Dietary Lectin exclusion: The next big food trend?
Abstract Until recently, with the exception of coeliac disease, gastroenterologists have not been particularly interested in the role of diet in the management of gastrointestinal disorders. However, patients have always felt that diet must play a part in their symptoms and, in the absence of any medical interest, have turned to alternative dietary practitioners for help, which can often have no evidence base. Fortunately, with the advent of the FODMAP diet (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) and the realisation that diet can have a profound effect on the microbiome, medical...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Panacer K, Whorwell PJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: Current and future.
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises on the background of chronic liver disease. Despite the development of effective anti-viral therapeutics HCC is continuing to rise, in part driven by the epidemic of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Many patients present with advanced disease out with the criteria for transplant, resection or even locoregional therapy. Currently available therapeutics for HCC are effective in a small minority of individuals. However, there has been a major global interest in immunotherapies for cancer and although HCC has lagged behind other cancers, great opportunities now exist fo...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Johnston MP, Khakoo SI Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Application of Big Data analysis in gastrointestinal research.
Abstract Big Data, which are characterized by certain unique traits like volume, velocity and value, have revolutionized the research of multiple fields including medicine. Big Data in health care are defined as large datasets that are collected routinely or automatically, and stored electronically. With the rapidly expanding volume of health data collection, it is envisioned that the Big Data approach can improve not only individual health, but also the performance of health care systems. The application of Big Data analysis in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology research has also opened new research app...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Cheung KS, Leung WK, Seto WK Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Biomarkers and subtypes of deranged lipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a heterogeneous and complex disease that is imprecisely diagnosed by liver biopsy. NAFLD covers a spectrum that ranges from simple steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with varying degrees of fibrosis, to cirrhosis, which is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. Lifestyle and eating habit changes during the last century have made NAFLD the most common liver disease linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, with a global prevalence of 25%. NAFLD arises when the uptake of fatty acids (FA) and triglycerides (TG) from circul...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mato JM, Alonso C, Noureddin M, Lu SC Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Imaging biomarkers for the treatment of esophageal cancer.
Abstract Esophageal cancer is known as one of the malignant cancers with poor prognosis. To improve the outcome, combined multimodality treatment is attempted. On the other hand, advances in genomics and other "omic" technologies are paving way to the patient-oriented treatment called "personalized" or "precision" medicine. Recent advancements of imaging techniques such as functional imaging make it possible to use imaging features as biomarker for diagnosis, treatment response, and prognosis in cancer treatment. In this review, we will discuss how we can use imaging derived tumor fea...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Hayano K, Ohira G, Hirata A, Aoyagi T, Imanishi S, Tochigi T, Hanaoka T, Shuto K, Matsubara H Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Development and in vitro study of a bi-specific magnetic resonance imaging molecular probe for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks second in terms of cancer mortality worldwide. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) targeting HCC biomarkers such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) or glypican-3 (GPC3) offers new strategies to enhance specificity and help early diagnosis of HCC. However, the existing iron oxide nanoparticle-based MR molecular probes singly target AFP or GPC3, which may hinder their efficiency to detect heterogeneous micro malignant HCC tumors
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ma XH, Wang S, Liu SY, Chen K, Wu ZY, Li DF, Mi YT, Hu LB, Chen ZW, Zhao XM Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Effect of NLRC5 on activation and reversion of hepatic stellate cells by regulating the nuclear factor- κB signaling pathway.
