Leclercia adecarboxylata: a rare cause of traumatic wound infections in immunocompetent patients: case reports and review of the literature
We report here, two cases of L. adecarboxylata trauma-related wound infections in two previously healthy patients and give a review of previous reports on wound infections encountered in immunocompetent patient. Both strains were sensitive to most tested antibiotics. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Chryseobacterium indologenes bacteremia in a healthy 2-month-old baby
Chryseobacterium indologenes is a Gram-negative bacteria rarely pathogenic in humans that can produce serious infections, especially, in children with comorbidities. Only a few cases of bacteremia have been published by C. indologenes, the majority in Taiwan. We show a Spanish healthy 2-month-old baby, who was diagnosed with this germ at our hospital, to report on the serious infections that it can cause and the multiple drug resistance to antibiotics that it shows. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Human leukocyte antigen-genotyping according to sex in extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients in Iraq
Conclusion: The association of the HLA-DRB1∗3 and the HLA-DRB1∗7 genotypes with the EPTB was observed in this study, albeit needing more verifications. Furthermore, the HLA-DRB1∗315 was more frequent among healthy subjects. More investigations are also essential to confirm the difference between male and female patients with the EPTB regarding the rate of HLA genotypes. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Construction of a recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing fliC gene fused with guanylyl cyclase C and dendritic cell-binding peptide using CRISPR–Cas9 system: a first step towards design of vaccine against colorectal cancer
In conclusion, recombinant lactic acid bacteria strains have the capacity to express heterologous proteins. Thus in this study for the first time a recombinant L. casei using CRISPR–Cas9 system as a first step for design of a vaccine against CRC was constructed that expresses fliC gene fused with guanylyl cyclase C and dendritic cell binding peptide. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

High genetic diversity among diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolates from patients with acute diarrhea in Khuzestan province, Southwestern Iran
Conclusion: The current study provides novel information about the presence of DEC isolates particularly with the rate of high antibiotic resistance among acute diarrheal samples in Khuzestan, Iran. Our data revealed that there was almost high heterogeneity among isolated DEC pathotypes. Proper infection control policies are needed to be implemented in order for the infections to be effectively controlled. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Production of blaoxa-23 type genes carrying by Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from hospitalized patients in Tehran, Iran
Carbapenems are potent β-lactam antibiotics, including imipenem and meropenem that is used to treat serious infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance rate of A. baumannii to imipenem and meropenem by producing OXA-23 gene. Sixty A. baumannii isolates were collected from four hospitals. Susceptibility testing of all A. baumannii isolates was determined by disk diffusion method. After bacterial DNA extraction, PCR was used for detection of blaoxa-51 and blaoxa-23 beta-lactamase genes. According to the result, 98% of A. baumannii isolates were resistant to amikaci...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Microbiology and histological study of gallbladder among acute and chronic cholecystitis in Babylon City, Iraq
The current study aimed to identify the bacteria from the gallbladder taken during cholecystectomy of patients with acute and chronic cholecystitis of calculus and acalculus type. The study included 100 patients taken randomly (85 women and 15 men) undergoing cholecystectomy at the general teaching Hilla Hospital from September 2016 to June 2017. For each patient, two samples were taken, which included tissue and stone (if present). All samples were cultured on different media for full bacteriological identification. The infection appears in both sexes, but the rate of infection in women (85%) was higher than men (15%). Th...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Contribution of aging oral microbiota in getting neurodegenerative diseases
Nowadays aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease are as important as infectious diseases for human communities. 60–80% of dementia cases are related to Alzheimer's disease while only 2–3% of cases are associated with Parkinson's disease. Oral bacteria produce some chemical compounds such as volatile sulfur compounds and therefore are responsible for halitosis (malodor). This is while most of the cases (80–90%) of halitosis caused following the production of volatile sulfur compounds in the oral cavity. Some periodontal pathogens such as Aggregatibacter ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Synergistic therapeutic actions of antimicrobial peptides to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infection
Growing antibiotic resistance has been reported as a great health problem throughout the world. The threat of multidrug resistance is significantly exacerbated in biofilm-associated infection as most of the antimicrobials are rarely effective against biofilm and its virulence factors. Consequently, there is a strong demand for developing novel approaches and new materials to treat biofilm-associated bacterial infection. Engineering technology introduces nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery to reduce treatment failure and increase the synergistic effects of the drugs. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are usually attra...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Microbes in human oral cavity: a review
The oral cavity being one of the important opening encounter huge number of microorganisms via air, water and food. Some of them establish, grow and multiply, form communities inside the cavity. The selection and growth of these microorganisms depend upon the physiochemical environment in the cavity. Various molecules of the host and resident microorganisms are responsible for the environmental conditions. Literatures indicate that change in this molecular content in the cavity may likely change the microbial communities in it. Therefore, in case of various diseased conditions/changed food habit may invite changes in micro...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

