Significance of progressive liver fibrosis in pediatric liver transplants: A review of current evidence.
This article reviews the current evidence and knowledge of progressive liver fibrosis after pediatric liver transplantation. This often-silent histologic finding is common in long-term survivors and may lead to allograft dysfunction in advanced stages. Surveillance through protocolized liver allograft biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis, and recent evidence suggests that chronic inflammation precedes fibrosis. PMID: 32536769 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - May 7, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: George M, Paci P, Taner T Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Metabolic inflammation as an instigator of fibrosis during non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive storage of fatty acids in the form of triglycerides in hepatocytes. It is most prevalent in western countries and includes a wide range of clinical and histopathological findings, namely from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis, which may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. The key event for the transition from steatosis to fibrosis is the activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (qHSC) and their differentiation to myofibroblasts. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), expressed by a plethora of immune cells...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - May 7, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Katsarou A, Moustakas II, Pyrina I, Lembessis P, Koutsilieris M, Chatzigeorgiou A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Pearls and pitfalls in magnetic resonance imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary hepatic malignancy, which usually arises in cirrhotic liver. When the typical enhancement pattern, consisting of late arterial hyperenhancement followed by washout, is present in nodules larger than 1 cm, HCC can be confidently diagnosed without the need for tissue biopsy. Nevertheless, HCC can display an atypical enhancement pattern, either as iso or hypovascular lesion, or hypervascular lesion without washout. Not only the enhancement pattern of HCC could be atypical, but also a variety of histological types of HCC, such as steatotic, scirrhous, ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - May 7, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kovac JD, Milovanovic T, Dugalic V, Dumic I Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Management of Barrett's esophagus with dysplasia refractory to radiofrequency ablation.
Abstract Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is very effective for eradication of flat Barrett's mucosa in dysplastic Barrett's esophagus after endoscopic resection of raised lesions. However, in a minority of the time, RFA may be ineffective at eradication of the Barrett's mucosa. Achieving complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia can be challenging in these patients. This review article focuses on the management of patients with dysplastic Barrett's esophagus refractory to RFA therapy. Management strategies discussed in this review include optimizing the RFA procedure, optimizing acid suppression (with medical, e...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - May 7, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Raphael KL, Trindade AJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Radiofrequency combined with immunomodulation for hepatocellular carcinoma: State of the art and innovations.
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver tumor and has been considered a very immunogenic tumor. The treatment with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been established as the standard ablative therapy for early HCC, and is currently recognized as the main ablative tool for HCC tumors
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - May 7, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: da Costa AC, Sodergren M, Jayant K, Santa Cruz F, Spalding D, Pai M, Habib N Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Ethnic differences in genetic polymorphism associated with irritable bowel syndrome.
Abstract Genetic polymorphism is associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in terms of susceptibility and clinical manifestations. Previous studies have shown that genetic polymorphism might play a key role in the onset and progression of IBS by modulating components of its pathogenesis such as the gut-brain axis, gastrointestinal motility, inflammatory activity, and immune status. Although underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have not been fully clarified, the potential ethnic differences that are present in worldwide genetic studies of IBS deserve attention. This review surveyed numerous studies focusin...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - May 7, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xiao QY, Fang XC, Li XQ, Fei GJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal cancer in rats.
CONCLUSION: EGCG inhibits the formation of DMH-induced CRC by regulating key pathways involved in tumorigenesis. PMID: 32536775 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - May 7, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wang Y, Jin HY, Fang MZ, Wang XF, Chen H, Huang SL, Kong DS, Li M, Zhang X, Sun Y, Wang SM Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Prediction of different stages of rectal cancer: Texture analysis based on diffusion-weighted images and apparent diffusion coefficient maps.