Effect of NLRC5 on activation and reversion of hepatic stellate cells by regulating the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. World J Gastroenterol. 2019 Jun 28;25(24):3044-3055 Authors: Zhang YZ, Yao JN, Zhang LF, Wang CF, Zhang XX, Gao B Abstract BACKGROUND: The formation of liver fibrosis is mainly caused by the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the imbalance of extracellular matrix (ECM) production and degradation. The treatment of liver fibrosis mainly includes removing the cause, inhibiting the activation of HSCs, and inhibiting inflammation. NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, ca...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zhang YZ, Yao JN, Zhang LF, Wang CF, Zhang XX, Gao B Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Freeze-dried Si-Ni-San powder can ameliorate high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease worldwide. However, to date, there is no ideal therapy for this disease. AIM: To study the effects of Si-Ni-San freeze-dried powder on high fat diet-induced NAFLD in mice. METHODS: Twenty-four male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into three groups of eight. The control group (CON) was allowed ad libitum access to a normal chow diet. The high fat diet group (FAT) and Si-Ni-San group (SNS) were allowed ad libitum access to a high fat diet. The SNS group was intragastrically administered Si-Ni-San freeze-dried powd...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zhu F, Li YM, Feng TT, Wu Y, Zhang HX, Jin GY, Liu JP Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics of young patients with early Barrett's neoplasia.
ima C Abstract BACKGROUND: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD) may appear in young patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE). However, characteristics of Barrett's-related neoplasia in this younger population remain unknown. AIM: To identify clinical characteristics that differ between young and old patients with early-stage Barrett's-related neoplasia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database comprised of consecutive patients with early-stage EAC (pT1) and HGD at a tertiary-referral center between 2001 and 2017. Baseline characteristic...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Iwaya Y, Shimamura Y, Goda K, Rodríguez de Santiago E, Coneys JG, Mosko JD, Kandel G, Kortan P, May G, Marcon N, Teshima C Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Evaluation of clinical outcomes in an interdisciplinary abdominal pain clinic: A retrospective, exploratory review.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common and well-accepted to be etiologically complex in terms of the contribution of biological, psychological, and social factors to symptom presentations. Nonetheless, despite its documented benefits, interdisciplinary treatment, designed to address all of these factors, for pediatric FGIDs remains rare. The current study hypothesized that the majority of pediatric patients seen in an interdisciplinary abdominal pain clinic (APC) would demonstrate clinical resolution of symptoms during the study period and that specific psychosocial...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Deacy AD, Friesen CA, Staggs VS, Schurman JV Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Recent advances in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in Billroth II gastrectomy patients: A systematic review.
CONCLUSION: The performance of ERCP in the Billroth II gastrectomy population has been improving with choice of various type of endoscope and sphincter management. More comparative studies are needed to determine the optimal strategy to perform safe and effective ERCP in Billroth II gastrectomy patients. PMID: 31293344 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Park TY, Song TJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Postoperative complications in gastrointestinal surgery: A "hidden" basic quality indicator.
Postoperative complications in gastrointestinal surgery: A "hidden" basic quality indicator. World J Gastroenterol. 2019 Jun 21;25(23):2833-2838 Authors: De la Plaza Llamas R, Ramia JM Abstract Postoperative complications represent a basic quality indicator for measuring outcomes at surgical units. At present, however, they are not systematically measured in all surgical procedures. A more accurate assessment of their impact could help to evaluate the real morbidity associated with different surgical interventions, establish measures for improvement, increase efficiency and identify benchmar...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 21, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: De la Plaza Llamas R, Ramia JM Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Modified FOLFIRINOX for resected pancreatic cancer: Opportunities and challenges.
Abstract Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy has been developed based on the experiences made with palliative chemotherapy, and advocated to improve long-term survival of patients with this disease. However, the optimal chemotherapeutic regimen remains controversial. Recently, Conroy et al demonstrated the impressive benefits of modified FOLFIRINOX over gemcitabine alone in the multicenter Partenariat de Recherche en Oncologie Digestive 24 (PRODIGE-24) trial. The remarkable results mark a new milestone in treating resectable pancreatic cancer and have now...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 21, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yang F, Jin C, Fu DL, Warshaw AL Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Role of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms and functions in development of ulcerative colitis.
