[Expressions of HSP110 family members in the testes and epididymis of mice at different stages of development and their regulation by hormones].
CONCLUSIONS: The expression levels of HSP110 family are affected by developmental regulation, and the expressions of HSPA4 and HSPA4l are under the regulation by hormones. PMID: 31640949 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Southern Medical University)
Source: Journal of Southern Medical University - September 30, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Rong C, Du Z, Liu J, Wu X Tags: Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao Source Type: research

Epidemiology and outcomes of acute liver failure in Australia.
Authors: Hey P, Hanrahan TP, Sinclair M, Testro AG, Angus PW, Peterson A, Warrillow S, Bellomo R, Perini MV, Starkey G, Jones RM, Fink M, McClure T, Gow P Abstract BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening syndrome with varying aetiologies requiring complex care and multidisciplinary management. Its changing incidence, aetiology and outcomes over the last 16 years in the Australian context remain uncertain. AIM: To describe the changing incidence, aetiology and outcomes of ALF in South Eastern Australia. METHODS: The database of the Victorian Liver Transplant Unit was interrogated to ident...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Incidental hepatic steatosis in radiology reports: a survey of emergency department clinicians ’ perspectives and current practice
ConclusionOur survey highlights the importance of clear communication between radiologists and ED physicians when incidental findings are encountered. Radiologists play an important role in alerting ED physicians and clinicians who have access to patients ’ radiology reports to the presence of incidental findings including hepatic steatosis. (Source: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology)
Source: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Numan Kutaiba, Joe ‐Anthony Rotella, Zaid Ardalan, Adam Testro Tags: Medical Imaging —Original Article Source Type: research

Rise in Proportional Early Cardiovascular Mortality Following Liver Transplantation: Temporal Trends from the Australian & New Zealand Liver Transplant Registry
Background: Liver transplantation (LT) surgery poses a significant cardiovascular (CV) risk. Given the rising prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and advancing age of LT candidates, delineating CV risk is increasingly important. We sought to characterize the incidence and modes of intraoperative and early ( ≤30days) CV death post-LT. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: A. Koshy, P. Gow, J. Sajeev, B. Cailes, J. Ko, J. Ramchand, H. Lim, A. Teh, H. Han, R. Jones, A. Testro, M. Byrne, D. Clark, M. Yudi, O. Farouque Tags: 425 Source Type: research

Inducible Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction is Associated with a Higher Incidence of Perioperative Cardiac Arrest in Liver Transplantation
Background: Inducible left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) is often encountered in liver transplant (LT) candidates during cardiac workup. While the impact of LVOTO on adverse cardiovascular haemodynamics is well reported, it is unclear whether it predisposes to perioperative cardiovascular complications post LT. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: B. Cailes, A. Koshy, H. Han, J. Sajeev, J. Ko, L. Weinberg, P. Gow, A. Testro, P. Srivastava, H. Lim, A. Teh, O. Farouque Tags: 399 Source Type: research

Impact of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Survival following Liver Transplantation: Results from the Australian & New Zealand Liver Transplant Registry
Background: Cardiovascular (CV) death is a leading cause of long-term mortality following liver transplantation (LT). Identifying pertinent CV risk factors that impact on long-term survival may allow an opportunity for intervention. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: A. Koshy, P. Gow, B. Cailes, J. Sajeev, A. Teh, H. Lim, H. Han, R. Jones, A. Testro, M. Byrne, J. Ko, D. Clark, M. Yudi, O. Farouque Tags: 393 Source Type: research

Hepatorenal Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Liver Transplantation is an Independent Risk Factor for Perioperative Cardiac Complications
Background: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a serious complication of cirrhosis associated with a poor survival in the absence of liver transplantation (LT). Although HRS confers higher risk of complications due to cirrhosis, it is unclear whether it leads to increased risk of perioperative major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) following LT. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: B. Cailes, A. Koshy, J. Sajeev, H. Han, J. Ko, L. Weinberg, P. Gow, A. Testro, H. Lim, A. Teh, O. Farouque Tags: 390 Source Type: research

