What is the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that paralyze the world?
The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection has recently spread worldwide was declared a pandemic on March 11. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 disease are fever, fatigue, and dry cough. Some patients may experience pain and aches, nasal congestion, cold, sore throat or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Currently, the source of the virus is still unknown. However, all available evidence indicates that the origin of this virus is a natural animal and that it is not a manufactured virus. The virus spreads faster than ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

An overview on wearing the face mask to avoid transmission of coronavirus disease 2019
In December 2019, a report of a novel coronaviruses which called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from Wuhan, China shocked the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 affects both humans and animals. Here, we attempted to have an overview of different perspectives of the need to use a face mask against coronavirus disease 2019. The primary objective of this article is to reinforce awareness of common hazards in which voluntary and precautionary use of face mask respirators may be advantageous to healthy people and the safety of the healthcare workers. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

Type II toxin/antitoxin system genes expression in persister cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae
Conclusion: Considering the importance of persistence and the tolerance to antibiotics, further studies on persister cell formation and related genes such as the toxin/antitoxin system genes might help us to identify the precise mechanisms leading to persister cell formation. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Investigation of oxacillinases type beta-lactamases in carbapenems resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates
This study aimed to identify the carbapenem resistant A. baumannii isolates in ICU and analyse OXA-23, OXA-24, OXA-51 and OXA-58 genes’ expressions by using reverse transcritptase-PCR. In this study, A. baumannii isolates collected from the respiratory tract samples obtained from the patients receiving treatment between June 2017 and January 2018 at the ICU in Amasya University Sabuncuoğlu Serefeddin Education and Research Hospital. Collected samples identified by VITEK-2 device. Resistance profiles of carbapenem-resistant strains against to cefepime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, t...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Effect of ethanolic extract of Zataria multiflora Boiss (Shiraz thyme extract) on the kidney and spleen tissues of mice infected with visceral candidiasis and the stimulation of Th1, Th17, and Treg immune cells
Conclusion: The Z. multiflora Boiss fraction can be considered as a powerful alternative to other drug treatments for achieving proper outcomes. Therefore, the use of this compound as a therapeutic agent in visceral candidiasis is possibly a new turning point in treatment, which can postpone the progress of the disease among patients. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori virulence genes among Iranian infected patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Discussion: The frequency of virulence factor genes among H. pylori strains isolated in Iranian patients to be more frequently associated with the gastrointestinal disease compared with the other countries and these data can be considered in development of eradication strategies. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

A systematic review of 40 years of distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Vibrio cholerae in Iran with future perspective
To assess the prevalence of incidence rate and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Vibrio cholerae in provinces of Iran, a systematic review was conducted during 1979–2019. This survey was performed using the following keywords ‘Vibrio cholerae’ and ‘Iran’ in the international databases including ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar from January 1979 to December 2019. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 18.0 (IBM, New York, USA). In addition, P less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. According to our results, the highest ra...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

The host metabolism following bacterial biofilm: what is the mechanism of action?
The interplay of biofilm with host leads to a range of physiological reactions of the interacting members aimed at an adaptation to the novel position. These reactions include metabolic shifts in the influenced host cell, which is most apparent when the biofilm-forming bacteria replicates surround host cells. Whilst the bacteria try to deprive micronutrients of the host, the host cell, in turn, takes many metabolic countermeasures toward the micronutrient steal. During these conflicting interplays, the bacteria stimulate metabolic host cell reactions by means of common cell envelope ingredients and particular factors media...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Survey of human alveolar and cystic echinococcosis rates based on ELISA and portable ultrasound in Moghan, northwestern Iran
Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of echinococcosis in these areas, it is necessary to control, prevent, and combat these diseases. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: PARASITOLOGY Source Type: research

Observing and treating the tubercular tenosynovitis of ankle tendons: a case report and reviewing the related literature
Even in countries where tuberculosis (TB) is not uncommon, tenosynovitis rarely occurs. Ankle tendons involvement is much less common than wrist. In this case report, we present a case of ankle tenosynovitis. After diagnostic–therapeutic tenosynovectomy anti-TB treatment was started. No sign of disease relapse was observed after 9 months follow-up. MRI has an important role in diagnosing the cases of tenosynovitis. Magnetic resonance scan shows tendon thickening increases in synovial fluid in tendon sheath. Histopathologic findings of granulomatous inflammation as well as TB culture confirm the diagnosis. Although TB...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