New insights on potential therapeutic options and vaccines for corona virus disease-2019
In December 2019, world health organization was acquainted of the outbreak of pneumonia of unknown cause. The causative agent was identified as a novel coronavirus and named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the disease coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). This disease is a pandemic, which has so far, caused more than 376 320 deaths globally. Owing to the high transmission and mortality of COVID-19, identifying ways to circumvent the imbroglio has become the top priority of researchers across different parts of the world. To date, no treatment or preventive approach has been developed. Two ap...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - April 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

Cytokine storm is the cryptic killer behind coronavirus disease-2019 infections, review of the current evidence to identify therapeutic options
This article aims to review the role of cytokines in CSS, present an overview of immunomodulators and immunosuppressive clinically indicated to counteract the effect of cytokines with the overarching goal of drawing attention to potential therapeutic options for further investigation, clinical trials, and pharmaceutical research. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - January 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

Revival of older antibiotics for the therapy of urinary tract infections: old, but gold Part 1: Antimicrobial susceptibility of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates
The most prevalent causative agent of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is uropathogenic Escherichia coli, corresponding to 50–90% of uncomplicated, around 30–70% of nosocomial UTIs. There has been renewed interest toward the clinical value of older, nonβ-lactam antibiotics (including fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) used for the therapy UTIs caused by drug resistant bacteria, including AmpC-producing or an extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative strains. The aim of our study was to determine the resistance levels of AmpC-producing or ESBL-producing E. col...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - January 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

In-vitro protoscolicidal and immunomodulatory effects of Cinnamomum camphora and Ziziphora tenuior against Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices
Objective: Owing to side effects, drug resistance and recurrence of Echinococcus granulosus infestation following conventional therapies, seeking novel therapeutic approaches such as herbal medicines seems necessary. The aim of this study was assessment the antiparasitic and immunomodulatory effects of Cinnamomum camphora and Ziziphora tenuior herbal medicines against E. granulosus protoscolices. Methods: Various concentrations of extracts were prepared including 3, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml. BALB/c mice liver samples were obtained from slaughter house and the protoscolices were taken under sterile condition...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - January 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Synergistic effect of Zataria multiflora and Lavandula stoechas essential oils on phenotype detection of efflux pump against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates
Conclusion: The combination of Z. multiflora and L. stoechas essential oils against MDR A. baumannii strains were additive antibacterial effects. It was also found that these compounds, as inhibitors of efflux pumps, could also be used to suppress MDR A. baumannii isolated. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - January 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Evaluation of probiotic potentials of yeast isolates from traditional fermented rice beverages of Meghalaya, India
The objective of this study was to identify functional and potential probiotic yeast involved in the production of rice beverage. Yeast cultures are used since old age with many health attributes and it is also applied in the production of fermented rice beverages traditionally. Five yeast isolates were selected, the isolates were tolerant to a wide range of pH (2.0, 3.0), high concentration of bile salt (0.5%) and also showed zone of precipitation in bile salt hydrolase plates. They showed resistance against broader range of clinically important antibiotics and showed moderate cell surface hydrophobicity. The isolates cou...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - January 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Pathogenic bacteria of diabetic-associated infections and their pathogenesis
The diabetic patients have tendencies to develop infections in presence of hyperglycemia makes mucosal epithelial more susceptible to infections. Diabetic mellitus causes a sever deregulation of immune response in a healthy human body. The suppressed production of immune pepetides and altered immune, susceptibility to infections are much higher in immunosuppressed patients with diabetes mellitus. The human host and microorganisms normally exist in a balanced relationship. Infection occurs when pathogens are able to resist host's immune system and subsequently invade systemic host responses. The reasons why infections do no...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - January 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: an opportunistic pathogen with multidrug resistance
Studies related to bacterial biofilm formation are extremely relevant because of their constant association with several human diseases. The organization of this sessile microbial community provides protection against opsonization and phagocytosis. It is responsible for hampering not only the immune system performance against infections but also antimicrobial activity. Staphylococcus aureus is part of healthy human microbiota including skin and nasal vestibule. However, many strains have become opportunistic pathogens because of the ability of biofilm formation in implants and medical devices by using them as route of acce...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - January 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Antimicrobial categories in describing multidrug resistance, extensive drug resistance and pan-drug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii: a systematic review
Conclusion: The current study lists the antibiotics which may be useful in clearly describing the extent of antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosaand A. baumannii for each term. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - January 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Eucalyptus camaldulensis efficiency for application against microbial infections
On account of the continuing increase in antimicrobial resistance among infectious agents which are mostly life-threatening, seeking novel and alternative therapeutic approaches seems essential. Eucalyptus camaldulensis, generally known as eucalyptus, contains various healing traits such as antimicrobial characteristics. These herbs generally grow alongside the rivers with both continuous and seasonal water. The antimicrobial applications of this herb, particularly against pandrug and multidrug resistant microorganisms mostly attributed to phenolic, polar terpene compounds and spathulenol. Major bioactive antimicrobial fra...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - January 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