Existing Models to Assess Perioperative Cardiac Risk demonstrate poor predictive validity in patients undergoing liver transplantation
Background: Liver transplantation (LT) is associated with risk for perioperative cardiovascular events. Although guideline recommended risk scores are well validated in non-cardiac surgery, there is uncertainty regarding their utility in LT. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: B. Cailes, A. Koshy, J. Ko, H. Han, H. Lim, A. Teh, L. Weinberg, A. Testro, P. Gow, O. Farouque Tags: 382 Source Type: research

Cardiac Output in End-Stage Liver Disease Increases Proportional to the Degree of Liver Dysfunction
Background: End-stage liver disease is associated with significant systemic and haemodynamic alterations that affect cardiac function. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy remains an ill-defined entity among cardiologists. Understanding the complex interplay between liver dysfunction and cardiac function can lead to a better understanding of the compensatory mechanisms of the heart in liver failure. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: A. Koshy, B. Cailes, P. Gow, A. Testro, H. Han, J. Sajeev, J. Ko, L. Weinberg, P. Srivastava, H. Lim, A. Teh, O. Farouque Tags: 358 Source Type: research

Beta Blocker Use Increases The Risk of Perioperative Cardiac Events in Liver Transplant Patients
Background: Recent evidence has linked beta blocker (BB) use with perioperative major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after non-cardiac surgery. BB are often used for treatment of portal hypertension in liver disease. We sought to determine whether BB use was associated with adverse perioperative outcomes in liver transplantation (LT). (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: B. Cailes, A. Koshy, J. Ko, H. Han, H. Lim, A. Teh, L. Weinberg, A. Testro, P. Gow, O. Farouque Tags: 354 Source Type: research

Impaired Cardiac Reserve on Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography Predicts Development of Hepatorenal Syndrome
Background: The role of cardiac dysfunction in the genesis of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is poorly understood. We studied cardiovascular haemodynamics in HRS and assessed whether a diminished cardiac reserve with stress testing predicted the development of HRS. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: A. Koshy, B. Cailes, A. Testro, J. Ramchand, J. Sajeev, H. Han, P. Calafiore, E. Jones, P. Srivastava, H. Salehi, A. Teh, H. Lim, P. Gow, O. Farouque Tags: 013 Source Type: research

Xyosted - A Testosterone Auto-Injector for Hypogonadism
Date: March 11, 2019 Issue #:  1567Summary:  The FDA has approved an auto-injector formulation of testosterone enanthate (Xyosted– Antares Pharma) for once-weekly subcutaneous self-administration in adult males with conditions associated with a deficiency or absence of endogenous testosterone. It is the first subcutaneous formulation of testosterone to be approved by the FDA.Xyosted is contraindicated for treatment of low testosterone levels associated with aging. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - February 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Aveed Depo-Testosterone Hypogonadism Xyosted Source Type: research

Exogenous testosterone alleviates cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis via Gas6/Axl pathway in the senescent mice.
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicated that testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) alleviates cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis, at least in part by enhancing Gas6 expression. Moreover, deletion of Axl disables testosterone, which indicated that Axl is an important downstream regulator of testosterone. TRT would improve aging-related cardiac remolding via Gas6/Axl signaling pathway, implicating its therapeutic potential to treat aging-related heart disease. PMID: 30710682 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Gerontology)
Source: Experimental Gerontology - January 30, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Chen FF, Song FQ, Chen YQ, Wang ZH, Li YH, Liu MH, Li Y, Song M, Zhang W, Zhao J, Zhong M Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

Early viral ‐specific T‐cell testing predicts late cytomegalovirus reactivation following liver transplantation
Transplant Infectious Disease, EarlyView. (Source: Transplant Infectious Disease)
Source: Transplant Infectious Disease - June 19, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: S. Sood , C. Haifer , L. Yu , J. Pavlovic , P.J. Gow , R.M. Jones , K. Visvanathan , P.W. Angus , A.G. Testro Source Type: research

Passenger lymphocyte syndrome due to anti ‐B and anti‐Jka following combined intestinal and renal transplantation
ISBT Science Series, EarlyView. (Source: ISBT Science Series)
Source: ISBT Science Series - June 4, 2018 Category: Hematology Authors: C. C. Chua , H. Lim , A. Testro , F. S. Hong Source Type: research