The association of acetylacetate (Acr AB-Tol C) and QepA genes with multiple antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli clinical isolates
The objective of this study was assessment the association of AcrAB-TolC efflux pumps and qepA genes with resistance to common antibiotics among E. coli isolates. A total of 200 E. coli isolates were obtained from diverse samples of inpatients. Minimum inhibitory concentrations and Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion tests were determined for ceftazidime, cefotaxime, imipenem, gentamicin, and tetracycline. The Acr-AB-TolC and qepA genes were amplified using PCR technique and their association with antibiotics was also evaluated using Chi-square test. A majority of isolates (64%) were retrieved from gastrointestinal samples, f...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Existence of Helicobacter pylori with low virulence rate in dental plaque and gastric mucosa of patients with periodontal disease
Objective: Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric and peptic ulcer leading to gastric cancer progress. Gingival teeth grooves among patients with chronic periodontitis can act as reservoirs for H. pylori proliferation. The purpose of our study was assessment the association of H. pylori from dental plaques of patients with periodontitis with gastric colonization. Methods: Among patients with periodontitis admitted to dentistry centers, 250 dental plaque and 250 gastric biopsy samples were obtained during 2016–2019. After bacterial identification, virulence genes including cagA, cagT, cagE, vacA and hrgA ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Acne vulgaris and antimicrobial resistance: a review
Conclusion: The results suggests that Propionibacterium acnes is the main causative agent for pustular acne vulgaris and metronidazole was expectedly sensitive to P. acnes, whereas erythromycin and Clindamycin is emerging resistance. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Overview of multistage subunit tuberculosis vaccines: advantages and challenges
To date, tuberculosis (TB) infection, is the most threatening infectious disease in all humans around the world. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative intracellular bacterium, possesses an exclusive life-cycle inside the macrophages, as one of the most important cells in the innate immune system. As soon as entrance in the lungs, bacteria actively replicate, but intracellular conditions such as hypoxia and nutrient starvation, lead to low replication of bacteria, or nonreplicating state. While Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine is the most usable vaccine, especially in children and against active form, but this vaccine...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Early biochemical predictors of sepsis in patients with burn injury: current status and future perspectives
Sepsis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with burn injury and emerges as a clinical challenge for both emergency specialists and critical care staff. Since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are known to be the milestones of sepsis management, use of biomarkers in diagnosis is highly recommended in the initial stage of sepsis. Although currently used Procalcitonin, as a traditional marker, may accurately indicate the presence of a systemic inflammation in burn patients, there is a need for more accurate markers of sepsis in burn patients. For now, use of a combination of markers may be sugg...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

