Enhancing Cancer Immunotherapy with Artificial Intelligence

Physicians may soon use artificial intelligence (AI) and medical images to study tumors without a biopsy. The techniques developed to study tumors in this new way are described in the September 1 issue of The Lancet Oncology. Along with helping physicians learn more about tumors without surgery, the new approach should help identify which cancer patients will respond best to cutting-edge immunotherapy treatments. The AI techniques could be useful for “predicting clinical outcomes of patients treated with immunotherapy when validated by further prospective randomized trials,” the authors wrote. Immunotherapy treatments are helping some people survive cancers once considered a death sentence, including mesothelioma. Unfortunately, these therapies don’t work for everyone. The French researchers behind The Lancet study believe using AI to determine the effectiveness of immunotherapy is a welcome addition to the cancer treatment arsenal. “Development of new biomarkers that predict response to immunotherapy are needed,” the authors wrote. “Our study attempts to address this need by proposing a CT-based biomarker, which could be useful and accessible given the widespread availability and routine use of CT.” Putting CT Scans and Artificial Intelligence to Work in Cancer Care An important goal was to predict which tumors respond best to immunotherapy treatments, based only on features that can be discerned from a CT scan. The researchers firs...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: news

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ConclusionUsing structured data, we accurately classified patients’ cancer risk group, identified bone scan documentation with two NLP methods, and evaluated guideline adherence. Our pipeline can be used to provide concrete feedback to clinicians and guide treatment decisions.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Biomedical Informatics - Category: Information Technology Source Type: research
ConclusionTiming of titanium mesh cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy based on their age is a workable solution for school-age pediatric patients. The enlargement of cranium defects in pre-schoolers supports a delayed repair until school age. The long-term outcomes for these patients with titanium mesh cranioplasty are favourable.
Source: Journal of Cranio Maxillofacial Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2019Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical JournalAuthor(s): Enas Al-Ani, Claire Martin, Stephen T. Britland, Khalid Doudin, David J.HillAbstractIn the current work, two groups of chlorhexidine mucoadhesive buccal tablets were prepared, using either rod or irregularly-shaped spherical particles of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and different ratios of poloxamer 407 (P407). The tablets were designed to release the drug over two hours. Their physicochemical properties and drug release profiles were investigated. The impact on dry granulation, the ex-vivo mucoadhesion, the swelling index, the ...
Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2019Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical JournalAuthor(s): Omar M. Noman, Ramzi A. Mothana, Adnan J. Al-Rehaily, Ali S. Al qahtani, Fahd A. Nasr, Jamal M. Khaled, Mohamed F. Alajmi, Mansour S. Al-SaidAbstractThe Loranthus genus has been demonstrated to be used in the treatment of wide range of diseases e.g. diabetes, inflammations and cancers. Many species of Loranthus represent a major source of biologically active constituents. Therefore, our study was carried out to investigate the anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Loranthus acaciae Zucc. (Loranthaceae) grown...
Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In this study, novel adhesive films were prepared for Mupirocin dermal delivery. Natural polymers as chitosan, sodium alginate and carbopol were used for films development to evaluate possible interactions and drug release properties. Solvent evaporation method was used for films preparation. Preliminary studies involved FT-IR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy to specify interactions and morphology. Thickness, tensile stength and water uptake in phosphate buffer saline were evaluated whereas in vitro release studies were also performed. In vitro drug release studies demonstrated that mupirocin release was impro...
Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In this study, we devised a simple industrial method to manufacture lipoplex, which includes short hairpin RNA against the expression of thymidylate synthase (TS shRNA) — a key molecule for DNA biosynthesis. An aqueous solution of TS shRNA was gently mixed with either a precursor of cationic liposome (Presome DF-1) or a cationic lipid mixture in an o/w emulsion. This solution was subsequently lyophilized under optimal conditions to obtain either FD-lipoplex-1 or FD-lipoplex-2, respectively. With this method, a lipoplex in activated form was obtained via a simple “one-step” hydration with saline. Both form...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: June 2019Source: Cancer Epidemiology, Volume 60Author(s): Marie Poiseuil, Gaëlle Coureau, Catherine Payet, Marianne Savès, Marc Debled, Simone Mathoulin-Pelissier, Brice AmadeoAbstractBackgroundSome studies have investigated the role of socio-demographic inequalities in the association between screening and survival. However, in France, no study has been conducted to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and survival of women with breast cancer based on their participation to mass screening. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of socio-demographic inequalities on the associ...
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe consistent association with educational attainment suggests low health literacy may play a role in CUP diagnosis. These findings highlight the need to develop strategies to achieve earlier identification of diagnostically challenging malignancies in people with low health literacy.
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionPrevalence of H. pylori infection in LAC is high for all age groups. These data reinforce the necessity of actions towards the prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection for all age groups. Treating H pylori infection in young ages probably will reduce gastric cancer incidence in the future.
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study evaluates NLR in a large cohort of HCC patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 789 HCC cases (1993-2017) for demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment, and survival. NLR was stratified into NLR ≥1.5 and NLR ≥3 and analyzed for correlation with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stages. In 235 patients who underwent liver resection, survival and recurrence were evaluated by NLR. Results: In 789 HCC cases, mean NLR was increased with advanced AJCC and BCLC stages. Hepatitis C patients were less likely to have NLR ≥1.5 and ≥3. Non-alcoh...
Source: Clinical and molecular hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Clin Mol Hepatol Source Type: research
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