Mo1901 - Real World Outcomes of Vedolizumab for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Post Liver Transplantation
(Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - May 1, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Matthew Peverelle, Christopher D. Mills, Adam Testro, Peter De Cruz Tags: AGA Abstracts Source Type: research

Add-on Therapy With the α-Blockers Tamsulosin and Naftopidil Improves Voiding Function by Enhancing Neuronal Activity in Prostatic Hyperplasia Rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy of tamsulosin and naftopidil showed greater efficacy for the treatment of BPH than tamsulosin monotherapy or naftopidil monotherapy; therefore, combination therapy can be considered as a novel therapeutic method for BPH. PMID: 29609419 [PubMed] (Source: International Neurourology Journal)
Source: International Neurourology Journal - April 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Int Neurourol J Source Type: research

Urine and Serum Sex Steroid Profile in Testosterone-treated Transgender and Hypogonadal and Healthy Control Men.
Abstract Background: The impact of testosterone (T) treatment on anti-doping detection tests in transgender (F2M) men is unknown. We investigated urine and serum sex steroid and LH profiles in T-treated transgender (F2M) to determine whether and, if so, how they differed from hypogonadal and healthy control men. Method: Healthy transgender (n=23) and hypogonadal (n=24) men treated with 1000mg injectable T undecanoate aged 18-50 years provided trough urine and blood samples and an additional earlier post-injection sample (n=21). Healthy control men (n=20) provided a single blood and urine sample. Steroids were...
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 22, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Savkovic S, Lim S, Jayadev V, Conway A, Turner L, Curtis D, Goebel C, Handelsman DJ Tags: J Clin Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Injection testosterone and adverse cardiovascular events: A  case‐crossover analysis
ConclusionsTestosterone injections were uniquely associated with short‐term risk of acute cardio‐ and cerebrovascular events in older adult men following injection receipt. (Source: Clinical Endocrinology)
Source: Clinical Endocrinology - March 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: J. Bradley Layton, Dongmei Li, Christoph R. Meier, Julie L. Sharpless, Til St ürmer, M. Alan Brookhart Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Injection Testosterone and Adverse Cardiovascular Events: A Case ‐crossover Analysis
ConclusionsTestosterone injections were uniquely associated with short‐term risk of acute cardio‐ and cerebrovascular events in older adult men following injection receipt.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Endocrinology)
Source: Clinical Endocrinology - February 15, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: J. Bradley Layton, Dongmei Li, Christoph R. Meier, Julie L. Sharpless, Til St ürmer, M. Alan Brookhart Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics, safety, and patient acceptability of subcutaneous versus intramuscular testosterone injection for gender-affirming therapy: A pilot study.
CONCLUSION: The subcutaneous route for the injection of testosterone was well tolerated and appeared to be as effective as i.m. injection in delivering equivalent TST levels, although there was wide intrapatient and interpatient variability. PMID: 29367424 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy : AJHP)
Source: American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy : AJHP - January 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wilson DM, Kiang TKL, Ensom MHH Tags: Am J Health Syst Pharm Source Type: research

