Role of cenicriviroc in the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest chronic liver disease in high-income countries and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Macrophages appear to play an important role in the development and progression of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Accordingly, modulation of macrophage trafficking might represent an attractive therapeutic strategy in this population. Cenicriviroc is an oral inhibitor of the chemokine ligand 2/C-C chemokine receptor 2 pathway, which plays an important role in the hepatic recruitment of the macrophages. Preclinical studies and a phase 2...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Neokosmidis G, Tziomalos K Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Colorectal cancer vaccines: Tumor-associated antigens vs neoantigens.
Abstract Therapeutic options for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) are diverse but still not always satisfying. Recent success of immune checkpoint inhibition treatment for the subgroup of CRC patients suffering from hyper-mutated tumors suggests a permanent role of immune therapy in the clinical management of CRC. Substantial improvement in treatment outcome could be achieved by development of efficient patient-individual CRC vaccination strategies. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge on the two general classes of targets: tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and tumor-specific antigens. TAAs lik...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wagner S, Mullins CS, Linnebacher M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Checkpoint inhibitors: What gastroenterologists need to know.
Abstract Checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly being used in clinical practice. They can cause various gastrointestinal, hepatic and pancreatic side effects. As these side effects can be serious, appropriate management is essential. The different checkpoint inhibitors with their mechanisms of action and indications, as well as evaluation and management of gastrointestinal, hepatic and pancreatic side effects, are discussed in this article. PMID: 30622372 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ahmed M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Virtual reality simulation in endoscopy training: Current evidence and future directions.
Abstract Virtual reality simulation is becoming the standard when beginning endoscopic training. It offers various benefits including learning in a low-stakes environment, improvement of patient safety and optimization of valuable endoscopy time. This is a review of the evidence surrounding virtual reality simulation and its efficacy in teaching endoscopic techniques. There have been 21 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated virtual reality simulation as a teaching tool in endoscopy. 10 RCTs studied virtual reality in colonoscopy, 3 in flexible sigmoidoscopy, 5 in esophagogastroduodenoscopy, an...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mahmood T, Scaffidi MA, Khan R, Grover SC Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Quality of life in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy.
Abstract Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) represents the mildest type of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This condition alters the performance of psychometric tests by impairing attention, working memory, psychomotor speed, and visuospatial ability, as well as electrophysiological and other functional brain measures. MHE is a frequent complication of liver disease, affecting up to 80% of tested patients, depending of the diagnostic tools used for the diagnosis. MHE is related to falls, to an impairment in fitness to drive and the development of overt HE, MHE severely affects the lives of patients and caregivers b...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ridola L, Nardelli S, Gioia S, Riggio O Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Post-translational modifications of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 in colorectal cancer: An update.
P, Boscá L Abstract The biosynthesis of prostanoids is involved in both physiological and pathological processes. The expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2; also known as COX-2) has been traditionally associated to the onset of several pathologies, from inflammation to cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and oncologic events. For this reason, the search of selective PTGS2 inhibitors has been a focus for therapeutic interventions. In addition to the classic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective and specific PTGS2 inhibitors, termed coxibs, have been generated and widely used. PTG...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jaén RI, Prieto P, Casado M, Martín-Sanz P, Boscá L Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Counteraction of perforated cecum lesions in rats: Effects of pentadecapeptide BPC 157, L-NAME and L-arginine.
CONCLUSION: The therapeutic effect was achieved with BPC 157 alone or in combination with L-NAME and L-arginine as it was able to consolidate the stimulating and inhibiting effects of the NO-system towards more effective healing recruiting vessels. PMID: 30622376 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Drmic D, Samara M, Vidovic T, Malekinusic D, Antunovic M, Vrdoljak B, Ruzman J, Milkovic Perisa M, Horvat Pavlov K, Jeyakumar J, Seiwerth S, Sikiric P Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Mismatched effects of receptor interacting protein kinase-3 on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
CONCLUSION: RIP3 deletion exacerbates steatosis, and partially inhibits inflammation in the HF diet induced NAFLD model. PMID: 30622377 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Saeed WK, Jun DW, Jang K, Ahn SB, Oh JH, Chae YJ, Lee JS, Kang HT Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy of pancreatic cancer using an indocyanine green-labeled anti-tissue factor antibody.