What is the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that paralyze the world?
The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection has recently spread worldwide was declared a pandemic on March 11. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 disease are fever, fatigue, and dry cough. Some patients may experience pain and aches, nasal congestion, cold, sore throat or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Currently, the source of the virus is still unknown. However, all available evidence indicates that the origin of this virus is a natural animal and that it is not a manufactured virus. The virus spreads faster than ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

An overview on wearing the face mask to avoid transmission of coronavirus disease 2019
In December 2019, a report of a novel coronaviruses which called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from Wuhan, China shocked the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 affects both humans and animals. Here, we attempted to have an overview of different perspectives of the need to use a face mask against coronavirus disease 2019. The primary objective of this article is to reinforce awareness of common hazards in which voluntary and precautionary use of face mask respirators may be advantageous to healthy people and the safety of the healthcare workers. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

Type II toxin/antitoxin system genes expression in persister cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae
Conclusion: Considering the importance of persistence and the tolerance to antibiotics, further studies on persister cell formation and related genes such as the toxin/antitoxin system genes might help us to identify the precise mechanisms leading to persister cell formation. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Investigation of oxacillinases type beta-lactamases in carbapenems resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates
This study aimed to identify the carbapenem resistant A. baumannii isolates in ICU and analyse OXA-23, OXA-24, OXA-51 and OXA-58 genes’ expressions by using reverse transcritptase-PCR. In this study, A. baumannii isolates collected from the respiratory tract samples obtained from the patients receiving treatment between June 2017 and January 2018 at the ICU in Amasya University Sabuncuoğlu Serefeddin Education and Research Hospital. Collected samples identified by VITEK-2 device. Resistance profiles of carbapenem-resistant strains against to cefepime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, t...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Effect of ethanolic extract of Zataria multiflora Boiss (Shiraz thyme extract) on the kidney and spleen tissues of mice infected with visceral candidiasis and the stimulation of Th1, Th17, and Treg immune cells
Conclusion: The Z. multiflora Boiss fraction can be considered as a powerful alternative to other drug treatments for achieving proper outcomes. Therefore, the use of this compound as a therapeutic agent in visceral candidiasis is possibly a new turning point in treatment, which can postpone the progress of the disease among patients. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori virulence genes among Iranian infected patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Discussion: The frequency of virulence factor genes among H. pylori strains isolated in Iranian patients to be more frequently associated with the gastrointestinal disease compared with the other countries and these data can be considered in development of eradication strategies. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