010-Sub-Q T: Is It for Me? Reviewing the Increasing Use of Subcutaneous Testosterone Injections
Background: Through collaboration within the Canadian Pediatric Endocrine Nurses (CPEN) network it has become evident that there are differences in practices in the use of injectable testosterone for hypogonadal and transgender males. Some clinics in Canada offer Testosterone injections subcutaneously following a pilot study conducted at McGill University Health Center in 2006 reporting its safe use and efficacy. (Source: Journal of Pediatric Nursing)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Nursing - November 1, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Brenda Fraser, June Jacob, Nicole Kirouac, Anne Benzekry Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effect of Thymoquinone on Testosterone ‐Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats
This study addresses the possible protective effects of thymoquinone (TQ) against the development of experimentally‐induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Wistar rats. Eighteen adult male rats were divided into three groups; the negative control group (n = 6) received vehicle, and two groups received subcutaneous testosterone injection (3 mg/kg). Animals receiving testosterone were randomized to untreated BPH group (n = 6) and BPH + TQ treated group (n = 6, 50 mg/kg orally for 14 days). Histological changes and the mRNA levels of transforming growth factor‐&...
Source: Phytotherapy Research - September 1, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bahaa Al ‐Trad, Mazhar Al‐Zoubi, Janti Qar, Khalid Al‐Batayneh, Emad Hussien, Riyadh Muhaidat, Alaa Aljabali, Hakam Alkhateeb, Ghada Al Omari Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Potential of telmisartan in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia
This study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of telmisartan on testosterone induced‐BPH in rats. Fifty‐four male Wistar rats (200 ‐ 250g) were randomly divided into 9 groups (n =6) and orally treated for 28 consecutive days: group 1‐ vehicle normal, olive oil (10 ml/kg); group 2‐ BPH model control (10 ml/kg); groups 3‐5 ‐ telmisartan (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, respectively); group 6‐ pioglitazone (20 mg/kg); group 7‐ celecoxib (20 mg/kg); group 8‐ combination of telmisartan (5 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (20 mg/kg); group 9‐ combination of telmisartan (5 mg/kg) and celecoxib (20 mg/kg). Animal...
Source: Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology - July 21, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ismail Ogunbayode Ishola, Charles C. Anunobi, Kehinde Habeeb Tijani, Olasunmbo Afolayan, Victoria U. Udokwu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Early radiological intervention and haematology screening is associated with excellent outcomes in Budd Chiari syndrome
ConclusionThere is a high incidence of MPN in patients with primary BCS, including patients with normal peripheral blood counts at the time of diagnosis. Our approach of anticoagulation, aggressive and early radiological intervention aimed at rapid decompression of the congested liver resulted in excellent medium‐term outcomes. (Source: Internal Medicine Journal)
Source: Internal Medicine Journal - July 4, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Allison Mo, Adam Testro, Janine French, Marcus Robertson, Peter Angus, Andrew Grigg Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A novel immune function biomarker identifies patients at risk of clinical events early following liver transplantation
Conclusion: Low IFNγ suggesting over‐suppression is associated with infections, while high IFNγ indicating under‐suppression is associated with rejection. This assay offers the potential to allow individualisation and optimisation of immunosuppression that could fundamentally alter the way patients are managed following transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Liver Transplantation)
Source: Liver Transplantation - January 30, 2017 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Siddharth Sood, Craig Haifer, Lijia Yu, Julie Pavlovic, Leonid Churilov, Paul J. Gow, Robert M. Jones, Peter W. Angus, Kumar Visvanathan, Adam G. Testro Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Comparison of Testosterone Replacement Therapy Medications in the Treatment of Hypogonadism
Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is 1 treatment option for men with hypogonadism. When TRT is prescribed, effectiveness, patient compliance, cost, and potential side effects should be considered and used to develop an individualized treatment plan. Depo-Testosterone (Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA) is the most cost-efficient TRT option and is only administered every 2 weeks, which may improve patient compliance, although the dose interval can be adjusted to once per week. Androderm is the most efficacious TRT medication, with up to 92% of patients reaching normal testosterone levels. (Source: The Journal for Nurse Practitioners)
Source: The Journal for Nurse Practitioners - January 27, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Karlen E. Luthy, Chris Williams, Donna S. Freeborn, Aaron Cook Tags: Continuing Education Source Type: research

Immune function biomarker QuantiFERON-monitor is associated with infection risk in cirrhotic patients.
Authors: Sood S, Yu L, Visvanathan K, Angus PW, Gow PJ, Testro AG Abstract AIM: To investigate whether a novel immune function biomarker QuantiFERON-Monitor (QFM) can identify cirrhotic patients at greatest risk of infection. METHODS: Adult cirrhotic patients on the liver transplant waiting list were recruited for this observational cohort study from a tertiary liver transplant referral unit. The immune function biomarker, QFM was performed using the same method as the widely available Quantiferon-gold assay, and measures output in interferon gamma in IU/mL after dual stimulation of the innate and adaptive immu...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - January 6, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Dapoxetine attenuates testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats by the regulation of inflammatory and apoptotic proteins.
In conclusion, the current study provides an evidence for the protective effects of dapoxetine against testosterone-induced BPH in rats. This can be attributed, at least in part, to decreasing AR expression, and the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic activities of dapoxetine in BPH. PMID: 27687055 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology)
Source: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology - September 26, 2016 Category: Toxicology Authors: Sayed RH, Saad MA, El-Sahar AE Tags: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol Source Type: research