CONCLUSION: Texture features extracted from DWI images and ADC maps are useful clues for predicting pathological T and N stages in rectal cancer. PMID: 32536776 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - May 7, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yin JD, Song LR, Lu HC, Zheng X Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Assessment of hemostatic profile in patients with mild to advanced liver cirrhosis.
r N Abstract BACKGROUND: Hemostasis of patients suffering from liver cirrhosis is challenging due to both, pro- and anticoagulatory disorders leading to hemostatic alterations with distinct abnormalities of coagulation. Pathological changes in conventional coagulation analysis and platelet count are common manifestations of decreased liver synthesis of coagulation factors and reduced platelet count in these patients. However, conventional coagulation analysis and platelet count do not reflect in-vivo coagulation status or platelet function. The purpose of this present observational study was therefore to assess th...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - May 7, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Adam EH, Möhlmann M, Herrmann E, Schneider S, Zacharowski K, Zeuzem S, Weber CF, Weiler N Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Multiple carcinosarcomas of the esophagus with adeno-carcinomatous components: A case report.
CONCLUSION: This report suggests that multiple sarcomatous tumors may be generated from primary squamous cell carcinoma via mechanisms related to EMT. PMID: 32536778 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - May 7, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Okamoto H, Kikuchi H, Naganuma H, Kamei T Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Gastrocolic fistula in Crohn's disease detected by oral agent contrast-enhanced ultrasound: A case report of a novel ultrasound modality.
CONCLUSION: GFs are rare, occult and potentially life-threatening complications in CD. US is one of the first-line modalities to evaluate CD and its complications. OA-CEUS, a novel technique of US for gut, may be helpful in reducing the possibility of a missed diagnosis of GF. PMID: 32536779 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - May 7, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wu S, Zhuang H, Zhao JY, Wang YF Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Role of NLRP3 inflammasome in inflammatory bowel diseases.
Abstract Inflammasomes are multiprotein intracellular complexes which are responsible for the activation of inflammatory responses. Among various subtypes of inflammasomes, NLRP3 has been a subject of intensive investigation. NLRP3 is considered to be a sensor of microbial and other danger signals and plays a crucial role in mucosal immune responses, promoting the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. NLRP3 inflammasome has been associated with a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The role of NLRP3 in IBD is ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tourkochristou E, Aggeletopoulou I, Konstantakis C, Triantos C Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Gastroesophageal reflux disease, obesity and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: The burning questions.
Abstract Obesity is a global health epidemic with considerable economic burden. Surgical solutions have become increasingly popular following technical advances leading to sustained efficacy and reduced risk. Sleeve gastrectomy accounts for almost half of all bariatric surgeries worldwide but concerns regarding its relationship with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been a topic of debate. GERD, including erosive esophagitis, is highly prevalent in the obese population. The role of pre-operative endoscopy in bariatric surgery has been controversial. Two schools of thought exist on the matter, one that bel...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Bou Daher H, Sharara AI Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of liver damage: From non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to liver transplantation.
Abstract The intimate connection and the strict mutual cooperation between the gut and the liver realizes a functional entity called gut-liver axis. The integrity of intestinal barrier is crucial for the maintenance of liver homeostasis. In this mutual relationship, the liver acts as a second firewall towards potentially harmful substances translocated from the gut, and is, in turn, is implicated in the regulation of the barrier. Increasing evidence has highlighted the relevance of increased intestinal permeability and consequent bacterial translocation in the development of liver damage. In particular, in patient...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Nicoletti A, Ponziani FR, Biolato M, Valenza V, Marrone G, Sganga G, Gasbarrini A, Miele L, Grieco A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Crosstalk network among multiple inflammatory mediators in liver fibrosis.
Abstract Liver fibrosis is the common pathological basis of all chronic liver diseases, and is the necessary stage for the progression of chronic liver disease to cirrhosis. As one of pathogenic factors, inflammation plays a predominant role in liver fibrosis via communication and interaction between inflammatory cells, cytokines, and the related signaling pathways. Damaged hepatocytes induce an increase in pro-inflammatory factors, thereby inducing the development of inflammation. In addition, it has been reported that inflammatory response related signaling pathway is the main signal transduction pathway for the...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zhangdi HJ, Su SB, Wang F, Liang ZY, Yan YD, Qin SY, Jiang HX Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Neoadjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer management.