Abstract AIM: To investigate near-infrared photoimmunotherapeutic effect mediated by an anti-tissue factor (TF) antibody conjugated to indocyanine green (ICG) in a pancreatic cancer model. METHODS: Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a highly selective tumor treatment that utilizes an antibody-photosensitizer conjugate administration, followed by NIR light exposure. Anti-TF antibody 1849-ICG conjugate was synthesized by labeling of rat IgG2b anti-TF monoclonal antibody 1849 (anti-TF 1849) to a NIR photosensitizer, ICG. The expression levels of TF in two human pancreatic cancer cell lines were examin...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Aung W, Tsuji AB, Sugyo A, Takashima H, Yasunaga M, Matsumura Y, Higashi T Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Integrated metabolomic profiling for analysis of antilipidemic effects of Polygonatum kingianum extract on dyslipidemia in rats.
CONCLUSION: P. kingianum alleviates HFD-induced dyslipidemia by regulating many endogenous metabolites in serum, urine and liver samples. Collectively, our findings suggest that P. kingianum may be a promising lipid regulator to treat dyslipidemia and associated diseases. PMID: 30622379 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yang XX, Wei JD, Mu JK, Liu X, Dong JC, Zeng LX, Gu W, Li JP, Yu J Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Safety of hepatitis B virus core antibody-positive grafts in liver transplantation: A single-center experience in China.
CONCLUSION: HBcAb+ liver grafts do not affect the long-term outcome of the recipients. Combined with proper postoperative antiviral prophylaxis, utilization of HBcAb+ grafts is rational and feasible. PMID: 30622380 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lei M, Yan LN, Yang JY, Wen TF, Li B, Wang WT, Wu H, Xu MQ, Chen ZY, Wei YG Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Chinese consensus on management of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-associated side effects in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Abstract Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have improved the overall survival of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), but their side effects can impact dose intensity and, consequently, the clinical benefit. To date, no guideline or consensus has been published on the TKI-associated adverse reactions. Therefore, the Chinese Society of Surgeons for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association organized an expert panel discussion involving representatives from gastrointestinal surgery, medical oncology, cardiology, dermatology, nephrology, endocrinology, and ophthalmolog...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Li J, Wang M, Zhang B, Wu X, Lin TL, Liu XF, Zhou Y, Zhang XH, Xu H, Shen LJ, Zou J, Lu P, Zhang D, Gu WJ, Zhang MX, Pan J, Cao H, Chinese Society of Surgeons for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Liver transplantation for critically ill cirrhotic patients: Overview and pragmatic proposals.
Abstract Liver transplantation for critically ill cirrhotic patients with acute deterioration of liver function associated with extrahepatic organ failures is controversial. While transplantation has been shown to be beneficial on an individual basis, the potentially poorer post-transplant outcome of these patients taken as a group can be held as an argument against allocating livers to them. Although this issue concerns only a minority of liver transplants, it calls into question the very heart of the allocation paradigms in place. Indeed, most allocation algorithms have been centered on prioritizing the sickest ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Artzner T, Michard B, Besch C, Levesque E, Faitot F Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Management of sub-centimeter recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after curative treatment: Current status and future.
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) frequently recur despite initial successful surgical resection or local ablation therapy. Diagnostic methods for small HCCs have improved with the introduction of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Currently, sub-centimeter recurrent nodules showing typical hallmark imaging findings of HCC are frequently detected in patients with a treatment history for HCC. With five typical magnetic resonance findings, including arterial enhancement, washout on portal or transitional phase, high signal intensity on both T2-weigh...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lee MW, Lim HK Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Modulation of faecal metagenome in Crohn's disease: Role of microRNAs as biomarkers.
CONCLUSION: Changes in microbial function in active non-treated CD subjects and three miRNAs in affected vs non-affected mucosa have been found. miRNAs profile may serve as a biomarker. PMID: 30581271 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Rojas-Feria M, Romero-García T, Fernández Caballero-Rico JÁ, Pastor Ramírez H, Avilés-Recio M, Castro-Fernandez M, Chueca Porcuna N, Romero-Gόmez M, García F, Grande L, Del Campo JA Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

MicroRNA-15a - cell division cycle 42 signaling pathway in pathogenesis of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.