A systematic review of 40 years of distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Vibrio cholerae in Iran with future perspective
To assess the prevalence of incidence rate and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Vibrio cholerae in provinces of Iran, a systematic review was conducted during 1979–2019. This survey was performed using the following keywords ‘Vibrio cholerae’ and ‘Iran’ in the international databases including ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar from January 1979 to December 2019. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 18.0 (IBM, New York, USA). In addition, P less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. According to our results, the highest ra...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

The host metabolism following bacterial biofilm: what is the mechanism of action?
The interplay of biofilm with host leads to a range of physiological reactions of the interacting members aimed at an adaptation to the novel position. These reactions include metabolic shifts in the influenced host cell, which is most apparent when the biofilm-forming bacteria replicates surround host cells. Whilst the bacteria try to deprive micronutrients of the host, the host cell, in turn, takes many metabolic countermeasures toward the micronutrient steal. During these conflicting interplays, the bacteria stimulate metabolic host cell reactions by means of common cell envelope ingredients and particular factors media...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Survey of human alveolar and cystic echinococcosis rates based on ELISA and portable ultrasound in Moghan, northwestern Iran
Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of echinococcosis in these areas, it is necessary to control, prevent, and combat these diseases. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: PARASITOLOGY Source Type: research

Observing and treating the tubercular tenosynovitis of ankle tendons: a case report and reviewing the related literature
Even in countries where tuberculosis (TB) is not uncommon, tenosynovitis rarely occurs. Ankle tendons involvement is much less common than wrist. In this case report, we present a case of ankle tenosynovitis. After diagnostic–therapeutic tenosynovectomy anti-TB treatment was started. No sign of disease relapse was observed after 9 months follow-up. MRI has an important role in diagnosing the cases of tenosynovitis. Magnetic resonance scan shows tendon thickening increases in synovial fluid in tendon sheath. Histopathologic findings of granulomatous inflammation as well as TB culture confirm the diagnosis. Although TB...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

The association of acetylacetate (Acr AB-Tol C) and QepA genes with multiple antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli clinical isolates
The objective of this study was assessment the association of AcrAB-TolC efflux pumps and qepA genes with resistance to common antibiotics among E. coli isolates. A total of 200 E. coli isolates were obtained from diverse samples of inpatients. Minimum inhibitory concentrations and Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion tests were determined for ceftazidime, cefotaxime, imipenem, gentamicin, and tetracycline. The Acr-AB-TolC and qepA genes were amplified using PCR technique and their association with antibiotics was also evaluated using Chi-square test. A majority of isolates (64%) were retrieved from gastrointestinal samples, f...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Existence of Helicobacter pylori with low virulence rate in dental plaque and gastric mucosa of patients with periodontal disease
Objective: Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric and peptic ulcer leading to gastric cancer progress. Gingival teeth grooves among patients with chronic periodontitis can act as reservoirs for H. pylori proliferation. The purpose of our study was assessment the association of H. pylori from dental plaques of patients with periodontitis with gastric colonization. Methods: Among patients with periodontitis admitted to dentistry centers, 250 dental plaque and 250 gastric biopsy samples were obtained during 2016–2019. After bacterial identification, virulence genes including cagA, cagT, cagE, vacA and hrgA ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Acne vulgaris and antimicrobial resistance: a review
Conclusion: The results suggests that Propionibacterium acnes is the main causative agent for pustular acne vulgaris and metronidazole was expectedly sensitive to P. acnes, whereas erythromycin and Clindamycin is emerging resistance. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Overview of multistage subunit tuberculosis vaccines: advantages and challenges
To date, tuberculosis (TB) infection, is the most threatening infectious disease in all humans around the world. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative intracellular bacterium, possesses an exclusive life-cycle inside the macrophages, as one of the most important cells in the innate immune system. As soon as entrance in the lungs, bacteria actively replicate, but intracellular conditions such as hypoxia and nutrient starvation, lead to low replication of bacteria, or nonreplicating state. While Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine is the most usable vaccine, especially in children and against active form, but this vaccine...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Early biochemical predictors of sepsis in patients with burn injury: current status and future perspectives
Sepsis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with burn injury and emerges as a clinical challenge for both emergency specialists and critical care staff. Since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are known to be the milestones of sepsis management, use of biomarkers in diagnosis is highly recommended in the initial stage of sepsis. Although currently used Procalcitonin, as a traditional marker, may accurately indicate the presence of a systemic inflammation in burn patients, there is a need for more accurate markers of sepsis in burn patients. For now, use of a combination of markers may be sugg...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