Abstract Thirty per cent of all colorectal tumours develop in the rectum. The location of the rectum within the bony pelvis and its proximity to vital structures presents significant therapeutic challenges when considering neoadjuvant options and surgical interventions. Most patients with early rectal cancer can be adequately managed by surgery alone. However, a significant proportion of patients with rectal cancer present with locally advanced disease and will potentially benefit from down staging prior to surgery. Neoadjuvant therapy involves a variety of options including radiotherapy, chemotherapy used alone o...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Feeney G, Sehgal R, Sheehan M, Hogan A, Regan M, Joyce M, Kerin M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori virulence genes.
man M Abstract Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most important human pathogens, infecting approximately half of the global population. Despite its high prevalence, only a subset of H. pylori infected individuals develop serious gastroduodenal pathology. The pathogenesis of H. pylori infection and disease outcome is thus thought to be mediated by an intricate interplay between host, environmental and bacterial virulence factors. H. pylori has adapted to the harsh milieu of the human stomach through possession of various virulence genes that enable survival of the bacteria in the acidic environment, mov...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Šterbenc A, Jarc E, Poljak M, Homan M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Occupational exposure to vinyl chloride and liver diseases.
Abstract Portal hypertension, liver fibrosis, and angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL) have been reported among workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) since the 1970s. In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer established the association of VCM with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), though only on the basis of the few cases available. Thereafter, recent reports from the United States cohort and a European sub-cohort of vinyl chloride workers provided compelling evidence of a strong association between cumulative VCM exposure and HCC risk. Further areas of research include the risk of liver cancer ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Fedeli U, Girardi P, Mastrangelo G Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Ex vivo effect of vascular wall stromal cells secretome on enteric ganglia.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest an immunomodulating activity of pVW-MSCs mediators on the enteric nervous system in inflammatory conditions. PMID: 31543681 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Dothel G, Bernardini C, Zannoni A, Spirito MR, Salaroli R, Bacci ML, Forni M, Ponti F Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Towards a standard diet-induced and biopsy-confirmed mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Impact of dietary fat source.
CONCLUSION: Substitution of Primex with palm oil promotes a similar phenotype of biopsy-confirmed NASH in ob/ob and C57BL/6J mice, making GAN diet-induced obese mouse models suitable for characterizing novel NASH treatments. PMID: 31543682 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Boland ML, Oró D, Tølbøl KS, Thrane ST, Nielsen JC, Cohen TS, Tabor DE, Fernandes F, Tovchigrechko A, Veidal SS, Warrener P, Sellman BR, Jelsing J, Feigh M, Vrang N, Trevaskis JL, Hansen HH Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Identification of hepatitis B virus and liver cancer bridge molecules based on functional module network.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the persistent inflammatory environment of HBV can be utilized as an important risk factor to induce the occurrence of HCC, which is supported by molecular evidence. PMID: 31543683 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Huang XB, He YG, Zheng L, Feng H, Li YM, Li HY, Yang FX, Li J Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Proton pump inhibitor use increases mortality and hepatic decompensation in liver cirrhosis.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed, often without clear indications. There are conflicting data on its association with mortality risk and hepatic decompensation in cirrhotic patients. Furthermore, PPI users and PPI exposure in some studies have been poorly defined with many confounding factors. AIM: To examine if PPI use increases mortality and hepatic decompensation and the impact of cumulative PPI dose exposure. METHODS: Data from patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis were extracted from a hospital database between 2013 to 2017. PPI users were defined as cum...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: De Roza MA, Kai L, Kam JW, Chan YH, Kwek A, Ang TL, Hsiang JC Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Prognostic value of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen/tumor size in rectal cancer.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a commonly used biomarker in colorectal cancer. However, controversy exists regarding the insufficient prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA alone in rectal cancer. Here, we combined preoperative serum CEA and the maximum tumor diameter to correct the CEA level, which may better reflect the malignancy of rectal cancer. AIM: To assess the prognostic impact of preoperative CEA/tumor size in rectal cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 696 stage I to III rectal cancer patients who underwent curative tumor resection from 2007 to 2012. These p...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Cai D, Huang ZH, Yu HC, Wang XL, Bai LL, Tang GN, Peng SY, Li YJ, Huang MJ, Cao GW, Wang JP, Luo YX Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Value of controlled attenuation parameter in fibrosis prediction in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
