Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 103: Current In Vitro Models to Study Varicella Zoster Virus Latency and Reactivation
Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 103: Current In Vitro Models to Study Varicella Zoster Virus Latency and Reactivation Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11020103 Authors: Nicholas L. Baird Shuyong Zhu Catherine M. Pearce Abel Viejo-Borbolla Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a highly prevalent human pathogen that causes varicella (chicken pox) during primary infection and establishes latency in peripheral neurons. Symptomatic reactivation often presents as zoster (shingles), but it has also been linked to life-threatening diseases such as encephalitis, vasculopathy and meningitis. Zoster may be followed by postherpetic neuralgia, neuropathic pain lasting after resolution of the rash. The mechanisms of varicella zoster virus (VZV) latency and reactivation are not well characterized. This is in part due to the human-specific nature of VZV that precludes the use of most animal and animal-derived neuronal models. Recently, in vitro models of VZV latency and reactivation using human neurons derived from stem cells have been established facilitating an understanding of the mechanisms leading to VZV latency and reactivation. From the models, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and nerve growth factor (NGF) have all been implicated as potential modulators of VZV latency/reactivation. Additionally, it was shown that the vaccine-strain of VZV is impaired for reactivation. These models may also aid in the generation of prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to treat V...
The interleukin 3 receptor (CD123) is a transmembrane protein that is absent or hardly expressed on normal hematopoietic stem cells, but highly expressed on the surface of cancer cells in several hematologic malignancies. In this issue of the JCI, Togami et al. investigated the mechanism of resistance to the recently approved anti-CD123 agent tagraxofusp, which consists of interleukin 3 fused to a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT) molecule. The authors demonstrated that loss of the intracellular target for DT, diphthamide, a conservative modification of histidine 715 in eukaryotic elongation factor 2, resulted in tagraxofusp...
Conclusion: The instrument proposed in the study exhibited content validity for most of its items and emerges as a practical strategy for the management of the daily interruption of sedation of critical patients.
Leading suicide theories and research in adults suggest that pain can exacerbate the suicidal risk of an individual. Although pain and suicidality (including suicidal ideation, behaviour, and death by suicide) both increase in prevalence during adolescence...
80 something yr old lady with left V1 phn. she failed all neuropathic agents you can think of. also failed capsaicin. i recently did supratrochlear and supraorbital block and got 100% relief for few days and still doing better but obviously block not lasting long. what do u guys do next? RF? pulsed RF? peripheral stim? any thoughts/experience appreciated
This video demonstrates a laparoscopic assisted transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block as an alternative to the traditional anesthesiology-driven ultrasound-guided TAP block to reduce postoperative pain.
To investigate the safety and feasibility of robotic single-site for surgical resection of stage I to IV endometriosis in chronic pelvic pain patients.
To assess impact of abdominal ice packs on opioid use and pain control following laparoscopic hysterectomy.
To compare chronic pelvic pain and quality-of-life outcomes in women undergoing conservative or definitive surgery for pelvic pain.
To showcase a new approach to treatment of chronic pelvic pain after transobturator mesh placement.
To assess associations between perioperative non-opioid pain control adjuncts and postoperative opioid use.