Outpatient Terlipressin Infusion for the Treatment of Refractory Ascites
Peter W Angus (Source: The American Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: The American Journal of Gastroenterology - June 30, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Paul J GowZaid S ArdalanAbhinav VasudevanAdam G TestroBei YePeter W Angus Source Type: research

Protective potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against benign prostatic hyperplasia in metabolic syndrome rats
In this study, rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) accompanied with metabolic syndrome was induced by fed on high-fat diet for 12 weeks combined with testosterone injection (10mg/kg/d) from 9th to 12th weeks. EGCG was orally given from 9th to 12th weeks. Finally, the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, prostate weight, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), inflammatory cytokines, antioxidant enzymes, and prostatic expression of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) were evaluated. It was found that EGCG significantly decreased the levels of glucose...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 15, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Intestinal Failure and Transplant: The Australian Experience (2009 to 2014)
A joint adult and pediatric intestinal transplant (ITx) program for Australia was developed in 2009 to provide life-saving ITx to patients with irreversible intestinal failure (IF). We aimed to analyze the outcomes of patients treated by our service over the past 5 years. (Source: Transplantation Proceedings)
Source: Transplantation Proceedings - March 1, 2016 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: B. Chapman, P. De Cruz, R. Jones, W. Hardikar, A. Testro Tags: 14th International Small Bowel Transplant Symposium Source Type: research

Validation of an enzyme-immunoassay for the non-invasive monitoring of faecal testosterone metabolites in male cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).
Abstract In mammals, the sex hormone testosterone is the major endocrine variable to objectify testicular activity and thus reproductive function in males. Testosterone is involved in the development and function of male reproductive physiology and sex-related behaviour. The development of a reliable androgen enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) to monitor faecal testosterone metabolites (fTM) is a powerful tool to non-invasively assess the gonadal status of males. We validated an epiandrosterone EIA for male cheetahs by performing a testosterone radiometabolism study followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ...
Source: General and Comparative Endocrinology - January 29, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Pribbenow S, Wachter B, Ludwig C, Weigold A, Dehnhard M Tags: Gen Comp Endocrinol Source Type: research

Bipolar disorder, testosterone administration, and homicide: a case report.
CONCLUSION: Further studies of the role of testosterone in the neurobiology of violent and homicidal behavior may lead to improvements in the prevention of homicides. PMID: 24527885 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice)
Source: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice - December 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract Source Type: research

A Novel Mutation Causing 17-β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 3 Deficiency in an Omani Child: First Case Report and Review of Literature.
A Novel Mutation Causing 17-β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 3 Deficiency in an Omani Child: First Case Report and Review of Literature. Oman Med J. 2015 Mar;30(2):129-34 Authors: Al-Sinani A, Mula-Abed WA, Al-Kindi M, Al-Kusaibi G, Al-Azkawi H, Nahavandi N Abstract This is the first case report in Oman and the Gulf region of a 17-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17-β-HSD3) deficiency with a novel mutation in the HSD17B3 gene that has not been previously described in the medical literature. An Omani child was diagnosed with 17-β-HSD3 deficiency and was followed up for 11 ye...
Source: Oman Medical Journal - December 12, 2015 Category: Middle East Health Tags: Oman Med J Source Type: research