New vaccine candidates as a scientific solution against the dream of tuberculosis vaccine
Tuberculosis (TB) is accounted for as one of the most important destructive infectious diseases for humans, which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Studies have shown the severe effects of tuberculosis in patients, especially sensitive groups. Emergence and distribution of both multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains have caused failure in the infection eradication. At present, BCG vaccine is the only most effective vaccine for the prevention of TB in childhood but its protection level in pulmonary TB in adult is very variable. Therefore, the need for an appropriate alternative vaccine...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori virulence factors expression affect epigenetic factors leading to gastrointestinal carcinoma
Disruption in the epigenetic mechanisms is one of the causes of cancer; particularly in the gut. It has been elucidated that multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations during this process caused by chronic inflammation play a crucial role in the cancer progress. DNA methylation impairment as a leading change is caused during the proliferation of Helicobacter pylori. It has been unraveled that numerous tumor suppressor genes are regulated by related promoter methylation, justifying environmental factors inducing gastric carcinoma. H. pylori infection affects various cells through inflammation, changes in apoptosis, prolife...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Decreased vancomycin susceptibility among Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates and postulated platforms to explore rational drugs
Vancomycin is among last-resort drugs for the elimination of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Suboptimal or prolonged exposure to vancomycin is a major cause of decreased vancomycin susceptibility being a great concern toward the eradication of related infections. This arises from genetic and metabolic alterations leading to cell wall thickness and mitigation of autolysis. Therefore, the study on the major mechanisms contributing to the development of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and VISA strains and development of novel and efficient therapeutic approaches i...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Evaluation of the synergistic effect of cinnamon extract and honey against multidrug-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered from burn unit
Conclusion: This study showed a proper synergistic effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of cinnamon and honey in combination with Ciprofloxacin and Gentamicin against MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Occurrence of FOX AmpC gene among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in abattoir samples from south-eastern Nigeria
This study aimed to evaluate the presence of FOX AmpC-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from abattoir samples by both phenotypic method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, 360 abattoir samples were analyzed for the isolation of P. aeruginosa strains. Antibiogram was carried out using the disk diffusion technique. The production of AmpC enzymes was phenotypically screened and confirmed using the cefoxitin--cloxacillin double-disk synergy test (CC-DDST). Finally, gene responsible for FOX AmpC enzyme production was investigated using PCR. A total of 147 (40.8%) isolates of P. aeruginosa was recovered f...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Tandem repeat analysis for typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa carrying resistance genes in southern Iran
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to be one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections, with high antimicrobial resistance. Thus, the current study was conducted to evaluate usefulness of multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) plan for epidemiological studies and clustering of P. aeruginosa isolated in different wards of general hospital in Bandar Abbas, south of Iran, as well as assessment of presence of integrons and resistance genes in these strains. A total of 72 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were isolated from the patients hospitalized in the hospital from December 2017 t...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Prevalence of fosfomycin resistance genes and antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical urinary extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates
The antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 284 Enterobacteriaceae isolates responsible for urinary tract infections to ampicillin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprin-sulfamethaxole, and fosfomycin was performed by disk diffusion method. Additionally, in fosfomycin-resistant and intermediate susceptible isolates using disk diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fosfomycin was determined by agar dilution. The presence of fosA and fosA3 genes and ESBL genes was investigated in fosfomycin-resistant isolates and ESBL-producing isolates, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae [72.34% ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Photocatalytic inactivation of microorganisms in water under ultraviolet C irradiation and TiO2