Abstract Cytochromes P450s (CYPs) are terminal enzymes in CYP dependent monooxygenases, which constitute a superfamily of enzymes catalysing the metabolism of both endogenous and exogenous substances. One of their main tasks is to facilitate the excretion of these substances and eliminate their toxicities in most phase 1 reactions. Endogenous substrates of CYPs include steroids, bile acids, eicosanoids, cholesterol, vitamin D and neurotransmitters. About 80% of currently used drugs and environmental chemicals comprise exogenous substrates for CYPs. Genetic polymorphisms of CYPs may affect the enzyme functions and ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 21, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sen A, Stark H Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Role of epigenetics in transformation of inflammation into colorectal cancer.
Abstract Molecular mechanisms associated with inflammation-promoted tumorigenesis have become an important topic in cancer research. Various abnormal epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNA regulation, occur during the transformation of chronic inflammation into colorectal cancer (CRC). These changes not only accelerate transformation but also lead to cancer progression and metastasis by activating carcinogenic signaling pathways. The NF-κB and STAT3 signaling pathways play a particularly important role in the transformation of inflammation...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 21, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yang ZH, Dang YQ, Ji G Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

The role of endoscopy in the management of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome.
Abstract Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) syndrome is an inherited cancer risk syndrome associated with pathogenic germline CDH1 variants. Given the high risk for developing diffuse gastric cancer, CDH1 carriers are recommended to undergo prophylactic total gastrectomy for cancer risk reduction. Current guidelines recommend upper endoscopy in CDH1 carriers prior to surgery and then annually for individuals deferring prophylactic total gastrectomy. Management of individuals from HDGC families without CDH1 pathogenic variants remains less clear, and management of families with CDH1 pathogenic variants in the...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 21, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kumar S, Long JM, Ginsberg GG, Katona BW Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Predicting systemic spread in early colorectal cancer: Can we do better?
Abstract Through the implementation of national bowel cancer screening programmes we have seen a three-fold increase in early pT1 colorectal cancers, but how these lesions should be managed is currently unclear. Local excision can be an attractive option, especially for fragile patients with multiple comorbidities, but it is only safe from an oncological point of view in the absence of lymph node metastasis. Patient risk stratification through careful analysis of histopathological features in local excision or polypectomy specimens should be performed according to national guidelines to avoid under- or over-treatm...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 21, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Brockmoeller SF, West NP Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

NIMA related kinase 2 promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation via ERK/MAPK signaling.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that NEK2 plays a carcinogenic role in the malignant proliferation of GC cells via the ERK/MAPK signaling, which may be important for treatment and improving patient survival. PMID: 31249448 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 21, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Fan WD, Chen T, Liu PJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Proteomics of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus of rats with stress-induced gastric ulcer.
CONCLUSION: Quantitative proteomic analysis elucidated the molecular targets associated with the production of SGU and provides insights into the role of the MD. The underlying molecular mechanisms need to be further dissected. PMID: 31249449 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 21, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Gong SN, Zhu JP, Ma YJ, Zhao DQ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Effects of Bifidobacterium infantis on cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the ileum of rats with endotoxin injury.
CONCLUSION: Expression of CINC mRNA increased in the ileum of preweaning rats with endotoxin injury, and exogenous administration of Bifidobacterium reduced CINC mRNA expression. IGF-1 protein and mRNA expression decreased in the ileum of preweaning rats with endotoxin injury, and exogenous administration of Bifidobacterium prevented the decrease in IGF-1 expression. Bifidobacterium may increase IGF-1 expression and enhance intestinal immune barrier function in rats with endotoxin injury. PMID: 31249450 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 21, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wang W, Sun M, Zheng YL, Sun LY, Qu SQ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Plasma Nogo-A and placental growth factor levels are associated with portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) and severe portal hypertension (SPH) increase the risk for decompensation and life-threatening complications in liver cirrhosis. Pathologic angiogenesis might contribute to the formation of these conditions. Placental growth factor (PlGF) and Nogo-A protein are biomarkers of pathological angiogenesis, but data on their role in liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension is scarce. AIM: To determine plasma levels of PlGF and Nogo-A in patients with liver cirrhosis, CSPH, SPH and potential to predict portal hypertension. METHODS: A cohort o...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 21, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Gelman S, Salteniene V, Pranculis A, Skieceviciene J, Zykus R, Petrauskas D, Kupcinskas L, Canbay A, Link A, Kupcinskas J Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Expression of genes that control core fucosylation in hepatocellular carcinoma: Systematic review.
