Management of Flood syndrome: What can we do better?
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 28;27(32):5297-5305. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i32.5297.ABSTRACTApproximately 20% of cirrhotic patients with ascites develop umbilical herniation. These patients usually suffer from multisystemic complications of cirrhosis, have a significantly higher risk of infection, and require accurate surveillance- especially in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The rupture of an umbilical hernia, is an uncommon, life-threatening complication of large-volume ascites and end-stage liver disease resulting in spontaneous paracentesis, also known as Flood syndrome. Flood syndrome remains a c...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sandra Strainiene Milda Peciulyte Tomas Strainys Ieva Stundiene Ilona Savlan Valentina Liakina Jonas Valantinas Source Type: research

Radiomics and machine learning applications in rectal cancer: Current update and future perspectives
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 28;27(32):5306-5321. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i32.5306.ABSTRACTThe high incidence of rectal cancer in both sexes makes it one of the most common tumors, with significant morbidity and mortality rates. To define the best treatment option and optimize patient outcome, several rectal cancer biological variables must be evaluated. Currently, medical imaging plays a crucial role in the characterization of this disease, and it often requires a multimodal approach. Magnetic resonance imaging is the first-choice imaging modality for local staging and restaging and can be used to detect high-risk prognos...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Arnaldo Stanzione Francesco Verde Valeria Romeo Francesca Boccadifuoco Pier Paolo Mainenti Simone Maurea Source Type: research

Could the burden of pancreatic cancer originate in childhood?
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 28;27(32):5322-5340. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i32.5322.ABSTRACTThe presence of pancreatic cancer during childhood is extremely rare, and physicians may be tempted to overlook this diagnosis based on age criteria. However, there are primary malignant pancreatic tumors encountered in pediatric patients, such as pancreatoblastoma, and tumors considered benign in general but may present a malignant potential, such as the solid pseudo-papillary tumor, insulinoma, gastrinoma, and vasoactive intestinal peptide secreting tumor. Their early diagnosis and management are of paramount importance since the s...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Smaranda Diaconescu Georgiana Emmanuela G îlcă-Blanariu Silvia Poamaneagra Otilia Marginean Gabriela Paduraru Gabriela Stefanescu Source Type: research

Application of artificial intelligence in preoperative imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma: Current status and future perspectives
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 28;27(32):5341-5350. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i32.5341.ABSTRACTHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant liver tumor in China. Preoperative diagnosis of HCC is challenging because of atypical imaging manifestations and the diversity of focal liver lesions. Artificial intelligence (AI), such as machine learning (ML) and deep learning, has recently gained attention for its capability to reveal quantitative information on images. Currently, AI is used throughout the entire radiomics process and plays a critical role in multiple fields of medicine. This review summarizes th...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Bing Feng Xiao-Hong Ma Shuang Wang Wei Cai Xia-Bi Liu Xin-Ming Zhao Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence application in diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy - Deus ex machina?
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 28;27(32):5351-5361. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i32.5351.ABSTRACTThe close relationship of medicine with technology and the particular interest in this symbiosis in recent years has led to the development of several computed artificial intelligence (AI) systems aimed at various areas of medicine. A number of studies have demonstrated that those systems allow accurate diagnoses with histological precision, thus facilitating decision-making by clinicians in real time. In the field of gastroenterology, AI has been applied in the diagnosis of pathologies of the entire digestive tract and their attache...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: F ábio Pereira Correia Lu ís Carvalho Lourenço Source Type: research

Faecal microbiota transplantation enhances efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors therapy against cancer
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 28;27(32):5362-5375. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i32.5362.ABSTRACTEven though immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are effective on multiple cancer types, there are still many non-responding patients. A possible factor put forward that may influence the efficacy of ICIs is the gut microbiota. Additionally, faecal microbiota transplantation may enhance efficacy of ICIs. Nevertheless, the data available in this field are insufficient, and relevant scientific work has just commenced. As a result, the current work reviewed the latest research on the association of gut microbiota with ICI treatments base...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yong-Bo Kang Yue Cai Source Type: research