Abstract AIM: To determine whether cell division cycle (Cdc)42 is regulated by microRNA (miR)-15a in the development of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We cultured 293T cells, used plasmids and performed dual-luciferase assay to determine whether Cdc42 is a miR-15a target gene. We cultured Caco-2 cells, and stimulated them with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We then employed lentiviruses to alter the expression of miR-15a and Cdc42. We performed quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunofluorescence to determine whether Cdc42 is regulated by mi...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tang WJ, Peng KY, Tang ZF, Wang YH, Xue AJ, Huang Y Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Effect of photodynamic therapy with (17R,18R)-2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl chlorine E6 trisodium salt on pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: YLG-1 is a potential photosensitizer for pancreatic cancer PDT via IT injection, the mechanisms of which are associated with inducing ROS and promoting apoptosis. PMID: 30581273 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Shen YJ, Cao J, Sun F, Cai XL, Li MM, Zheng NN, Qu CY, Zhang Y, Shen F, Zhou M, Chen YW, Xu LM Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Identification and prediction of novel non-coding and coding RNA-associated competing endogenous RNA networks in colorectal cancer.
CONCLUSION: CeRNA networks play an important role in CRC. Multiple DEGs are related with clinical prognosis, suggesting that they may be potential targets in tumor diagnosis and treatment. PMID: 30581274 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Liang Y, Zhang C, Ma MH, Dai DQ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Relationship between response to lusutrombopag and splenic volume.
CONCLUSION: Splenic volume influences the change in platelet counts after administration of lusutrombopag in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID: 30581275 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Uojima H, Arase Y, Itokawa N, Atsukawa M, Satoh T, Miyazaki K, Hidaka H, Sung JH, Kako M, Tsuruya K, Kagawa T, Iwakiri K, Horie R, Koizumi W Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Preliminary application of 3D-printed coplanar template for iodine-125 seed implantation therapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
Abstract AIM: To evaluate a 3D-printed coplanar template for iodine-125 seed implantation therapy in patients with pancreatic cancer. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of our database was performed, and a total of 25 patients with pancreatic cancer who underwent iodine-125 seed implantation between January 2014 and November 2017 were analyzed. Of these, 12 implantations were assisted by a 3D-printed coplanar template (group A), and 13 implantations performed freehand were selected as a control group (group B). A 3D coplanar template was designed and printed according to a preoperative CT scan and treatment pl...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Huang W, Lu J, Chen KM, Wu ZY, Wang QB, Liu JJ, Gong J, Chen ZJ, Ding XY, Wang ZM Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Loss of efficacy and safety of the switch from infliximab original to infliximab biosimilar (CT-P13) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
CONCLUSION: The overall efficacy and loss of treatment response with infliximab biosimilar (CT-P13) is similar to that observed with infliximab original in patients who were switching at the 12 mo follow-up. There is no difference in the rate of adverse events. PMID: 30581277 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Guerra Veloz MF, Argüelles-Arias F, Castro Laria L, Maldonado Pérez B, Benítez Roldan A, Perea Amarillo R, Merino Bohórquez V, Calleja MA, Caunedo Álvarez Á, Vilches Arenas Á Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Upfront surgery of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Time to reconsider?
Abstract Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) may demonstrate a widely variable clinical behavior but usually it is indolent. In cases with localized disease, locoregional resective surgery (LRS) is generally indicated with a curative intent. LRS of SI-NETs is also the recommended treatment when symptoms are present, regardless of the disease stage. Concerning asymptomatic patients with distant metastases, prophylactic LRS has been traditionally suggested to avoid possible future complications. Even the current European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society guidelines emphasize a possible effect of LRS in Stage...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Daskalakis K, Tsolakis AV Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori and extragastric diseases: A review.