New vaccine candidates as a scientific solution against the dream of tuberculosis vaccine
Tuberculosis (TB) is accounted for as one of the most important destructive infectious diseases for humans, which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Studies have shown the severe effects of tuberculosis in patients, especially sensitive groups. Emergence and distribution of both multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains have caused failure in the infection eradication. At present, BCG vaccine is the only most effective vaccine for the prevention of TB in childhood but its protection level in pulmonary TB in adult is very variable. Therefore, the need for an appropriate alternative vaccine...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori virulence factors expression affect epigenetic factors leading to gastrointestinal carcinoma
Disruption in the epigenetic mechanisms is one of the causes of cancer; particularly in the gut. It has been elucidated that multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations during this process caused by chronic inflammation play a crucial role in the cancer progress. DNA methylation impairment as a leading change is caused during the proliferation of Helicobacter pylori. It has been unraveled that numerous tumor suppressor genes are regulated by related promoter methylation, justifying environmental factors inducing gastric carcinoma. H. pylori infection affects various cells through inflammation, changes in apoptosis, prolife...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Decreased vancomycin susceptibility among Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates and postulated platforms to explore rational drugs
Vancomycin is among last-resort drugs for the elimination of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Suboptimal or prolonged exposure to vancomycin is a major cause of decreased vancomycin susceptibility being a great concern toward the eradication of related infections. This arises from genetic and metabolic alterations leading to cell wall thickness and mitigation of autolysis. Therefore, the study on the major mechanisms contributing to the development of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and VISA strains and development of novel and efficient therapeutic approaches i...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Evaluation of the synergistic effect of cinnamon extract and honey against multidrug-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered from burn unit
Conclusion: This study showed a proper synergistic effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of cinnamon and honey in combination with Ciprofloxacin and Gentamicin against MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Occurrence of FOX AmpC gene among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in abattoir samples from south-eastern Nigeria
This study aimed to evaluate the presence of FOX AmpC-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from abattoir samples by both phenotypic method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, 360 abattoir samples were analyzed for the isolation of P. aeruginosa strains. Antibiogram was carried out using the disk diffusion technique. The production of AmpC enzymes was phenotypically screened and confirmed using the cefoxitin--cloxacillin double-disk synergy test (CC-DDST). Finally, gene responsible for FOX AmpC enzyme production was investigated using PCR. A total of 147 (40.8%) isolates of P. aeruginosa was recovered f...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Tandem repeat analysis for typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa carrying resistance genes in southern Iran
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to be one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections, with high antimicrobial resistance. Thus, the current study was conducted to evaluate usefulness of multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) plan for epidemiological studies and clustering of P. aeruginosa isolated in different wards of general hospital in Bandar Abbas, south of Iran, as well as assessment of presence of integrons and resistance genes in these strains. A total of 72 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were isolated from the patients hospitalized in the hospital from December 2017 t...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Prevalence of fosfomycin resistance genes and antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical urinary extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates
The antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 284 Enterobacteriaceae isolates responsible for urinary tract infections to ampicillin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprin-sulfamethaxole, and fosfomycin was performed by disk diffusion method. Additionally, in fosfomycin-resistant and intermediate susceptible isolates using disk diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fosfomycin was determined by agar dilution. The presence of fosA and fosA3 genes and ESBL genes was investigated in fosfomycin-resistant isolates and ESBL-producing isolates, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae [72.34% ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Photocatalytic inactivation of microorganisms in water under ultraviolet C irradiation and TiO2
This study aimed to use nanoparticles and UVC radiation, which were considered in some previous laboratory studies. The contaminated water was entered into a photocatalytic reactor, and microbial removal efficiency of TiO2 alone and in the presence of UV was evaluated under different retention times (0–90 min) and concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1 and 2 mg/ml). Efficiency of the reactor increased with increase in the retention time in the presence of UV. Simultaneous treatment of the contaminated water with both UV and TiO2 nanoparticles had a similar outcome. However, only a slight redu...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Occupational leptospirosis as an underreported disease in high-risk groups: implications for prevention and control measures
Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonotic disease with no particular or verified symptoms, which has been underreported as an occupational infection. Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa are the two major pathogenic serovars. Professionals who are in constant contact with animals and their residues, in water supply, rice mill, slaughtering houses, hospital sanitary places, strawberry picking, construction works, agriculture working, forest working and food industry are at highest risk. Factors related to occupational, environmental, and recreational aspects and the presenc...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Novel gold nanobiosensor platforms for rapid and inexpensive detection of Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative curved-rod bacterium belonging to the Vibrionaceae family. Routine detection of V. cholerae infection can be achieved by isolation of the organism from stool sample on the selective medium, followed by biochemical tests and specific antibodies for serotyping and serogrouping. These methods are labor-working and time-consuming. Furthermore, they provide low sensitivity and specificity. Advanced diagnostic approaches for identification of V. cholerae, such as cell-counting techniques by immunoassay, PCR, and real-time PCR are also used. In addition to these strategies, nanotechnology includ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Toxin–antitoxin systems and biofilm formation in bacteria
Biofilms usually occur on or within medical devices such as mechanical heart valves, prosthetic joints, peritoneal dialysis catheters, contact lenses, central venous catheters, pacemakers and urinary catheters. The presence of biofilms can be seen in different diseases like endocarditis, otitis, cystic fibrosis, periodontitis, osteomyelitis and chronic wounds. Toxin–antitoxin systems are reported to respond to stresses that are also found in the host. Some toxins of toxin–antitoxin systems modules have been proposed as potential weapons used by bacteria to act on host targets. In this review, we focus on the mo...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Oral cavity infection by Enterococcus faecalis: virulence factors and pathogenesis
Enterococcus faecalis plays an important role in human oral cavity infections and may be one of the important species in endodontic treatment failure. In this review article, we provide an overview on the occurrence of the virulence factors associated with E. faecalis in oral infections. Seven virulence factors of E. faecalis have been associated with oral infections including extracellular surface protein (esp), gelatinase (GelE), aggregation substance (Asa), adhesion of collagen from E. faecalis (Ace), Serine protease (Spr), lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and E. faecalis antigen A (efaA). The absence of these factors leads to d...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Antibacterial effects of local analgesics and anesthetics
Conclusion: Sufentanil Citrate, midazolam, and pethidine exerted efficient inhibitory effect on Staph. aureus, Strep. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis. Lidocaine and bupivacaine had a strong inhibitory effect on growth of nine standard bacterial species in our survey. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