Immune checkpoint inhibitor-related hepatotoxicity: A review
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 28;27(32):5376-5391. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i32.5376.ABSTRACTThe application of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in advanced cancer has been a major development in the last decade. The indications for ICIs are constantly expanding into new territory across different cancers, disease stages and lines of therapy. With this increased use, adverse events including immune checkpoint inhibitor-related hepatotoxicity (ICH) have emerged as an important clinical problem. This along with the introduction of ICI as first- and second-line treatments for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma makes ICH very r...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Devika Remash David S Prince Catriona McKenzie Simone I Strasser Steven Kao Ken Liu Source Type: research

Therapeutic effect of < em > Cistanche deserticola < /em > on defecation in senile constipation rat model through stem cell factor/C-kit signaling pathway
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 28;27(32):5392-5403. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i32.5392.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Constipation is one of the chronic gastrointestinal functional diseases. It seriously affects the quality of life. Cistanche deserticola (C. deserticola) can treat constipation obviously, but its mechanism has not been clarified. We supposed that mechanism of it improved the intestinal motility by stimulating interstitial Cajal cells (ICC). Activation of the C-kit receptor on the surface of ICC is closely related to ICC function, and the stem cell factor (SCF)/C-kit signaling pathways plays an important role on it. To inv...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xia Zhang Fa-Juan Zheng Zhen Zhang Source Type: research

Recombinant angiopoietin-like protein 4 attenuates intestinal barrier structure and function injury after ischemia/reperfusion
CONCLUSION: rhANGPTL4 can function as a protective agent against intestinal injury induced by intestinal I/R and improve survival via maintenance of intestinal barrier structure and functions.PMID:34539141 | PMC:PMC8409166 | DOI:10.3748/wjg.v27.i32.5404 (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zi-Yi Wang Jian-Yu Lin Yang-Rong Feng De-Shun Liu Xu-Zi Zhao Tong Li Si-Yuan Li Jing-Chao Sun Shu-Feng Li Wen-Yan Jia Hui-Rong Jing Source Type: research

Prolonged survival in patients with hand-foot skin reaction secondary to cooperative sorafenib treatment
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 28;27(32):5424-5437. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i32.5424.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Sorafenib is an oral drug that prolongs overall survival (OS) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Adverse events, including hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR), lead to permanent sorafenib discontinuation.AIM: To clarify the association between interventions for adverse events and patient prognosis.METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study of patients treated with sorafenib monotherapy between May 2009 and March 2018. We developed a mutual cooperation system that was initiated at the start of sorafenib tr...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Masanori Ochi Toshiro Kamoshida Masahiro Araki Tadashi Ikegami Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging for intestinal lymphoma
CONCLUSION: B-mode US and CEUS findings of intestinal lymphoma are characteristic. We observed a high rate of tumor necrosis, which appeared more frequently in aggressive pathological subtypes of intestinal lymphoma.PMID:34539143 | PMC:PMC8409164 | DOI:10.3748/wjg.v27.i32.5438 (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ning-Yi Cui Xuan-Tong Gong Yan-Tao Tian Yong Wang Rui Zhang Meng-Jia Liu Jie Han Bo Wang Di Yang Source Type: research

Intestinal ischemic manifestations of SARS-CoV-2: Results from the ABDOCOVID multicentre study
CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal ischemia represents a rare manifestation of COVID-19. A high index of suspicion should lead to investigate this complication by CT scan, in the attempt to reduce its high mortality rate. Histology shows atypical feature of ischemia with important endotheliitis, probably linked to thrombotic microangiopathies.PMID:34539144 | PMC:PMC8409161 | DOI:10.3748/wjg.v27.i32.5448 (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 20, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lorenzo Norsa Pietro Andrea Bonaffini Maja Caldato Cristiana Bonifacio Aurelio Sonzogni Amedeo Indriolo Clarissa Valle Federica Furfaro Alice Bonanomi Paolo Niccol ò Franco Mauro Gori Veronica Smania Lucia Scaramella Laura Forzenigo Maurizio Vecchi Monic Source Type: research