CONCLUSION: In patient with NAFLD, interpretation of LSM in association with CAP scores may provide helpful information sparing unnecessary liver biopsy. PMID: 31543686 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lee JI, Lee HW, Lee KS Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio effectively predicts survival outcome of patients with obstructive colorectal cancer.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Obstructive colorectal cancer (OCC) is always accompanied by severe complications, and the optimal strategy for patients with OCC remains undetermined. Different from emergency surgery (ES), self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) as a bridge to surgery (BTS), could increase the likelihood of primary anastomosis. However, the stent failure and related complications might give rise to a high recurrence rate. Few studies have focused on the indications for either method, and the relationship between preoperative inflammation indexes and the prognosis of OCC is still underestimated. AIM: To expl...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chen XQ, Xue CR, Hou P, Lin BQ, Zhang JR Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Tenofovir is a more suitable treatment than entecavir for chronic hepatitis B patients carrying naturally occurring rtM204I mutations.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA polymerase mutations usually occur to long term use of nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), but they can occur spontaneously in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. The naturally occurring HBV DNA polymerase mutations might complicate antiviral therapy with NAs, leading to the generation of drug-resistant viral mutants and disease progression. The most common substitutions are known to be YMDD-motif mutations, but their prevalence and the influence on antiviral therapy is unclear. AIM: To investigate prevalence of the naturally occurring rtM204I m...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Choe WH, Kim K, Lee SY, Choi YM, Kwon SY, Kim JH, Kim BJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Efficacy of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in treatment of acute pediatric diarrhea: A systematic review with meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: High-dose LGG therapy reduces the duration of diarrhea and the stool number per day. Intervention at the early stage is recommended. Future trials are expected to verify the effectiveness of LGG treatment. PMID: 31543689 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - September 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Li YT, Xu H, Ye JZ, Wu WR, Shi D, Fang DQ, Liu Y, Li LJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Exhaled breath analysis in hepatology: State-of-the-art and perspectives.
Abstract Liver disease is characterized by breath exhalation of peculiar volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Thanks to the availability of sensitive technologies for breath analysis, this empiric approach has recently gained increasing attention in the context of hepatology, following the good results obtained in other fields of medicine. After the first studies that led to the identification of selected VOCs for pathophysiological purposes, subsequent research has progressively turned towards the comprehensive assessment of exhaled breath for potential clinical application. Specific VOC patterns were found to disc...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: De Vincentis A, Vespasiani-Gentilucci U, Sabatini A, Antonelli-Incalzi R, Picardi A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Miniature gastrointestinal endoscopy: Now and the future.
Abstract Since its original application, gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has undergone many innovative transformations aimed at expanding the scope, safety, accuracy, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of this area of clinical practice. One method of achieving this has been to reduce the caliber of endoscopic devices. We propose the collective term "Miniature GI Endoscopy". In this Opinion Review, the innovations in this field are explored and discussed. The progress and clinical use of the three main areas of miniature GI endoscopy (ultrathin endoscopy, wireless endoscopy and scanning fiber endoscopy)...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: McGoran JJ, McAlindon ME, Iyer PG, Seibel EJ, Haidry R, Lovat LB, Sami SS Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Issues and controversies in esophageal inlet patch.
