytokine storm syndrome in COVID-19 patients. The supplementation may be especially effective for elderly patients or patients with co-morbidity already deficient in zinc. More level I randomized controlled studies are needed to determine the clinical efficacy of ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection: what is the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) doing to body? A comprehensive systematic review
Since December 2019, an emerging outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has begun from Wuhan, China, and spread rapidly throughout the world. This systematic review aimed to discuss the involvement of the body's systems during COVID-19 infection comprehensively. PubMed database was used to identify relative studies to be included in this review. Four authors searched PubMed independently using determined search terms. Then, the results were merged and duplicates were removed. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were specified and at least two review authors assessed the eligibility of the studies. The full texts of ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

Leclercia adecarboxylata: a rare cause of traumatic wound infections in immunocompetent patients: case reports and review of the literature
We report here, two cases of L. adecarboxylata trauma-related wound infections in two previously healthy patients and give a review of previous reports on wound infections encountered in immunocompetent patient. Both strains were sensitive to most tested antibiotics. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Chryseobacterium indologenes bacteremia in a healthy 2-month-old baby
Chryseobacterium indologenes is a Gram-negative bacteria rarely pathogenic in humans that can produce serious infections, especially, in children with comorbidities. Only a few cases of bacteremia have been published by C. indologenes, the majority in Taiwan. We show a Spanish healthy 2-month-old baby, who was diagnosed with this germ at our hospital, to report on the serious infections that it can cause and the multiple drug resistance to antibiotics that it shows. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research