Efficacy of outpatient continuous terlipressin infusions for hepatorenal syndrome
(Source: Hepatology)
Source: Hepatology - November 2, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Abhinav Vasudevan, Zaid Ardalan, Paul Gow, Peter Angus, Adam Testro Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Misinterpretation of the Safety of Testosterone Dosage Forms
To the Editor Given recent warnings by the US Food and Drug Administration and Health Canada about the potential cardiovascular risk of testosterone administration, the effects of testosterone are of intense interest. Layton et al add to the ongoing conversation by using medical records to show higher rates of cardiovascular events in men using testosterone injections than in men using testosterone gels. Understandably, given the difficulties of comparing testosterone users with nonusers in an observational study exploiting administrative data, Layton et al have not yet provided the other key comparison listed in the abstr...
Source: JAMA Internal Medicine - November 1, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Reproductive endocrinology: Are intramuscular testosterone injections harmful?
Nature Reviews Endocrinology 11, 510 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrendo.2015.111 Authors: Bradley D. Anawalt & William J. Bremner Injectable testosterone esters and transdermal testosterone gels have generally been assumed to be equally safe and effective forms of testosterone-replacement therapy for male hypogonadism. Now, findings from a recent study suggest that transdermal testosterone gels are superior to injectable testosterone esters in terms of reducing cardiovascular events, all-cause hospitalizations and all-cause mortality. (Source: Nature Reviews Endocrinology)
Source: Nature Reviews Endocrinology - July 7, 2015 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bradley D. AnawaltWilliam J. Bremner Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Targeted individual prophylaxis offers superior risk stratification for cytomegalovirus reactivation after liver transplantation
Abstract Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can reactivate following liver transplantation. Management of patients currently considered low‐risk based on pre‐transplant serology remains contentious, with universal prophylaxis and pre‐emptive strategies suffering from significant deficiencies. We hypothesized that a CMV‐specific T‐cell assay performed early post‐transplant as part of a preemptive strategy could better stratify ‘low‐risk' (R+) patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective, blinded, observational study in 75 adult recipients. QuantiFERON‐CMV was performed both pre, and at multiple times p...
Source: Liver Transplantation - July 1, 2015 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Siddharth Sood, Craig Haifer, Lijia Yu, Julie Pavlovic, Paul J. Gow, Robert M. Jones, Kumar Visvanathan, Peter W. Angus, Adam G. Testro Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Sex-different abnormalities in the right second to fourth digit ratio in Japanese individuals with autism spectrum disorders
Conclusions We found a reverse direction of abnormality in the right 2D:4D ratio for men and women with ASDs. It has been posited that high prenatal testosterone levels lead to a lower 2D:4D ratio. However, a recent animal study showed that testosterone injection to dam leads to a higher right 2D:4D ratio especially for female offspring, which might be mediated by abnormal adipose accumulation in the fingertip. Therefore, the present findings suggest that high prenatal testosterone could be a risk factor both for Japanese men and women with ASDs, elucidating one potential etiology of ASDs in women. (Source: Molecular Autism)
Source: Molecular Autism - June 8, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Long-Term Exposure to Testosterone Therapy and the Risk of High Grade Prostate Cancer
We examined whether exposure to testosterone during a 5-year period was associated with an increased risk of high grade prostate cancer and whether this risk increased in a dose-response fashion with the cumulative number of testosterone injections. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Source: The Journal of Urology - June 8, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jacques Baillargeon, Yong-Fang Kuo, Xiao Fang, Vahakn B. Shahinian Tags: Adult Urology Source Type: research

Long-Term Exposure to Testosterone Therapy and the Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer
In this study, we examined whether exposure to testosterone over a 5-year period was associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer and whether this risk increased in a dose-response fashion with cumulative number of testosterone injections. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Source: The Journal of Urology - June 8, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jacques Baillargeon, Yong-Fang Kuo, Xiao Fang, Vahakn B. Shahinian Source Type: research