Abstract The proximal esophagus is rarely examined, and its inspection is often inadequate. Optical chromoendoscopy techniques such as narrow band imaging improve the detection rate of inlet patches in the proximal esophagus, a region in which their prevalence is likely underestimated. Various studies have reported correlations between these esophageal marks with different issues such as Barrett's esophagus, but these findings remain controversial. Conflicting reports complicate the process of interpreting the clinical features of esophageal inlet patches and underestimate their importance. Unfortunately, the limi...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ciocalteu A, Popa P, Ionescu M, Gheonea DI Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha in gastrointestinal and liver diseases.
Abstract Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) is a highly conserved member of nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors that is expressed in liver and gastrointestinal organs (pancreas, stomach, and intestine). In liver, HNF4α is best known for its role as a master regulator of liver-specific gene expression and essential for adult and fetal liver function. Dysregulation of HNF4α expression has been associated with many human diseases such as ulcerative colitis, colon cancer, maturity-onset diabetes of the young, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. How...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yeh MM, Bosch DE, Daoud SS Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in colon function, immune regulation and carcinogenesis.
Abstract Estrogens play important roles in the development and progression of multiple tumor types. Accumulating evidence points to the significance of estrogen action not only in tumors of hormonally regulated tissues such as the breast, endometrium and ovary, but also in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The effects of estrogens in physiological and pathophysiological conditions are mediated by the nuclear estrogen receptors α and β, as well as the membrane-bound G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). The roles of GPER in CRC development and progression, however, remain poorly understoo...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jacenik D, Beswick EJ, Krajewska WM, Prossnitz ER Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori and cytokine gene variants as predictors of premalignant gastric lesions.
nescu C Abstract Gastric cancer remains the third leading cause of mortality from cancer worldwide and carries a poor prognosis, due largely to late diagnosis. The importance of the interaction between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, the main risk factor, and host-related genetic factors has been studied intensively in recent years. The genetic predisposition for non-hereditary gastric cancer is difficult to assess, as neither the real prevalence of premalignant gastric lesions in various populations nor the environmental risk factors for cancer progression are clearly defined. For non-cardiac intestina...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Negovan A, Iancu M, Fülöp E, Bănescu C Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Intestinal enteroids/organoids: A novel platform for drug discovery in inflammatory bowel diseases.
Abstract The introduction of biologics such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) monoclonal antibodies followed by anti-integrins has dramatically changed the therapeutic paradigm of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Furthermore, a newly developed anti-p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 (ustekinumab) has been recently approved in the United States for patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease who have failed treatment with anti-TNFs. However, these immunosuppressive therapeutics which focus on anti-inflammatory mechanisms or immune cells still fail to achieve long-term remission in a significant p...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yoo JH, Donowitz M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Colorectal cancer surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease: Practice guidelines and recent developments.
Abstract Patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involving at least 1/3 of the colon are at increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Advancements in CRC screening and surveillance and improved treatment of IBD has reduced CRC incidence in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis. Most cases of CRC are thought to arise from dysplasia, and recent evidence suggests that the majority of dysplastic lesions in patients with IBD are visible, in part thanks to advancements in high definition colonoscopy and chromoendoscopy. Recent practice guidelines have supported the use of chromoendo...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Clarke WT, Feuerstein JD Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Elderly patients with inflammatory bowel disease: Updated review of the therapeutic landscape.
Abstract High-quality data remains scarce in terms of optimal management strategies in the elderly inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) population. Indeed, available trials have been mostly retrospective, of small sample size, likely owing to under-representation of such a population in the major randomized controlled trials. However, in the last five years, there has been a steady increase in the number of published trials, helping clarify the estimated benefits and toxicity of the existing IBD armamentarium. In the Everhov trial, prescription strategies were recorded over an average follow-up of 4.2 years. A minorit...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: LeBlanc JF, Wiseman D, Lakatos PL, Bessissow T Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Reduced lysosomal acid lipase activity: A new marker of liver disease severity across the clinical continuum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?