Abstract Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is very common and affects approximately half of the world population. It causes gastric diseases, but some authors have reported an association of H. pylori infection with other systemic manifestations beginning in 1994. The list of potential effects of H. pylori outside the stomach includes a number of extragastric manifestations and we focused on neurological, dermatological, hematologic, ocular, cardiovascular, metabolic, allergic, and hepatobiliary diseases. This review discusses these important reported manifestations that are not related to the gastrointest...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Gravina AG, Zagari RM, De Musis C, Romano L, Loguercio C, Romano M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

ATP-binding cassette transporters in progression and clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer: What is the way forward?
Abstract Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive diseases and is characterized by high chemoresistance, leading to the lack of effective therapeutic approaches and grim prognosis. Despite increasing understanding of the mechanisms of chemoresistance in cancer and the role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in this resistance, the therapeutic potential of their pharmacological inhibition has not been successfully exploited yet. In spite of the discovery of potent pharmacological modulators of ABC transporters, the results obtained in clinical trials have been so far disappointi...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Adamska A, Falasca M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Rethinking de novo immune hepatitis, an old concept for liver allograft rejection: Relevance of glutathione S-transferase T1 mismatch.
dan A Abstract Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in liver transplantation has long been underestimated. The concept of the liver as an organ susceptible to AMR has emerged in recent years, not only in the context of the major histocompatibility complex with the presence of HLA donor-specific antibodies, but also with antigens regarded as "minor", whose role in AMR has been demonstrated. Among them, antibodies against glutathione S-transferase T1 have been found in 100% of patients with de novo autoimmune hepatitis (dnAIH) when studied. In its latest update, the Banff Working Group for liver allograft pat...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Aguilera I, Aguado-Dominguez E, Sousa JM, Nuñez-Roldan A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Endoscopic diagnosis of sessile serrated adenoma/polyp with and without dysplasia/carcinoma.
Abstract Sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are early precursor lesions in the serrated neoplasia pathway, which results in colorectal carcinomas with BRAF mutations, methylation for DNA repair genes, a CpG island methylator phenotype, and high levels of microsatellite instability. Some of these lesions can rapidly become dysplastic or invasive carcinomas that exhibit high lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis potentials. Detecting serrated lesions, including SSA/Ps with and without dysplasia/carcinoma, is critical, but SSA/Ps can be difficult to detect, are inconsistently identified by endoscopists a...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Murakami T, Sakamoto N, Nagahara A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Downregulation of Hes1 expression in experimental biliary atresia and its effects on bile duct structure.
CONCLUSION: Our data indicated that Hes1 might contribute to the maturation and the cellular structure organization of biliary epithelial cells, which provides new insight into understanding the pathology of biliary atresia. PMID: 30090006 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zhang RZ, Zeng XH, Lin ZF, Ming-Fu, Tong YL, Lui VC, Tam PK, Lamb JR, Xia HM, Chen Y Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

High expression of type I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in the kidney of rats with hepatorenal syndrome.
Abstract AIM: To detect the expression of type I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3RI) in the kidney of rats with hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). METHODS: One hundred and twenty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups to receive an intravenous injection of D-galactosamine (D-GalN) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS; group G/L, n = 50), D-GalN alone (group G, n = 25), LPS alone (group L, n = 25), and normal saline (group NS, n = 25), respectively. At 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h after injection, blood, liver, and kidney samples were collected. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of liver tissue was perfo...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wang JB, Gu Y, Zhang MX, Yang S, Wang Y, Wang W, Li XR, Zhao YT, Wang HT Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Prognostic significance of the fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio in gallbladder cancer patients.
Abstract AIM: To investigate the prognostic role of fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio (FAR) on patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) in this study. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four GBC patients were retrospectively analyzed, who received potentially curative cholecystectomy in our institute from March 2005 to December 2017. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to determine the optimal cut-offs for these biomarkers. In addition, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis as well as multivariate analysis were applied for prognostic analyses. RESULTS: ROC curve revealed that the optimal cut-off va...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xu WY, Zhang HH, Xiong JP, Yang XB, Bai Y, Lin JZ, Long JY, Zheng YC, Zhao HT, Sang XT Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Fatigue is not associated with vitamin D deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease patients.