Diabetes and pancreatic cancer: Exploring the two-way traffic
We describe this intimate and complex two-way relationship of diabetes and PC in this review by exploring the underlying pathogenesis.PMID:34497428 | PMC:PMC8384733 | DOI:10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.4939 (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ayan Roy Jayaprakash Sahoo Sadishkumar Kamalanathan Dukhabandhu Naik Pazhanivel Mohan Raja Kalayarasan Source Type: research

Stress-activated kinases as therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):4963-4984. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.4963.ABSTRACTPancreatic cancer is a dismal disease with high incidence and poor survival rates. With the aim to improve overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients, new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Protein kinases are key regulatory players in basically all stages of development, maintaining physiologic functions but also being involved in pathogenic processes. c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 kinases, representatives of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, as well as the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family of protein kinases a...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Benno Traub Aileen Roth Marko Kornmann Uwe Knippschild Joachim Bischof Source Type: research

Malnutrition and liver disease in a developing country
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):4985-4998. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.4985.ABSTRACTMalnutrition is a highly prevalent and under recognized condition in developing countries of South Asia. The presence of malnutrition causes a severe impact on patients with liver cirrhosis. The etiology of cirrhosis differs in the South Asian region compared to the West, with hepatitis B and C still being the leading causes and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease increasing over time. Comorbid malnutrition worsens outcomes for cirrhosis patients. Urgent attention to address malnutrition is needed to improve patient ou...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Asra Tus Saleha Siddiqui Om Parkash Syeda Amrah Hashmi Source Type: research

Brain-gut-liver interactions across the spectrum of insulin resistance in metabolic fatty liver disease
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):4999-5018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.4999.ABSTRACTMetabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), formerly named "nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" occurs in about one-third of the general population of developed countries worldwide and behaves as a major morbidity and mortality risk factor for major causes of death, such as cardiovascular, digestive, metabolic, neoplastic and neuro-degenerative diseases. However, progression of MAFLD and its associated systemic complications occur almost invariably in patients who experience the additional burden of intrahepatic and/or ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Eleni Rebelos Patricia Iozzo Maria Angela Guzzardi Maurizia Rossana Brunetto Ferruccio Bonino Source Type: research

Gut microbiome in acute pancreatitis: A review based on current literature
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):5019-5036. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5019.ABSTRACTThe gut microbiome is a complex microbial community, recognized for its potential role in physiology, health, and disease. The available evidence supports the role of gut dysbiosis in pancreatic disorders, including acute pancreatitis (AP). In AP, the presence of gut barrier damage resulting in increased mucosal permeability may lead to translocation of intestinal bacteria, necrosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic tissue, and infection, often accompanied by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Preserving gut microbial homeostasis ma...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Bharati Kadamb Patel Kadamb H Patel Madhav Bhatia Shridhar Ganpati Iyer Krishnakumar Madhavan Shabbir M Moochhala Source Type: research

Role of exercise in preventing and restoring gut dysbiosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: A review
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):5037-5046. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5037.ABSTRACTInflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) include a spectrum of chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract whose pathogenesis is yet to be elucidated. The intestinal microbiome has been studied as a causal component, with certain microbiotic alterations having been observed in subtypes of IBD. Physical exercise is a modulator of the intestinal microbiome, causing shifts in its composition that are partially corrective of those observed in IBD; furthermore, physical exercise may be beneficial in patients with certain IBD sub...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tilemachos Koutouratsas Anastassios Philippou George Kolios Michael Koutsilieris Maria Gazouli Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal mucosal immunity and COVID-19
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):5047-5059. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5047.ABSTRACTAs the gastrointestinal tract may also be a crucial entry or interaction site of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the role of the gut mucosal immune system as a first-line physical and immunological defense is critical. Furthermore, gastrointestinal involvement and symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been linked to worse clinical outcomes. This review discusses recent data on the interactions between the virus and the immune cells and molecules in the mucosa during the infection....
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tsvetelina Velikova Violeta Snegarova Alexander Kukov Hristiana Batselova Antoaneta Mihova Radislav Nakov Source Type: research