CONCLUSION: Amplification of genes involved in the de novo pathway for generation of GDP-fucose, GMDS and TSTA3, likely contributes to the elevated core fucose observed in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 31249452 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 21, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Norton PA, Mehta AS Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Comparison of renal safety of tenofovir and entecavir in patients with chronic hepatitis B: Systematic review with meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: TDF statistically significantly increased serum creatinine levels and decreased the eGFR in 6-24 mo compared to ETV, with moderate to low quality of evidence. However, the differences are negligible. PMID: 31249453 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 21, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lee HY, Oh H, Park CH, Yeo YH, Nguyen MH, Jun DW Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Which factors determine exocrine pancreatic dysfunction in diabetes mellitus?
Abstract The exocrine structure is significantly affected by diabetes because of endocrine structure-function disorder within the pancreas. Exocrine pancreatic dysfunction (EPD) is the general name of the malabsorption process resulting from inadequate production, release, decreased activation, and/or insufficient degradation of enzymes required for digestion from pancreatic acinar cells. It is important to diagnose patients early and correctly, since there may be both macro- and micro-nutrient deficiency in EPD. In this paper, EPD, the diabetes-EPD relationship, and the predictive, effective factors affecting the...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Altay M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Proton pump inhibitors and dysbiosis: Current knowledge and aspects to be clarified.
Abstract Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are common medications within the practice of gastroenterology. These drugs, which act through the irreversible inhibition of the hydrogen/potassium pump (H+/K+-ATPase pump) in the gastric parietal cells, are used in the treatment of several acid-related disorders. PPIs are generally well tolerated but, through the long-term reduction of gastric acid secretion, can increase the risk of an imbalance in gut microbiota composition (i.e., dysbiosis). The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem in which microbes coexist and interact with the human host. Indeed, the resident gut bact...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Bruno G, Zaccari P, Rocco G, Scalese G, Panetta C, Porowska B, Pontone S, Severi C Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Diagnosis and therapeutic strategies for small bowel vascular lesions.
Abstract Small bowel vascular lesions, including angioectasia (AE), Dieulafoy's lesion (DL) and arteriovenous malformation (AVM), are the most common causes of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Since AE are considered to be venous lesions, they usually manifest as a chronic, well-compensated condition. Subsequent to video capsule endoscopy, deep enteroscopy can be applied to control active bleeding or to improve anemia necessitating blood transfusion. Despite the initial treatment efficacy of argon plasma coagulation (APC), many patients experience re-bleeding, probably because of recurrent or missed AEs. Pharmac...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sakai E, Ohata K, Nakajima A, Matsuhashi N Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Advanced diagnostics for pancreatic cysts: Confocal endomicroscopy and molecular analysis.
Abstract Technological advances and the widespread use of medical imaging have led to an increase in the identification of pancreatic cysts in patients who undergo cross-sectional imaging. Current methods for the diagnosis and risk-stratification of pancreatic cysts are suboptimal, resulting in both unnecessary surgical resection and overlooked cases of neoplasia. Accurate diagnosis is crucial for guiding how a pancreatic cyst is managed, whether with surveillance for low-risk lesions or surgical resection for high-risk lesions. This review aims to summarize the current literature on confocal endomicroscopy and cy...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Durkin C, Krishna SG Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Long-lasting discussion: Adverse effects of intraoperative blood loss and allogeneic transfusion on prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.