oslash;rgensen LP Abstract AIM: To investigate if vitamin D deficiency is associated with fatigue in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: IBD patients were recruited from nine hospitals in the southeastern and western regions of Norway to participate in a multicenter cross-sectional study lasting from March 2013 to April 2014. Data were collected by interviews, from medical records and laboratory tests. The Fatigue Questionnaire (FQ) was used to measure fatigue. Linear and logistic regression models were applied to explore the possible association between vitamin D deficiency and total fat...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Frigstad SO, Høivik ML, Jahnsen J, Cvancarova M, Grimstad T, Berset IP, Huppertz-Hauss G, Hovde Ø, Bernklev T, Moum B, Jelsness-Jørgensen LP Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Fourth-generation quinolones in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: A meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: Therapies containing fourth-generation quinolones achieved a poor eradication rate in the treatment of H. pylori infection. Such regimens might be useful as a rescue treatment based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Different antibiotics should be chosen in different regions. PMID: 30090010 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: An Y, Wang Y, Wu S, Wang YH, Qian X, Li Z, Fu YJ, Xie Y Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Recent advances in non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abstract Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the liver is an important tool for the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions and for assessment of diffuse liver disease, having several intrinsic characteristics, represented by high soft tissue contrast, avoidance of ionizing radiation or iodinated contrast media, and more recently, by application of several functional imaging techniques (i.e., diffusion-weighted sequences, hepatobiliary contrast agents, perfusion imaging, magnetic resonance (MR)-elastography, and radiomics analysis). MR functional imaging techniques are extensively used both in routine...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - June 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ippolito D, Inchingolo R, Grazioli L, Drago SG, Nardella M, Gatti M, Faletti R Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Taking advantage of the potential of mesenchymal stromal cells in liver regeneration: Cells and extracellular vesicles as therapeutic strategies.
azzolini GD Abstract Cell-based therapies for acute and chronic liver diseases are under continuous progress. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells able to migrate selectively to damaged tissue and contribute to its healing and regeneration. The MSC pro-regenerative effect occurs due to their immunomodulatory capacity and their ability to produce factors that promote cell protection and survival. Likewise, it has been observed that part of their paracrine effect is mediated by MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs contain proteins, lipids and nucleic acids (DNA, mRNA, miRNA, lncRNA) f...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - June 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Fiore EJ, Domínguez LM, Bayo J, García MG, Mazzolini GD Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Feasibility of using marginal liver grafts in living donor liver transplantation.
Abstract Liver transplantation (LT) is one of the most effective treatments for end-stage liver disease caused by related risk factors when liver resection is contraindicated. Additionally, despite the decrease in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) over the past two decades, the absolute number of HBsAg-positive people has increased, leading to an increase in HBV-related liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Consequently, a large demand exists for LT. While the wait time for patients on the donor list is, to some degree, shorter due to the development of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), th...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - June 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lan X, Zhang H, Li HY, Chen KF, Liu F, Wei YG, Li B Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Vedolizumab for inflammatory bowel disease: From randomized controlled trials to real-life evidence.
Abstract The biologic antitumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) agents have revolutionised the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, some patients experience primary nonresponse, loss of response, or intolerance. Therefore, introducing a newer class of therapy with a mechanism of action that acts on different inflammatory pathways involved in IBD pathogenesis is appealing. Vedolizumab is a fully humanised monoclonal antibody that selectively targets α4β7 integrin. Based on the results of the pivotal clinical GEMINI trials, vedolizumab was approved for the treatment of adult pat...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - June 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Scribano ML Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Dynamic alterations in the gut microbiota and metabolome during the development of methionine-choline-deficient diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
Abstract AIM: To investigate changes in gut microbiota and metabolism during nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development in mice fed a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet. METHODS: Twenty-four male C57BL/6J mice were equally divided into four groups and fed a methionine-choline-sufficient diet for 2 wk (Control 2w group, n = 6) or 4 wk (Control 4w group, n = 6) or the MCD diet for 2 wk (MCD 2w group, n = 6) or 4 wk (MCD 4w group, n = 6). Liver injury, fibrosis, and intestinal barrier function were evaluated after 2 and 4 wk of feeding. The fecal microbiome and metabolome were studied using 16s rRNA de...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - June 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ye JZ, Li YT, Wu WR, Shi D, Fang DQ, Yang LY, Bian XY, Wu JJ, Wang Q, Jiang XW, Peng CG, Ye WC, Xia PC, Li LJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Association of twelve polymorphisms in three onco-lncRNA genes with hepatocellular cancer risk and prognosis: A case-control study.