Abstract Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) plays a key role in intracellular lipid metabolism. Reduced LAL activity promotes increased multi-organ lysosomal cholesterol ester storage, as observed in two recessive autosomal genetic diseases, Wolman disease and Cholesterol ester storage disease. Severe liver steatosis and accelerated liver fibrosis are common features in patients with genetic LAL deficiency. By contrast, few reliable data are available on the modulation of LAL activity in vivo and on the epigenetic and metabolic factors capable of regulating its activity in subjects without homozygous mutations of the Lip...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Baratta F, Pastori D, Ferro D, Carluccio G, Tozzi G, Angelico F, Violi F, Del Ben M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Beneficial effects of nutritional supplements on intestinal epithelial barrier functions in experimental colitis models in vivo.
oor M Abstract Acute and chronic colitis affect a huge proportion of the population world-wide. The etiology of colitis cases can be manifold, and diet can significantly affect onset and outcome of colitis. While many forms of acute colitis are easily treatable, chronic forms of colitis such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (summarized as inflammatory bowel diseases) are multifactorial with poorly understood pathogenesis. Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by exacerbated immune responses causing epithelial dysfunction and bacterial translocation. There is no cure and therapies aim at reducing i...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Vargas-Robles H, Castro-Ochoa KF, Citalán-Madrid AF, Schnoor M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Multiple "Omics" data-based biomarker screening for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis.
Multiple "Omics" data-based biomarker screening for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2019 Aug 14;25(30):4199-4212 Authors: Liu XN, Cui DN, Li YF, Liu YH, Liu G, Liu L Abstract The huge prognostic difference between early and late stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a challenging diagnostic problem. Alpha-fetoprotein is the mostly widely used biomarker for HCC used in the clinic, however it's sensitivity and specificity of is not optimal. The development and application of multiple biotechnologies, including next generation sequencing, multiple "omics" ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Liu XN, Cui DN, Li YF, Liu YH, Liu G, Liu L Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Novel magnetic compression technique for establishment of a canine model of tracheoesophageal fistula.
CONCLUSION: It is simple, feasible, and minimally invasive to use the magnetic compression technique for the establishment of the TEF model in dogs. PMID: 31435174 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Gao Y, Wu RQ, Lv Y, Yan XP Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Bone morphogenetic protein-7 represses hepatic stellate cell activation and liver fibrosis via regulation of TGF- β/Smad signaling pathway.
CONCLUSION: During liver fibrosis, BMP7 protein expression first increases and then decreases. This changing trend is associated with inhibition of BMP7 expression by sustained upregulation of TGF-β1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Exogenous BMP7 could selectively regulate TGF-β/Smad pathway-associated factors to inhibit activation, migration, and proliferation of HSCs and exert anti-liver fibrosis functions. Exogenous BMP7 has the potential to be used as an anti-liver fibrosis drug. PMID: 31435175 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zou GL, Zuo S, Lu S, Hu RH, Lu YY, Yang J, Deng KS, Wu YT, Mu M, Zhu JJ, Zeng JZ, Zhang BF, Wu X, Zhao XK, Li HY Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Natural history of children with mild Crohn's disease.
CONCLUSION: We identified a cohort of children with mild CD, who were able to avoid the institution of immune suppressive therapies for several years, and generally had good outcomes during the period of follow-up. While a subset of these patients will eventually require either immunosuppression or surgery, the majority of them have a good quality of life despite having low-grade intestinal inflammation. Importantly, this subset of patients has managed to avoid the potential toxicities of immune suppression for several years. The majority of these patients have either colonic disease with minimal small bowel involvement or...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sharma Y, Bousvaros A, Liu E, Bender Stern J Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Inflammatory bowel disease patient profiles are related to specific information needs: A nationwide survey.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate unmet patient information needs. Analysis of various patient profiles revealed associations with specific information topics, paving the way for building patient-tailored information resources. PMID: 31435177 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Daher S, Khoury T, Benson A, Walker JR, Hammerman O, Kedem R, Naftali T, Eliakim R, Ben-Bassat O, Bernstein CN, Israeli E Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Frequency, localization, and types of gastrointestinal stromal tumor-associated neoplasia.