National surveillance of food-borne botulism in Iran during 2011–2015
Food-borne botulism, a potentially lethal neuroparalytic disease, is also a health challenge with a variable prevalence rate in Iran. This work presents the results of a 5-year surveillance of botulism in Iran, with the distribution of the cases by regions and by vehicle of transmission. This descriptive-retrospective study was done on food-borne botulism poisoning cases reported to the Iran's Ministry of Health during 2011–2015. Data was collected by interview, examination and questionnaires. All the relevant and confirmed botulism outbreaks that occurred in the period under consideration are described. During these...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Molecular study of some virulence genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different infections in hospitals of Baghdad
In this study, two types of methods were used in the detection of biofilm formation: the first one was Congo red agar method and the second one was microtiter plate method. In the first method, results showed that biofilm formed by 57/100 (57%) according to black color production on media, whereas in the second method was 69/100 (69%) produce strong adherence according to OD in ELISA reader. Genotypic detection of many virulence factors related to P. aeruginosa was performed using conventional PCR. These included: gene coded for exoenzyme S (exoS), exoenzyme U (exoU), exotoxin A (toxA), two phospholipases C encoded by (plc...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Filament genes and biofilm formation in Streptococcus agalactiae
Streptococcus agalactiae is the prominent cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in neonates and is also the contributing agent of a number of serious infections in immunocompromised adults. S. agalactiae run into multiple niches through an infection, suggesting that regulatory mechanisms control the expression of specific virulence factors in this bacterium. Like other Gram-positive bacteria, Group B streptococcus (GBS) can create three-dimensional structures, such as biofilms that can increase their ability to colonize and maintain in the host. Biofilm formation has been investigated by GBS under laboratory conditions ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Systematic review of antibacterial activity of eravacycline: a novel fluorocycline against clinically obtained Gram-negative bacteria
This study aimed to analyze the in-vitro activity of eravacycline against Gram-negative bacteria in published literature, to contribute to the international data on the antimicrobial stewardship programs. A systematic literature review was performed through the electronic databases from January of 2000 to December 2017 to cover all published articles relevant to our scope. Finally, nine studies met our inclusion criteria that were subjected to data extraction and review. The highest activity of eravacycline was against Escherichia coli isolates since in all reports eravacycline at a concentration of 0.5 μg/ml or less ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Contemporary systematic review and meta-analysis of exfoliative toxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients in Iran
In conclusion, the prevalence of S. aureus strains harboring exfoliative toxin genes varies throughout Iran and that these strains, especially those carrying eta, might be more prevalent in some Iranian provinces, such as Mazandaran and Zanjan. Further researches are encouraged to understand the transmission, burden, and risk factors associated with infections caused by exfoliative toxin-producing S. aureus. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