Estrogen augmented visceral pain and colonic neuron modulation in a double-hit model of prenatal and adult stress
CONCLUSION: This study adds to the evidence that estrogen-dependent sensitization of primary afferent colon neurons is involved in the development of chronic stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in female rats.PMID:34497435 | PMC:PMC8384739 | DOI:10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5060 (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jing-Hong Chen Ying Sun Pei-Jun Ju Jin-Bao Wei Qing-Jie Li John H Winston Source Type: research

Association of gene and protein expression and genetic polymorphism of CC chemokine ligand 4 in colorectal cancer
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):5076-5087. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5076.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Leukocytes, such as T cells and macrophages, play an important role in tumorigenesis. CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 4, which is produced by lymphocytes and macrophages, has been found to be expressed in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and is a potent chemoattractant for various leukocytes.AIM: To examine CCL4 expression and its genetic polymorphism rs10491121 in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and evaluate their prognostic significance.METHODS: Luminex technology was used to determine CCL4 Levels in CRC tissue ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Levar Shamoun Kalle Landerholm Amanda Balboa Ramilo Roland E Andersson Jan Dimberg Dick W ågsäter Source Type: research

Clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):5088-5099. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5088.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: As a country with a high burden of hepatitis B, China has about 86 million cases of hepatitis B virus infection, ranking the first in the world. Currently, there are about 390000 deaths due to hepatitis B-related complications such as liver cirrhosis and liver cancer every year. Consequently, how to control portal hypertension, improve liver functional reserve, and reduce the incidence of hepatic failure and liver cancer in such patients is the focus of current clinical attention. Previous clinical study in our center sug...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xin Yao Shan Huang Hao Zhou Shan-Hong Tang Jian-Ping Qin Source Type: research

Assessing disease activity using the pediatric Crohn's disease activity index: Can we use subjective or objective parameters alone?
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):5100-5111. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5100.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: The pediatric Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI) is used as a standard tool to assess disease activity in clinical trials for pediatric Crohn's disease.AIM: To examine which items on the PCDAI drive assessment of disease activity, and how subgroups of subjective and objective items reflect change in disease state over time.METHODS: Selective raw data from three prospectively collected datasets were combined, including 703 children with full PCDAI data at baseline, at 3-mo (Q1, n = 670), and 1-year (Q4, n = 474). Chang...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Amy Grant Trudy Lerer Anne M Griffiths J S Hyams Anthony Otley Source Type: research

Na ïve hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B patients are at risk of carotid atherosclerosis: A prospective study
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):5112-5125. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5112.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: There is an increased risk of atherosclerosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C or human immunodeficiency virus, but there is scarce data on hepatitis B virus infection. The hypothesis of this study is that hepatitis B virus infection increases the risk of carotid plaques and subclinical atherosclerosis in naïve hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative subjects.AIM: To assess the rate of carotid plaques and subclinical atherosclerosis in naïve HBeAg negative subjects in comparison with a cohort of healthy contr...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mar Riveiro-Barciela Cristina Marcos-Fosch Fernando Martinez-Valle Fabrizio Bronte Olimpia Orozco Isidro Sanz-P érez Daniele Torres Maria-Teresa Salcedo Salvatore Petta Rafael Esteban Antonio Craxi Maria Buti Source Type: research

Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of gastric dysplasia and early cancer: Current evidence and what the future may hold
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 21;27(31):5126-5151. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5126.ABSTRACTGastric cancer accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide cancer-related morbidity and mortality. The well documented precancerous cascade provides an opportunity for clinicians to detect and treat gastric cancers at an endoscopically curable stage. In high prevalence regions such as Japan and Korea, this has led to the implementation of population screening programs. However, guidelines remain ambiguous in lower prevalence regions. In recent years, there have been many advances in the endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of ea...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Edward Young Hamish Philpott Rajvinder Singh Source Type: research