This study aimed to use nanoparticles and UVC radiation, which were considered in some previous laboratory studies. The contaminated water was entered into a photocatalytic reactor, and microbial removal efficiency of TiO2 alone and in the presence of UV was evaluated under different retention times (0–90 min) and concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1 and 2 mg/ml). Efficiency of the reactor increased with increase in the retention time in the presence of UV. Simultaneous treatment of the contaminated water with both UV and TiO2 nanoparticles had a similar outcome. However, only a slight redu...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Occupational leptospirosis as an underreported disease in high-risk groups: implications for prevention and control measures
Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonotic disease with no particular or verified symptoms, which has been underreported as an occupational infection. Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa are the two major pathogenic serovars. Professionals who are in constant contact with animals and their residues, in water supply, rice mill, slaughtering houses, hospital sanitary places, strawberry picking, construction works, agriculture working, forest working and food industry are at highest risk. Factors related to occupational, environmental, and recreational aspects and the presenc...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Novel gold nanobiosensor platforms for rapid and inexpensive detection of Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative curved-rod bacterium belonging to the Vibrionaceae family. Routine detection of V. cholerae infection can be achieved by isolation of the organism from stool sample on the selective medium, followed by biochemical tests and specific antibodies for serotyping and serogrouping. These methods are labor-working and time-consuming. Furthermore, they provide low sensitivity and specificity. Advanced diagnostic approaches for identification of V. cholerae, such as cell-counting techniques by immunoassay, PCR, and real-time PCR are also used. In addition to these strategies, nanotechnology includ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Toxin–antitoxin systems and biofilm formation in bacteria
Biofilms usually occur on or within medical devices such as mechanical heart valves, prosthetic joints, peritoneal dialysis catheters, contact lenses, central venous catheters, pacemakers and urinary catheters. The presence of biofilms can be seen in different diseases like endocarditis, otitis, cystic fibrosis, periodontitis, osteomyelitis and chronic wounds. Toxin–antitoxin systems are reported to respond to stresses that are also found in the host. Some toxins of toxin–antitoxin systems modules have been proposed as potential weapons used by bacteria to act on host targets. In this review, we focus on the mo...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Oral cavity infection by Enterococcus faecalis: virulence factors and pathogenesis
Enterococcus faecalis plays an important role in human oral cavity infections and may be one of the important species in endodontic treatment failure. In this review article, we provide an overview on the occurrence of the virulence factors associated with E. faecalis in oral infections. Seven virulence factors of E. faecalis have been associated with oral infections including extracellular surface protein (esp), gelatinase (GelE), aggregation substance (Asa), adhesion of collagen from E. faecalis (Ace), Serine protease (Spr), lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and E. faecalis antigen A (efaA). The absence of these factors leads to d...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Antibacterial effects of local analgesics and anesthetics
Conclusion: Sufentanil Citrate, midazolam, and pethidine exerted efficient inhibitory effect on Staph. aureus, Strep. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis. Lidocaine and bupivacaine had a strong inhibitory effect on growth of nine standard bacterial species in our survey. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

National surveillance of food-borne botulism in Iran during 2011–2015
Food-borne botulism, a potentially lethal neuroparalytic disease, is also a health challenge with a variable prevalence rate in Iran. This work presents the results of a 5-year surveillance of botulism in Iran, with the distribution of the cases by regions and by vehicle of transmission. This descriptive-retrospective study was done on food-borne botulism poisoning cases reported to the Iran's Ministry of Health during 2011–2015. Data was collected by interview, examination and questionnaires. All the relevant and confirmed botulism outbreaks that occurred in the period under consideration are described. During these...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

Molecular study of some virulence genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different infections in hospitals of Baghdad
In this study, two types of methods were used in the detection of biofilm formation: the first one was Congo red agar method and the second one was microtiter plate method. In the first method, results showed that biofilm formed by 57/100 (57%) according to black color production on media, whereas in the second method was 69/100 (69%) produce strong adherence according to OD in ELISA reader. Genotypic detection of many virulence factors related to P. aeruginosa was performed using conventional PCR. These included: gene coded for exoenzyme S (exoS), exoenzyme U (exoU), exotoxin A (toxA), two phospholipases C encoded by (plc...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - December 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research