CONCLUSION: In this first systematic review, we could confirm previously reported findings of a more than coincidental association between GIST and other neoplasias. The question whether there is an underlying causal association will need further investigation. Our data suggest that even GIST with a very low risk of disease progression should prompt screening for second neoplasia and subsequent frequent controls or extended staging. PMID: 31435178 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Waidhauser J, Bornemann A, Trepel M, Märkl B Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Quantitative risk of positive family history in developing colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Positive family history is a risk factor for development of colorectal cancer. Despite numerous studies on the topic, the absolute risk in patients with a positive family history remains unclear and therefore studies are lacking to validate non-invasive screening methods in individuals with positive family history. AIM: To quantify the risk of colorectal cancer in individuals with a positive family history. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic literature search was performed using PubMed from January 1955 until November 2017, EMBASE from 1947 until 2018, and Cochrane Library without d...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mehraban Far P, Alshahrani A, Yaghoobi M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Diagnosis of erythropoietic protoporphyria with severe liver injury - a case report.
Abstract Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an extremely rare disease which is often unrecognized as diagnosis. In the recent article Lui et al describe a patient with a new diagnosis of EPP with severe liver injury. Approximately 5%-20% of patients with EPP develop liver manifestations. The most severe complication of EPP is an hepatic crisis, which is a medical emergency requiring urgent treatment. Intensive treatment should consist of (exchange) transfusions and preferably in a center that performs liver transplantations. PMID: 31435180 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - August 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wensink D, Wagenmakers MA, Wilson JP, Langendonk JG Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Role of cenicriviroc in the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest chronic liver disease in high-income countries and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Macrophages appear to play an important role in the development and progression of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Accordingly, modulation of macrophage trafficking might represent an attractive therapeutic strategy in this population. Cenicriviroc is an oral inhibitor of the chemokine ligand 2/C-C chemokine receptor 2 pathway, which plays an important role in the hepatic recruitment of the macrophages. Preclinical studies and a phase 2...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Neokosmidis G, Tziomalos K Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Colorectal cancer vaccines: Tumor-associated antigens vs neoantigens.
Abstract Therapeutic options for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) are diverse but still not always satisfying. Recent success of immune checkpoint inhibition treatment for the subgroup of CRC patients suffering from hyper-mutated tumors suggests a permanent role of immune therapy in the clinical management of CRC. Substantial improvement in treatment outcome could be achieved by development of efficient patient-individual CRC vaccination strategies. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge on the two general classes of targets: tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and tumor-specific antigens. TAAs lik...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wagner S, Mullins CS, Linnebacher M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Checkpoint inhibitors: What gastroenterologists need to know.
Abstract Checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly being used in clinical practice. They can cause various gastrointestinal, hepatic and pancreatic side effects. As these side effects can be serious, appropriate management is essential. The different checkpoint inhibitors with their mechanisms of action and indications, as well as evaluation and management of gastrointestinal, hepatic and pancreatic side effects, are discussed in this article. PMID: 30622372 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ahmed M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Virtual reality simulation in endoscopy training: Current evidence and future directions.
Abstract Virtual reality simulation is becoming the standard when beginning endoscopic training. It offers various benefits including learning in a low-stakes environment, improvement of patient safety and optimization of valuable endoscopy time. This is a review of the evidence surrounding virtual reality simulation and its efficacy in teaching endoscopic techniques. There have been 21 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated virtual reality simulation as a teaching tool in endoscopy. 10 RCTs studied virtual reality in colonoscopy, 3 in flexible sigmoidoscopy, 5 in esophagogastroduodenoscopy, an...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - December 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mahmood T, Scaffidi MA, Khan R, Grover SC Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research