< em > Helicobacter pylori < /em > eradication: Exploring its impacts on the gastric mucosa
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 21;27(31):5152-5170. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5152.ABSTRACTHelicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects approximately 50% of all humans globally. Persistent H. pylori infection causes multiple gastric and extragastric diseases, indicating the importance of early diagnosis and timely treatment. H. pylori eradication produces dramatic changes in the gastric mucosa, resulting in restored function. Consequently, to better understand the importance of H. pylori eradication and clarify the subsequent recovery of gastric mucosal functions after eradication, we summarize histological, endoscopic, and gas...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chun-Yan Weng Jing-Li Xu Shao-Peng Sun Kai-Jie Wang Bin Lv Source Type: research

Molecular advances in pancreatic cancer: A genomic, proteomic and metabolomic approach
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 21;27(31):5171-5180. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5171.ABSTRACTPancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents a challenging pathology with very poor outcomes and is increasing in incidence within the general population. The majority of patients are diagnosed incidentally with insidious symptoms and hence present late in the disease process. This significantly affects patient outcomes: the only cure is surgical resection but only up to 20% of patients present with resectable disease at the time of clinical presentation. The use of "omic" technology is expanding rapidly in the field ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Srujan Rajesh Michael J Cox Franscois Runau Source Type: research

Screening and prevention of hepatitis C virus reactivation during chemotherapy
In conclusion, HCV reactivation occurs in approximately one-fourth of HCV-infected cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. An HCV-related hepatitis flare during chemotherapy may lead to the discontinuation of potentially life-saving chemotherapy. Currently, universal HCV screening is recommended in hematological malignancy patients before chemotherapy, but there is no evidence-based guideline for other cancer patients. DAAs treatment can cure HCV infection and prevent HCV reactivation during chemotherapy.PMID:34497443 | PMC:PMC8384748 | DOI:10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5181 (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yuan-Rung Li Tsung-Hui Hu Wen-Chi Chen Ping-I Hsu Hui-Chun Chen Source Type: research

Role of near-infrared fluorescence in colorectal surgery
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 21;27(31):5189-5200. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5189.ABSTRACTNear-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) is a technique of augmented reality that, when applied in the operating theatre, allows the colorectal surgeon to visualize and assess bowel vascularization, to identify lymph nodes draining a cancer site and to identify ureters. Herein, we review the literature regarding NIRF in colorectal surgery.PMID:34497444 | PMC:PMC8384744 | DOI:10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5189 (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Elodie Zocola Jeremy Meyer Niki Christou Emilie Liot Christian Toso Nicolas Christian Buchs Fr édéric Ris Source Type: research

Dysphagia, reflux and related sequelae due to altered physiology in scleroderma
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 21;27(31):5201-5218. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5201.ABSTRACTSystemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease that presents with significant gastrointestinal involvement, commonly in the esophagus. Dysphagia is a common clinical manifestation of systemic sclerosis and is strongly related to esophageal dysmotility. However, there are multiple other contributing factors in each step in the physiology of swallowing that may contribute to development of severe dysphagia. The oral phase of swallowing may be disrupted by poor mastication due to microstomia and poor dentition, as well as by xerostom...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Anusri Kadakuntla Ankit Juneja Samantha Sattler Anusha Agarwal Drishti Panse Nardin Zakhary Anusha Pasumarthi Lee Shapiro Micheal Tadros Source Type: research

Planning the hepatitis C virus elimination in Cyprus: A modeling study
CONCLUSION: Elimination of HCV is a demanding public health strategy, which requires significant interventions both among the general population and high-risk groups.PMID:34497446 | PMC:PMC8384746 | DOI:10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5219 (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ilias Gountas Ioanna Yiasemi Evi Kyprianou Christos Mina Chrysanthos Georgiou Petros Katsioloudes Andri Kouroufexi Anna Demetriou Elena Xenofontos Georgios Nikolopoulos Source Type: research

