The Burden of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in the Asia Pacific Region

Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome and leads to considerable vascular and liver-related burden of disease. Whilst regarded as a sequelae of the modern Western sedentary, food-rich lifestyle, NAFLD was actually noted in Japan nearly 50 years ago and its epidemiology, associated with affluence and increased food consumption, are well-documented. In fact, Asian populations appear to have an increased susceptibility to NAFLD, partly owing to visceral adipose body composition differences and changing cultural effects. Whilst the focus in the region has been on tackling chronic viral hepatitis, following the obesity and diabetes pandemics that have developed more recently in Asia, the burden of present and future NAFLD disease are increasingly being recognised. NAFLD community prevalence figures range between 5 and 45 %, with marked variation between Asia Pacific populations. NAFLD is also associated with increased rates of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cirrhotic complications and hepatocellular cancer (particularly in those with chronic viral hepatitis) in the Asia Pacific region. Therefore, increased efforts to diagnose those with NAFLD early and reliable pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies to treat it are required. At a larger scale, efforts to curb excessive food consumption, encourage exercise and prevent insulin resistance are needed to tackle NA...
Source: Current Hepatitis Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
Source: BMJ News - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Miyata M, Funaki A, Fukuhara C, Sumiya Y, Sugiura Y Abstract Mice lacking the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are used as a genetic model for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease because their livers exhibit hepatic steatosis and inflammation. The influence of taurine drinking on disrupted hepatic function was investigated using female Fxr-null mice. Significant decreases in the levels of hepatic damage-associated diagnostic markers, hepatic triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, and total bile acids were found in Fxr-null mice that had drunk water containing 0.5% taurine for four weeks. Hepatic but not serum t...
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research
Authors: Fan D, Yang S, Han Y, Zhang R, Yang L Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are widely known as critical regulators in isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity during the development of brain. Moreover, isoflurane could aggravate cognitive impairment in diabetic rats. The present study was designed to investigate the role and mechanism of miR-140-5p on isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in diabetic rats. Firstly, a diabetic rat model was established by injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and identified by Morris water maze test. The result indicated that isoflurane treatment exacerbated STZ-induced cognitive impairment, as demo...
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research
Authors: Ma Q, Shao Y, Chen W, Quan C, Zhu Y, Xu X, Zhou Z, Wang S Abstract Aim: To investigate whether cervical cancer (CC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) can be screened by analyzing gene expression profiling of peripheral blood. Methods: RNA-sequencing analysis of blood was performed on 11 CC patients, 21 CIN patients and 19 healthy controls (H). Fifty-nine genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR using blood samples from 46 H, 83 CC and 32 CIN patients. Results: There were significant differences in the expression levels of six genes between CC and H, five genes between CIN and H and fou...
Source: Future Medicine: Biomarkers in Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Biomark Med Source Type: research
Authors: Deng Z, Wu J, Xu S, Chen F, Zhang Z, Jin A, Wang J Abstract Exosomes have appeared as fundamental vehicle-modulated crosstalk among various cells in the tumor microenvironment. The systematic understanding of exosomes in gastric cancer (GC) enhances our comprehension about the tumor growth, metastasis, chemoresistance and diagnosis of cancers. The versatile functions of exosomes provide reasonable explanations about the propensity for GC metastasis. The selectively enriched components, especially some exosomal miRNAs, are potential noninvasive biomarkers for sensitive and specific GC diagnosis. Given the c...
Source: Future Medicine: Biomarkers in Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Biomark Med Source Type: research
This study aimed to quantitatively grasp the structure of support for balancing cancer treatment and work among occupational health nurses (OHNs) with the current implementation status. The anonymous questionnaire was designed based on the findings of our previous qualitative study and distributed to OHNs. The degrees of support implementation for workers with cancer, superiors and colleagues, and human resource managers were assessed for each item. Factor analysis of support items was conducted, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was carried out to compare the support scores between the factors. Support for workers with cancer...
Source: Industrial Health - Category: Occupational Health Tags: Ind Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Cui Chen, Min Zhou, Yuchen Ge, Xiaobo WangAbstractAging is a biological phenomenon in which the structure and function of organisms declining with the increasing of age. It has become a major risk factor of human diseases, including diabetes, cancers, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. Silencing information regulator 2 related enzyme 1(sirtuin1, SIRT1) is an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, which has been reported to be involved in the regulation of cellular senescence and aging. The expression of SIRT1...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2020Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical GastroenterologyAuthor(s): Maria Guarino, Valentina Cossiga, Filomena MoriscoAbstractAbnormal liver tests occur in 3-5% of pregnancies and show many different causes. Although alterations of liver enzymes could be a physiological phenomenon, it may also reflect potential severe liver injury, necessitating further assessment and accurate management. The work-up has to consider liver diseases specific of pregnancy and non pregnancy-related liver damage (coincidental and pre-existing to pregnancy).Pre-existing liver diseases during...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundThe proportion of elderly patients undergoing surgery for gastric cancer is increasing. However, limited number of therapeutic outcomes in the elderly has been reported. Here we examined the surgical results based on a nationwide survey of elderly patients who underwent surgery for Stage I gastric cancer.MethodsData from 68,353 Stage I patients who underwent gastrectomy between 2001 and 2007 were retrospectively collected. The accumulated data were reviewed and analyzed by the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association registration committee. We first classified the patients as those aged  ≤ 74&...
Source: Gastric Cancer - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
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