Pharmacology: Comparing safety of different testosterone delivery types
Nature Reviews Urology 12, 359 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrurol.2015.130 A new study reports that testosterone injections are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events, hospitalizations and deaths than testosterone gels, but that patches and gels have similar risk profiles. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - May 26, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Comparative Safety of Testosterone Dosage Forms
This cohort study identifies a greater cardiovascular risk with use of testosterone injections vs gels. (Source: JAMA Internal Medicine)
Source: JAMA Internal Medicine - May 11, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Therapy: Are long-acting intramuscular testosterone injections safe?
Nature Reviews Urology 12, 248 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrurol.2015.73 Author: Michael Zitzmann Testosterone substitution in male hypogonadism is a recognized tool to treat symptomatic patients. Various forms of this treatment exist including a long-acting intramuscular form using testosterone undecanoate given at approximately 3-monthly intervals. Safety aspects inherent to the intramuscular injection of a medication in an oily vehicle have to be recognized. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - April 7, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Michael Zitzmann Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Gene Expression Profile of the Neonatal Female Mouse Brain After Administration of Testosterone Propionate
ConclusionsDifferences in genes that are expressed differentially following administration of testosterone injection from known sexually dimorphic genes suggest that many GD‐related genes are upregulated during female brain masculinization. The gene set identified in this study provides a basis to better understand the mechanisms of GD and delineate its associated biomarkers. Nakachi Y, Iseki M, Yokoo T, Mizuno Y, and Okazaki Y. Gene expression profile of the neonatal female mouse brain after administration of testosterone propionate. J Sex Med **;**:**–**. (Source: The Journal of Sexual Medicine)
Source: The Journal of Sexual Medicine - January 28, 2015 Category: Sexual Medicine Authors: Yutaka Nakachi, Mioko Iseki, Tomotaka Yokoo, Yosuke Mizuno, Yasushi Okazaki Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Influence of Androgen Receptor CAG Polymorphism on Sexual Function Recovery after Testosterone Therapy in Late‐Onset Hypogonadism
ConclusionsLonger length of AR gene CAG repeat tract seems to lower TRT‐induced improvement of sexual function in LOH. Tirabassi G, Corona G, Biagioli A, Buldreghini E, delli Muti N, Maggi M, and Balercia G. Influence of androgen receptor CAG polymorphism on sexual function recovery after testosterone therapy in late‐onset hypogonadism. J Sex Med **;**:**–**. (Source: The Journal of Sexual Medicine)
Source: The Journal of Sexual Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Sexual Medicine Authors: Giacomo Tirabassi, Giovanni Corona, Andrea Biagioli, Eddi Buldreghini, Nicola Muti, Mario Maggi, Giancarlo Balercia Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of a single injection of testosterone enanthate on 17β estradiol and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal male patients
Conclusion This study suggests that a single injection of testosterone might have different effects on the production of endogenous estrogens, and a significant reduction of bone resorption parameters takes place only in the patients who show a significant increase of 17ß estradiol in response to testosterone administration. (Source: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation)
Source: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation - October 16, 2014 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic evaluation of testosterone-loaded nanocapsules in rats.
Abstract In the present work, testosterone-loaded alginate nanocapsules were prepared by in situ nanoemulsification-polymer cross-linking method. Drug loading, particle size (diameter), polydispersity index and zeta potential of these alginate nanocapsules were measured 30.22±1.90%, 34.53±1.72nm, 0.22±0.04 and-5mV, respectively. The pharmacokinetic evaluation of these nanocapsules was also performed in female Sprague Dawley rats. Cmax, Tmax and AUC0-24 vales were estimated 38.63ng/ml, 2h and 317.93ng.ml(-1).h(-1), respectively. The pharmacokinetic result of testosterone-loaded alginate nanocap...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - August 7, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jana S, Gangopadhaya A, Bhowmik BB, Nayak AK, Mukhrjee A Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research

Steroid profile analysis and UGT2B17 genotyping of the same urine sample to determine testosterone abuse
Abstract When testing a urine sample for testosterone abuse, a ratio of testosterone glucuronide (T) to epitestosterone glucuronide (ET) of 4.0 or above is considered suspicious. A degree of variation, however, has been observed in T/ET ratio between individuals from both the same and different ethnic backgrounds. The majority of this variation might be due to UGT2B17 deletion genotype (UGT2B17 deletion-type). The aim of this study was to investigate the use of the same urine sample for the analysis of T/ET ratio and UGT2B17 deletion-type. Japanese men were deletion-typed via a UGT2B17 copy number assay using DNA...
Source: Forensic Toxicology - August 1, 2014 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research