Establishment and validation of a computer-assisted colonic polyp localization system based on deep learning
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 21;27(31):5232-5246. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5232.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence in colonoscopy is an emerging field, and its application may help colonoscopists improve inspection quality and reduce the rate of missed polyps and adenomas. Several deep learning-based computer-assisted detection (CADe) techniques were established from small single-center datasets, and unrepresentative learning materials might confine their application and generalization in wide practice. Although CADes have been reported to identify polyps in colonoscopic images and videos in real time, their di...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sheng-Bing Zhao Wei Yang Shu-Ling Wang Peng Pan Run-Dong Wang Xin Chang Zhong-Qian Sun Xing-Hui Fu Hong Shang Jian-Rong Wu Li-Zhu Chen Jia Chang Pu Song Ying-Lei Miao Shui-Xiang He Lin Miao Hui-Qing Jiang Wen Wang Xia Yang Yuan-Hang Dong Han Lin Yan Chen Source Type: research

Tailored eradication strategy < em > vs < /em > concomitant therapy for < em > Helicobacter pylori < /em > eradication treatment in Korean patients
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 21;27(31):5247-5258. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5247.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, which ultimately results in eradication failure, has been an emerging issue in the clinical field. Recently, to overcome this problem, an antibiotic sensitivity-based tailored therapy (TT) for H. pylori infection has received attention.AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety profiles of TT for H. pylori infection treatment compared to a non-bismuth quadruple therapy, concomitant therapy (CT) regimen.METHODS: We included patients (> 18 years) with a...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Youn I Choi Jun-Won Chung Kyoung Oh Kim Kwang An Kwon Yoon Jae Kim Jung Ho Kim Ja Young Seo Dong Kyun Park Source Type: research

Histological differentiation impacts the tumor immune microenvironment in gastric carcinoma: Relation to the immune cycle
CONCLUSION: These data help to clarify the links between tumor histogenesis and immunogenicity for a better understanding of GC biology and more tailored patient management.PMID:34497449 | PMC:PMC8384749 | DOI:10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5259 (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Artem Mashukov Dmytro Shapochka Oleksii Seleznov Nazarii Kobyliak Tetyana Falalyeyeva Stanislav Kirkilevsky Roman Yarema Oksana Sulaieva Source Type: research

Prediction of the severity of colorectal lesion by fecal hemoglobin concentration observed during previous test in the French screening program
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 21;27(31):5272-5287. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5272.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: The rate of positive tests using fecal immunochemical test (FIT) does not decrease with subsequent campaigns, but the positive predictive value of advanced neoplasia significantly decreases in subsequent campaign after a first negative test. A relationship between the fecal hemoglobin concentration (Fhb) and the opportunity to detect a colorectal cancer in subsequent campaign has been shown.AIM: To predict the severity of colorectal lesions based on Fhb measured during previous colorectal cancer screening campaign.METHODS...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Christian Balamou Ako ï Koïvogui Christelle M Rodrigue Aur élie Clerc Claire Piccotti Anne Deloraine Catherine Exbrayat Source Type: research

Plexiform angiomyxoid myofibroblastic tumor treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection: A case report and review of the literature
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 21;27(31):5288-5296. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5288.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Plexiform angiomyxoid myofibroblastic tumor (PAMT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor characterized by multiple nodular plexiform growth patterns and an immunophenotype with myofibroblasts. The pathological characteristics, immunohistochemistry, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and gene-level changes of PAMT have been reported in many studies. At present, the main treatment for PAMT in the reported cases is surgery; only eight cases were treated via endoscopy (excluding 1 thoracoscopic resection), and the lesions wer...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jian-Di Wu Yi-Xiong Chen Chang Luo Feng-Hua Xu Lei Zhang Xiao-Hua Hou Jun Song Source Type: research

Diabetes and pancreatic cancer: Exploring the two-way traffic
We describe this intimate and complex two-way relationship of diabetes and PC in this review by exploring the underlying pathogenesis.PMID:34497428 | PMC:PMC8384733 | DOI:10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.4939 (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ayan Roy Jayaprakash Sahoo Sadishkumar Kamalanathan Dukhabandhu Naik Pazhanivel Mohan Raja Kalayarasan Source Type: research