New Books related to Medical Microbiology
No abstract available (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BOOK REVIEW Source Type: research

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence and mortality of metallo-beta-lactamases in Iranian patients infected with metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Background and adjective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with morality and healthcare associated infections. P. aeruginosa producing metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) genes causing more problems especially in patients with underlying immunosuppressive background. The aim of this study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of MBLs in P. aeruginosa in Iranian patients. Search method: All available national and international databanks (PubMed, Science Direct and pages web address) were searched to find published studies from 2006 to March 2018. Quality of studies was assessed by STROBE. Because of t...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Photodynamic therapy of infection in burn patients
Burns are one of the very ordinary and destructive forms of trauma. Patients with significant thermal injury require urgent specialized care for minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered over 100 years ago by observing the killing of microorganisms when harmless dyes and visible light were combined in vitro. Since then it has primarily been developed as a treatment for cancer, ophthalmologic disorders and in dermatology. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

The immunomodulatory and antiallergic effects of human colonized probiotics
The rate of allergy is increasing particularly among infants due to several factors reaching up to 30%. Several materials components have been implicated in the development and excessive activation of the immune system, acting as irritants and allergic agents. In several studies, in Mediterranean inhabitants with a specific diet, the prevalence of allergies in children was low, whereas dietary supplements in the Western and Mediterranean countries had a different role in the regulation of immune responses and in the reduction of allergic reactions. Probiotics have been associated with reduction of allergic reactions mostly...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Genotyping and diversity of virulence genes among Shigella sonnei isolated from children with diarrhoea
In this study, 3540 stool specimens were obtained from children with diarrhoea in Tehran, Iran, from September 2016 through January 2018. PCR assays were performed to evaluate the presence of virulence genes among S. sonnei strains. The genetic relatedness of these strains was also assessed by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). A total of 50 S. sonnei strains were obtained, all of which harboured ipaH, sigA, and virA, whereas ial, invE, and sen were positive in 70% (n = 35), 62% (n = 31), and 54% (n = 27) of the strains, respectively. None of the S. sonnei strains carried set1A...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Investigating the presence of qacA/B and mecA genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from metro stations in Tehran city of Iran
Conclusion: In this study, there was a close relationship between resistance to methicillin and resistance to QACs in S. aureus isolated from metro stations. It has also been shown that these isolates carry antibiotic resistance genes and are resistant to most common antibiotics used to eradicate these bacteria, such as third-generation cephalosporins, methicillin, and oxacillin, which are considered as serious warning to society. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Influenza A virus and related secondary bacterial infections
Influenza infection is considered to be a serious respiratory disease in human. Annually, epidemics or even pandemics give rise to the frequent antigenetic variations of virus surface receptors, throughout the world. Bacterial infections followed by influenza are the biggest medical concerns associated with elevated mortality rates. These high morbidity and mortality rates, have become a priority in terms of health. Likewise, economic aspects of the issue have special importance also. In the present study, several articles have been investigated with regards to main key words including influenza A, secondary bacterial inf...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

Swine flu a seasonal pandemic, symptoms, diagnostics and prevention
H1N1 often is cause of annual epidemics in world particularly during winters and is a seasonal pandemic that has been a cause of many deaths. The display of various strains of H1N1 always creates confrontation to public health and the scientific communities. The key behind the repeated epidemics is the transformation of the viruses to escape the immunity that is induced by former infection or vaccination. The pandemic was declared, by the WHO, as officially over in August 2010. The H1N1 virus has become a regular flu virus which occurs seasonally, and causes outbreaks in many areas of the world. This mini review discusses ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

Development of a combined CMV-UL97 C592F and CMV-UL54 T503I resistance mutation during ganciclovir treatment in a kidney transplant recipient
In CMV high-risk kidney transplant recipients (KTR), recommended antiviral human cytomegalovirus (CMV) treatment can lead to nephrotoxicity and antiviral resistance. In this case report, we report the development of a combined CMV-UL97 C592F and CMV UL54 T503I resistance mutation in a high-risk KTR most probably linked to the previous treatment with valganciclovir (valGCV) and ganciclovir (GCV). Routine CMV screening, in addition with testing of CMV immunity and applied stewardship programs for ganciclovir might have been helpful in preventing the development of these mutations in this patient. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

