Characterization and Diagnostic Application of Trypanosoma cruzi Trypomastigote Excreted-Secreted Antigens Shed in Extracellular Vesicles Released from Infected Mammalian Cells Immunoassays

Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, although endemic in many parts of Central and South America, is emerging as a global health threat through the potential contamination of blood supplies. Consequently, in the absence of a gold standard assay for the diagnosis of Chagas disease, additional antigens or strategies are needed. A proteomic analysis of the trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigens (TESA) associated with exosomal vesicles shed by T. cruzi identified ~80 parasite proteins, with the majority being trans-sialidases. Mass spectrometry analysis of immunoprecipitation products performed using Chagas immune sera showed a marked enrichment in a subset of TESA proteins. Of particular relevance for diagnostic applications were the retrotransposon hot spot (RHS) proteins, which are absent in Leishmania spp., parasites that often confound diagnosis of Chagas disease. Interestingly, serological screens using recombinant RHS showed a robust immunoreactivity with sera from patients with clinical stages of Chagas ranging from asymptomatic to advance cardiomyopathy and this immunoreactivity was comparable to that of crude TESA. More importantly, no cross-reactivity with RHS was detected with sera from patients with malaria, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, or African sleeping sickness, making this protein an attractive reagent for diagnosis of Chagas disease.
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Immunoassays Source Type: research

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