Abstract Gastrectomy with radical lymph node dissection is the most promising treatment avenue for patients with gastric cancer. However, this procedure sometimes induces excessive intraoperative blood loss and requires perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion. There are lasting discussions and controversies about whether intraoperative blood loss or perioperative blood transfusion has adverse effects on the prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. We reviewed laboratory and clinical evidence of these associations in patients with gastric cancer. A large amount of clinical evidence supports the correlation bet...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Nakanishi K, Kanda M, Kodera Y Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

MiR-34a overexpression enhances the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin on HepG2 cells.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of death from malignant tumors worldwide. More than 50% of HCC cases occur in China. The prognosis remains poor and overall efficacy is still unsatisfactory. Chemotherapy resistance is the most important reason for the poor outcome. Much progress has been made in the study of chemotherapy resistance of HCC; however, the specific mechanisms of progression of HCC have still only been partially established. Therefore, the mechanism of chemotherapy resistance in HCC requires more research. AIM: To investigate the effect of miR-34a expr...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zheng SZ, Sun P, Wang JP, Liu Y, Gong W, Liu J Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNA HOXA11-AS promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation and invasion via SRSF1 and functions as a biomarker in gastric cancer.
CONCLUSION: HOXA11-AS promotes GC cell proliferation and invasion via SRSF1 and may function as a promising marker in GC. PMID: 31235999 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Liu Y, Zhang YM, Ma FB, Pan SR, Liu BZ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Sp1 contributes to overexpression of stanniocalcin 2 through regulation of promoter activity in colon adenocarcinoma.
CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence that the transcription factor Sp1 is essential for the overexpression of STC2 in COAD through activation of promoter activity. Taken together, our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of oncogenic function of COAD by STC2. PMID: 31236000 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Li JB, Liu ZX, Zhang R, Ma SP, Lin T, Li YX, Yang SH, Zhang WC, Wang YP Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Increased risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: A nationwide population-based study.
CONCLUSION: IBD significantly increased the risk of AF, and the impact of IBD on developing AF was in patients with moderate to severe disease. PMID: 31236001 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Choi YJ, Choi EK, Han KD, Park J, Moon I, Lee E, Choe WS, Lee SR, Cha MJ, Lim WH, Oh S Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Effects of early enteral nutrition on Th17/Treg cells and IL-23/IL-17 in septic patients.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The imbalance of Th17/Treg cells and the IL-23/IL-17 axis have been confirmed to be associated with sepsis and various inflammatory diseases. Early enteral nutrition (EEN) can modulate the inflammatory response, improve immune dysfunction, and prevent enterogenic infection in critically ill patients; however, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. Considering the important roles of Th17 and Treg lymphocytes in the development of inflammatory and infectious diseases, we hypothesized that EEN could improve the immune dysfunction in sepsis by maintaining a balanced Th17/Treg cell ratio and by reg...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sun JK, Zhang WH, Chen WX, Wang X, Mu XW Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Autoimmune hepatitis treatment in the elderly: A systematic review.
CONCLUSION: Treatment of AIH is challenging in elderly patients. This systematic review confirms the efficacy and safety of standard induction treatment for AIH in the elderly. Available evidence is insufficient to draw any conclusion on the effect of novel AIH treatments in elderly subjects. PMID: 31236003 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Durazzo M, Lupi G, Scandella M, Ferro A, Gruden G Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Mini-invasive vs open resection of colorectal cancer and liver metastases: A meta-analysis.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The safety and feasibility of the simultaneous resection of primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and synchronous colorectal liver metastases (SCRLM) have been demonstrated in some studies. Combined resection is expected to be the optimal strategy for patients with CRC and SCRLM. However, traditional laparotomy is traumatic, and the treatment outcome of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is still obscure. AIM: To compare the treatment outcomes of MIS and open surgery (OS) for the simultaneous resection of CRC and SCRLM. METHODS: A systematic search through December 22, 2018 was conducted in ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ye SP, Qiu H, Liao SJ, Ai JH, Shi J Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Predicting (side) effects for patients with inflammatory bowel disease: The promise of pharmacogenetics.
Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and heterogeneous intestinal inflammatory disorder. The medical management of IBD aims for long-lasting disease remission to prevent complications and disease progression. Early introduction of immunosuppression forms the mainstay of medical IBD management. Large inter-individual variability in drug responses, in terms of both efficacy and toxicity, leads to high rates of therapeutic failure in the management of IBD. Better patient stratification is needed to maximize patient benefit and minimize the harm caused by adverse events. Pre-treatment pharmacogenetic...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Voskuil MD, Bangma A, Weersma RK, Festen EAM Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of gastrointestinal angiodysplasias: A critical review and view points.
ez-González JA, Maldonado-Garza HJ Abstract Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias (GIADs), also called angioectasias, are the most frequent vascular lesions. Its precise prevalence is unknown since most of them are asymptomatic. However, the incidence may be increasing since GIADs affect individuals aged more than 60 years and population life expectancy is globally increasing worldwide. They are responsible of about 5% to 10% of all gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) cases. Most GIADs are placed in small bowel, where are the cause of 50 to 60% of obscure GIB diagnosed with video capsule endoscopy. They may be the c...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: García-Compeán D, Del Cueto-Aguilera ÁN, Jiménez-Rodríguez AR, González-González JA, Maldonado-Garza HJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Colorectal cancer screening from 45 years of age: Thesis, antithesis and synthesis.
Abstract Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in patients younger than 50 years are increasing, but screening before the age of 50 is not offered in Europe. Advanced-stage diagnosis and mortality from colorectal cancer before 50 years of age are increasing. This is not a detection-bias effect; it is a real issue affecting the entire population. Three independent computational models indicate that screening from 45 years of age would yield a better balance of benefits and risks than the current start at 50 years of age. Experimental data support these predictions in a sex- and race-independent manner. Earlier ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mannucci A, Zuppardo RA, Rosati R, Leo MD, Perea J, Cavestro GM Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Gastric per-oral endoscopic myotomy: Current status and future directions.
Abstract Gastroparesis, or symptomatic delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction, is a challenging and increasingly identified syndrome. Medical options are limited and the only medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of gastroparesis is metoclopramide, although other agents are frequently used off label. With this caveat, first-line treatments for gastroparesis include dietary modifications, antiemetics and promotility agents, although these therapies are limited by suboptimal efficacy and significant medication side effects. Treatment of patients that fail fi...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Podboy A, Hwang JH, Nguyen LA, Garcia P, Zikos TA, Kamal A, Triadafilopoulos G, Clarke JO Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: Where do we stand?
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is the sixth most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death. Liver transplantation is a key tool for the treatment of this disease in human therefore hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing as primary indication for grafting. Although liver transplantation represents an outstanding therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma, due to organ shortage, the careful selection and management of patients who may have a major survival benefit after grafting remains a fundamental question. In fact, only some sta...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Santopaolo F, Lenci I, Milana M, Manzia TM, Baiocchi L Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Systems pharmacology approach reveals protective mechanisms of Jian-Pi Qing-Chang decoction on ulcerative colitis.
CONCLUSION: JPQC could improve the mucosal inflammatory response and intestinal epithelial barrier function via the NF-κB/HIF-1α signalling pathway, which provides new perspectives on the pharmaceutical development and clinical practice of TCM. PMID: 31210713 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chen YL, Zheng YY, Dai YC, Zhang YL, Tang ZP Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Endoscopic resection of the pancreatic tail and subsequent wound healing mechanisms in a porcine model.