The reemergence of glanders as a zoonotic and occupational infection in Iran and neighboring countries
Glanders is a zoonotic infection, and because of recent outbreaks among Equidae family, the possibility of its reemergence among human populations is a crisis. The causative agent is Burkholderia mallei, a Gram-negative, aerobic and highly contagious bacterium causing severe impacts with low infectious dose transmitted via direct contact to respiratory secretions, skin exudates of animals and fomite. Despite high mortality rate, no proper vaccination has been developed to hinder the infection spread. The disease is more prevalent in Australia and Southeast Asia, but has been eradicated in developed countries. Glanders&rsqu...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Nanobody and aptamer as targeting moiety against bacterial toxins: therapeutic and diagnostic applications
Infectious diseases are common life-threatening problems mediated by pathogen micro-organisms that cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, there is an increasing rate of the bacterial infections and emergence of the new antibiotic resistance in human societies. On the other hand, early detection of the bacterial infection present in biological samples suffers from extended time, high cost, and laborious methods. Therefore, there is a permanent need for robust diagnostic and therapeutic tools against bacterial agents. Recently, specific targeting bio-molecules, such as aptamer and nanobody have been appeared as ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

The grape seed extract: a natural antimicrobial agent against different pathogens
This study is an updated overview of the antimicrobial effect of GSE against different pathogens. The available reports from various studies retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases regarding the antimicrobial effect of GSE was evaluated. The GSE is rich sources of phenolic compounds. GSE can inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria depended on its concentrations, phenolic content, and tested bacterial species. The GSE is more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. It has also been shown to have inhibitory effects against several cl...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Immunostimulatory and antibacterial activity of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and its purified exopolysaccharide against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Burkholderia cepacia
This study was aimed to extract, purified, and characterize the EPS from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. Cremoris and to evaluate the immunostimulatory and antibacterial activities of EPS against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Burkholderia cepacia strains. Nine EPSs producing L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strains were isolated from local dairy products and the isolated bacteria were identified by using API 50. Eight B. cepacia strains were isolated from different specimens in the hospitals of Medical city, Baghdad. Furthermore, genotypic and phenotypic detection of antibiotic resistance were determin...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Differentiation of Brucella species by repetitive element palindromic PCR
Brucellosis is one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases among animals and humans. It is a well known fact that the differentiation and rapid typing of Brucella spp. is crucial for the early detection of infection, prevention of infection progress, and/or introducing treatment solutions. Analyzing the sequences could be an effective method in achieving these purposes. The aim of this study was to analyze palindromic sequences for Brucella spp., differentiation using the rep-PCR method. The authors collected 80 animal samples, which were suspected to brucellosis infection. After the cultivation of Brucella, identification...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Comparative study of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in vaginal tract of individual with bacterial vaginosis and healthy control by quantitative PCR
Conclusion: The current study promotes our understanding about the vaginal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. among patients and healthy individuals in Iran. Confirming the link between the frequency of lactobacilli and bacterial vaginosis could help us develop new prebiotics and probiotics for this disorder. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Resistance-related determinants in clinically relevant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from teaching therapeutic centers, Tehran, Iran
Conclusion: The frequency of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates in our hospitals was high and disk diffusion testing using FOX or oxacillin and/or FOX minimal inhibitory concentration E test as an alternative to PCR for identification of methicillin-resistant S. aureus is suggested. This study highlights the hypothesis that rapid testing plays an important role in antibiotic stewardship by getting patients on targeted therapy faster. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Expression of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes among Escherichia coli clinical isolates from blood and stool samples
Conclusion: The results exhibited that the expression of virulence genes among clinical isolates of E. coli is not the same or similar in various conditions or from various clinical origins. Thus determining the profile of gene expression in each of clinical situations can be helpful in tracking the infectious pathogens. ESBL-producing strains possibly have regulatory factors for inducing higher virulence gene expression. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research