Myo-inositol Effects on the Developing Respiratory Neural Control System.

Myo-inositol Effects on the Developing Respiratory Neural Control System. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1071:159-166 Authors: MacFarlane PM, Di Fiore JM Abstract Myo-inositol is a highly abundant stereoisomer of the inositol family of sugar alcohols and forms the structural basis for a variety of polyphosphate derivatives including second messengers and membrane phospholipids. These derivatives regulate numerous cell processes including gene transcription, membrane excitability, vesicular trafficking, intracellular calcium signaling, and neuronal growth and development. Myo-inositol can be formed endogenously from the breakdown of glucose, is found in a variety of foods including breastmilk and is commercially available as a nutritional supplement. Abnormal myo-inositol metabolism has been shown to underlie the pathophysiology of a variety of clinical conditions including Down Syndrome, traumatic brain injury, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Several animal studies have shown that myo-inositol may play a critical role in development of both the central and peripheral respiratory neural control system; a notable example is the neonatal apnea and respiratory insufficiency that manifests in a mouse model of myo-inositol depletion, an effect that is also postnatally lethal. This review focuses on myo-inositol (and some of its derivatives) and how it may play a role in respiratory neural control; we also discuss clinical evid...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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Conclusion: Both hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia were associated with increased short- and long-term mortality with a U-shape relationship. PMID: 32066311 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Postgraduate Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Postgrad Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Konstantinos Palikaras, Nektarios TavernarakisAbstractMaintenance of synaptic homeostasis is a challenging task, due to the intricate spatial organization and intense activity of synapses. Typically, synapses are located far away from the neuronal cell body, where they orchestrate neuronal signalling and communication, through neurotransmitter release. Stationary mitochondria provide energy required for synaptic vesicle cycling, and preserve ionic balance by buffering intercellular calcium at synapses. Thus, synaptic h...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Long-term survival following EPS managed conservatively with nutritional support is feasible, with the majority no longer requiring nutritional support and having a quality of life similar to other patients with ESKD. PMID: 32067553 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Peritoneal Dialysis International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Perit Dial Int Source Type: research
Authors: Glavinovic T, Hurst H, Hutchison A, Johansson L, Ruddock N, Perl J Abstract Urea removal in peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been a primary measure of dialysis adequacy, but its utility remains limited due to its poor correlation with the clearance of other important uraemic retention solutes and the low certainty of evidence relating peritoneal urea clearance and survival of individuals doing PD. Indeed, clearances of other uraemic solutes, electrolyte imbalances, hypoalbuminaemia and nutritional status, may provide a more holistic measure of dialysis adequacy when evaluating individuals on PD in addition to ...
Source: Peritoneal Dialysis International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Perit Dial Int Source Type: research
Authors: Chen CH, Perl J, Teitelbaum I Abstract Maintenance of residual kidney function (RKF) is independently associated with increased survival in patients with end-stage renal disease. Presence of RKF is also associated with improved volume status, better nutritional status, reduced erythropoietin requirement, and decreased rate of peritonitis in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Thus, the preservation of RKF is an important therapeutic end point in the management of patients on PD. Measurement of RKF in PD patients should be based on the mean of 24-h urinary creatinine and urea clearances, and ideally, this...
Source: Peritoneal Dialysis International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Perit Dial Int Source Type: research
Authors: Melo TL, Meireles MS, Kamimura MA, Cuppari L Abstract BACKGROUND: Decreased appetite is a symptom often found in chronic kidney disease. Poor appetite may negatively affect food intake, what in long-term may contribute to the development of protein-energy malnutrition. METHODS: An Appetite and Food Satisfaction Questionnaire (AFSQ) was developed consisting of a question that assesses the level of appetite through a facial hedonic scale and five other questions adapted from the Buckner and Dwyer tool that assess some aspects related to food satisfaction. Each question received an arbitrary score of 0 to...
Source: Peritoneal Dialysis International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Perit Dial Int Source Type: research
We thank Dr Hansen for pointing out this rare phenomenon in infants, but would like to caution against drawing conclusions. Dr Hansen describes his own child with tracheomalacia whose clinical condition worsened with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and improved after withdrawal of the same. He postulates loss of tracheal tone with iNO. We have also observed “airway spasm,” though extremely rarely and only in infants with either Down syndrome or with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and suspected tracheobronchomalacia.
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: LETTER TO THE EDITOR Source Type: research
In this report, we present 2 RSV-related deaths of children who were born at full-term and developed normally up to the age of 19 months. Their cardiopulmonary arrests occurred within half a day after the onset of symptoms, such as cough and high fever. Many postmortem examinations were performed to investigate their unexpected deaths. Histopathological examinations revealed extensive bronchiolitis and mild pneumonia accompanying airway obstruction. Immunostaining revealed the presence of the virus mainly in bronchial epithelia, but not in alveoli. Complete brain edema was prominent, and encephalopathy was developing. Bloo...
Source: PEDIATRICS - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Pulmonology, RSV Case Report Source Type: research
Abstract AimTo compare the clinical characteristics of children with and without Down's syndrome hospitalized due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). MethodsA retrospective cohort study was performed, where data from hospitalizations due to RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children (
Source: Acta Paediatrica - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research
Abstract AimPrevious studies have suggested that Down's syndrome is an independent risk factor for severe respiratory infection due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We compared the clinical characteristics of children with and without Down's syndrome hospitalised due to RSV. MethodsThis retrospective cohort study compared data from hospitalisations due to RSV lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children under 14 year of age with (n=58) and without (n=58) Down's syndrome. ResultsThe Down's group had longer hospital stays than the controls of six versus four days (p
Source: Acta Paediatrica - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research
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