CONCLUSION: Purely transgastric endoscopic resection of the pancreas is a safe, effective, and feasible procedure, but the incidence of pancreatic leakage in total pancreatic tail resection is high. The expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3/Samd7 is related to the progression of pancreatic wound healing. PMID: 31210714 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wang S, Zhang K, Hu JL, Wu WC, Liu X, Ge N, Guo JT, Wang GX, Sun SY Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can predict the pathologic stage of solitary hepatocellular carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: Imaging features on EOB-MRI could potentially be used to predict the pathologic stage of solitary HCC (cT1) as pT1 or pT2. PMID: 31210715 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chou YC, Lao IH, Hsieh PL, Su YY, Mak CW, Sun DP, Sheu MJ, Kuo HT, Chen TJ, Ho CH, Kuo YT Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Novel risk scoring system for prediction of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy.
CONCLUSION: This study established a 10-point scoring system to predict CR-POPF after PD/PPPD using preoperative and intraoperative parameters. Ultimately, this system could be used to distinguish between high- and low-risk populations in order to facilitate timely interventions after PD. PMID: 31210716 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Li Y, Zhou F, Zhu DM, Zhang ZX, Yang J, Yao J, Wei YJ, Xu YL, Li DC, Zhou J Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Management of betablocked patients after sustained virological response in hepatitis C cirrhosis.
dquo; Study Group Investigators Abstract BACKGROUND: Current guidelines do not address the post-sustained virological response management of patients with baseline hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis and oesophageal varices taking betablockers as primary or secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. We hypothesized that in some of these patients portal hypertension drops below the bleeding threshold after sustained virological response, making definitive discontinuation of the betablockers a safe option. AIM: To assess the evolution of portal hypertension, associated factors, non-invasive assessment, and risk ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Abadía M, Montes ML, Ponce D, Froilán C, Romero M, Poza J, Hernández T, Fernández-Martos R, Olveira A, “La Paz Portal Hypertension” Study Group Investigators Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Proton pump inhibitor use increases hepatic encephalopathy risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: The current evidence indicates that PPI use increases HE risk in patients with liver cirrhosis. Further studies with a large data set and well-designed models are needed to validate our findings. PMID: 31210718 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ma YJ, Cao ZX, Li Y, Feng SY Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Association of proton pump inhibitors with risk of hepatic encephalopathy in advanced liver disease: A meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: In patients with advanced liver disease, PPI use is associated with an elevated risk of HE. Future large prospective studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID: 31210719 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - June 7, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tantai XX, Yang LB, Wei ZC, Xiao CL, Chen LR, Wang JH, Liu N Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

From 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional: Overcoming dilemmas in intestinal mucosal interpretation.
Abstract The purpose of this review is to provide a definitive account of small intestinal mucosal structure and interpretation. The coeliac lesion has been well known, but not well described to date and this review aims to identify the interpretative difficulties which have arisen over time with the histological assessment of coeliac disease. In early coeliac interpretation, there were significant inaccuracies, particularly surrounding intraepithelial lymphocyte counts and the degree of villous flattening which occurred in the tissue. Many of these interpretive pitfalls are still encountered today, increasing the...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - May 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Charlesworth RP, Marsh MN Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Optimizing radiotherapy with immune checkpoint blockade in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer, and its incidence is rapidly increasing in North America and Western Europe as well as South-East Asia. Patients with advanced stage HCC have very poor outcomes; therefore, the discovery of new innovative approaches is urgently needed. Cancer immunotherapy has become a game-changer and revolutionized cancer treatment. A comprehensive understanding of tumor-immune interactions led to the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) as new therapeutic tools, which have been used with great success. Targeting immune checkpoint molecules su...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - May 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Choi C, Yoo GS, Cho WK, Park HC Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Contribution of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy to survival and quality of life in patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.
The objective of this study was to analyze the current evidence for the use of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) in affecting survival and quality of life in patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI). Systematic searches of the literature were performed using the PubMed database. Articles were selected for inclusion if they reported findings from trials assessing the effects of PERT on quality of life, survival, malabsorption, growth parameters (such as height, body weight and body mass index), or gastrointestinal symptoms (such as abdominal pain, stool consistency and flatulence). PERT improved PEI-...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - May 28, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Layer P, Kashirskaya N, Gubergrits N Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research