CONCLUSION: Specific lncRNA (HOTTIP and MALAT1) SNPs have potential to be biomarkers for HCC risk and prognosis. PMID: 29930469 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - June 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wang BG, Xu Q, Lv Z, Fang XX, Ding HX, Wen J, Yuan Y Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Subtotal colonic bypass plus colostomy with antiperistaltic cecoproctostomy for the treatment of slow transit constipation in an aged population: A retrospective control study.
Abstract AIM: To compare the efficacy, improved quality of life, and prognosis in patients undergoing either subtotal colonic bypass with antiperistaltic cecoproctostomy (SCBAC) or subtotal colonic bypass plus colostomy with antiperistaltic cecoproctostomy (SCBCAC) for the treatment of slow transit constipation. METHODS: Between October 2010 and October 2014, aged patients with slow transit constipation who were hospitalized and underwent laparoscopic surgery in our institute were divided into two groups: the bypass group, 15 patients underwent SCBAC, and the bypass plus colostomy group, 14 patients underwent...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - June 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yang Y, Cao YL, Wang WH, Zhang YY, Zhao N, Wei D Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Transarterial embolization and low-dose continuous hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and raltitrexed for hepatocellular carcinoma with major portal vein tumor thrombus.
CONCLUSION: TACE with low dose continuous hepatic arterial infusion of oxaliplatin and raltitrexed could be an option in MPVTT patient; it was shown to be effective in patients with advanced HCC with MPVTT with less toxicity. PMID: 29930471 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - June 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zhu LZ, Xu S, Qian HL Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Clinical and prognostic significance of Raf kinase inhibitory protein expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that: (1) RKIP expression in GISTs is associated with tumor size, NIH risk grade, and mucosal invasion, and low or no expression of RKIP predicts a high malignancy potential; (2) high RKIP correlates positively with the survival of patients with GISTs; and (3) RKIP expression has appreciated value for predicting the survival of patients with GISTs, although it is not an independent prognostic factor in GISTs. PMID: 29930472 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - June 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wang Y, Chen JJ, Wang XF, Wang Q Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Comparing outcomes for endoscopic submucosal dissection between Eastern and Western countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: Eastern countries show better ESD outcomes compared to Western countries. Availability of local ESD expertise and regional outcomes should be considered for decision making to treat gastrointestinal lesions with ESD. PMID: 29930473 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - June 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Daoud DC, Suter N, Durand M, Bouin M, Faulques B, von Renteln D Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Dissecting the molecular pathophysiology of drug-induced liver injury.
, Cubero FJ Abstract Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has become a major topic in the field of Hepatology and Gastroenterology. DILI can be clinically divided into three phenotypes: hepatocytic, cholestatic and mixed. Although the clinical manifestations of DILI are variable and the pathogenesis complicated, recent insights using improved preclinical models, have allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms that trigger liver damage. In this review, we will discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying DILI. The toxicity of the drug eventually induces hepatocellular damage through multiple molecular pat...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - April 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ye H, Nelson LJ, Gómez Del Moral M, Martínez-Naves E, Cubero FJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Thrombocytopenia after liver transplantation: Should we care?
Abstract Transient thrombocytopenia is a common phenomenon after liver transplantation. After liver transplantation (LT), platelet count decreases and reaches a nadir on postoperative days 3-5, with an average reduction in platelet counts of 60%; platelet count recovers to preoperative levels approximately two weeks after LT. The putative mechanisms include haemodilution, decreased platelet production, increased sequestration, medications, infections, thrombosis, or combination of these processes. However, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. The role of platelets in liver transplantation has been highlighted in...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - April 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Takahashi K, Nagai S, Safwan M, Liang C, Ohkohchi N Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Systems pharmacology approach reveals the antiinflammatory effects of Ampelopsis grossedentata on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.
CONCLUSION: AMP could exert protective effects on UC via suppressing the IRAK1/TRAF6/NF-κB-mediated inflammatory signaling pathways. PMID: 29632421 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - April 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chen YL, Zhang YL, Dai YC, Tang ZP Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Potential triggering factors of acute liver failure as a first manifestation of autoimmune hepatitis-a single center experience of 52 adult patients.
Abstract AIM: To investigate potential triggering factors leading to acute liver failure (ALF) as the initial presentation of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). METHODS: A total of 565 patients treated at our Department between 2005 and 2017 for histologically-proven AIH were retrospectively analyzed. However, 52 patients (9.2%) fulfilled the criteria for ALF defined by the "American Association for the Study of the Liver (AASLD)". According to this definition, patients with "acute-on-chronic" or "acute-on-cirrhosis" liver failure were excluded. Following parameters with focus on potent...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - April 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Buechter M, Manka P, Heinemann FM, Lindemann M, Baba HA, Schlattjan M, Canbay A, Gerken G, Kahraman A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori infection in subjects negative for high titer serum antibody.
CONCLUSION: Endoscopic Kyoto classification of gastritis is a useful predictor of H. pylori infection in negative-high titer antibody patients. PMID: 29632423 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - April 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Toyoshima O, Nishizawa T, Arita M, Kataoka Y, Sakitani K, Yoshida S, Yamashita H, Hata K, Watanabe H, Suzuki H Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Impact of postoperative TNM stages after neoadjuvant therapy on prognosis of adenocarcinoma of the gastro-oesophageal junction tumours.
Abstract AIM: To compare prognostic relevance of postoperative tumour/node/metastasis (TMN) stages between patients with and without neoadjuvant treatment. METHODS: Data from patients with adenocarcinoma of the gastro-oesophageal junction (AEG) who had undergone surgical resection at a single German university centre were retrospectively analysed. Patients with or without neoadjuvant preoperative treatment were selected by exact matching based on preoperative staging. Standard assessment of preoperative (c)TNM stage was based on endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen, accordin...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - April 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Thomaschewski M, Hummel R, Petrova E, Knief J, Wellner UF, Keck T, Bausch D Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Mild drinking habit is a risk factor for hepatocarcinogenesis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with advanced fibrosis.
We examined the influence of a mild drinking habit on liver carcinogenesis from NAFLD. METHODS: A total of 301 patients who had been diagnosed as having NAFLD by liver biopsy between 2003 and 2016 [median age: 56 years, 45% male, 56% with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, 26% with advanced fibrosis (F3-4)] were divided into the mild drinking group with ethanol consumption of less than 20 g/d (mild drinking group, n = 93) and the non-drinking group (n = 208). Clinicopathological features at the time of liver biopsy and factors related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence were compared between the groups. RESU...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - April 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kimura T, Tanaka N, Fujimori N, Sugiura A, Yamazaki T, Joshita S, Komatsu M, Umemura T, Matsumoto A, Tanaka E Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Prognostic significance of combined preoperative fibrinogen and CA199 in gallbladder cancer patients.
Abstract AIM: To investigate the prognostic value of the combination of preoperative plasma fibrinogen and CA199 in patients with gallbladder carcinoma (GBC). METHODS: The clinicopathological data of 154 GBC patients were retrospectively reviewed after surgery. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to verify the optimum cut-off values for plasma fibrinogen and CA199. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with GBC prognosis. Based on the HRs calculated via multivariate survival analyses, patients with elevated plasma fibrinogen and...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - April 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xu WY, Zhang HH, Yang XB, Bai Y, Lin JZ, Long JY, Xiong JP, Zhang JW, Sang XT, Zhao HT Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Fecal microbial dysbiosis in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
CONCLUSION: Our study profiles specific characteristics and microbial dysbiosis in the gut of Chinese patients with IBD. Bacteroidetes may have a negative impact on inflammatory development. PMID: 29632427 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - April 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ma HQ, Yu TT, Zhao XJ, Zhang Y, Zhang HJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research