Stress-activated kinases as therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):4963-4984. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.4963.ABSTRACTPancreatic cancer is a dismal disease with high incidence and poor survival rates. With the aim to improve overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients, new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Protein kinases are key regulatory players in basically all stages of development, maintaining physiologic functions but also being involved in pathogenic processes. c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 kinases, representatives of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, as well as the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family of protein kinases a...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Benno Traub Aileen Roth Marko Kornmann Uwe Knippschild Joachim Bischof Source Type: research

Malnutrition and liver disease in a developing country
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):4985-4998. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.4985.ABSTRACTMalnutrition is a highly prevalent and under recognized condition in developing countries of South Asia. The presence of malnutrition causes a severe impact on patients with liver cirrhosis. The etiology of cirrhosis differs in the South Asian region compared to the West, with hepatitis B and C still being the leading causes and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease increasing over time. Comorbid malnutrition worsens outcomes for cirrhosis patients. Urgent attention to address malnutrition is needed to improve patient ou...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Asra Tus Saleha Siddiqui Om Parkash Syeda Amrah Hashmi Source Type: research

Brain-gut-liver interactions across the spectrum of insulin resistance in metabolic fatty liver disease
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):4999-5018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.4999.ABSTRACTMetabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), formerly named "nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" occurs in about one-third of the general population of developed countries worldwide and behaves as a major morbidity and mortality risk factor for major causes of death, such as cardiovascular, digestive, metabolic, neoplastic and neuro-degenerative diseases. However, progression of MAFLD and its associated systemic complications occur almost invariably in patients who experience the additional burden of intrahepatic and/or ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Eleni Rebelos Patricia Iozzo Maria Angela Guzzardi Maurizia Rossana Brunetto Ferruccio Bonino Source Type: research

Gut microbiome in acute pancreatitis: A review based on current literature
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):5019-5036. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5019.ABSTRACTThe gut microbiome is a complex microbial community, recognized for its potential role in physiology, health, and disease. The available evidence supports the role of gut dysbiosis in pancreatic disorders, including acute pancreatitis (AP). In AP, the presence of gut barrier damage resulting in increased mucosal permeability may lead to translocation of intestinal bacteria, necrosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic tissue, and infection, often accompanied by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Preserving gut microbial homeostasis ma...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Bharati Kadamb Patel Kadamb H Patel Madhav Bhatia Shridhar Ganpati Iyer Krishnakumar Madhavan Shabbir M Moochhala Source Type: research

Role of exercise in preventing and restoring gut dysbiosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: A review
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):5037-5046. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5037.ABSTRACTInflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) include a spectrum of chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract whose pathogenesis is yet to be elucidated. The intestinal microbiome has been studied as a causal component, with certain microbiotic alterations having been observed in subtypes of IBD. Physical exercise is a modulator of the intestinal microbiome, causing shifts in its composition that are partially corrective of those observed in IBD; furthermore, physical exercise may be beneficial in patients with certain IBD sub...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tilemachos Koutouratsas Anastassios Philippou George Kolios Michael Koutsilieris Maria Gazouli Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal mucosal immunity and COVID-19
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):5047-5059. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5047.ABSTRACTAs the gastrointestinal tract may also be a crucial entry or interaction site of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the role of the gut mucosal immune system as a first-line physical and immunological defense is critical. Furthermore, gastrointestinal involvement and symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been linked to worse clinical outcomes. This review discusses recent data on the interactions between the virus and the immune cells and molecules in the mucosa during the infection....
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tsvetelina Velikova Violeta Snegarova Alexander Kukov Hristiana Batselova Antoaneta Mihova Radislav Nakov Source Type: research

Estrogen augmented visceral pain and colonic neuron modulation in a double-hit model of prenatal and adult stress
CONCLUSION: This study adds to the evidence that estrogen-dependent sensitization of primary afferent colon neurons is involved in the development of chronic stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in female rats.PMID:34497435 | PMC:PMC8384739 | DOI:10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5060 (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jing-Hong Chen Ying Sun Pei-Jun Ju Jin-Bao Wei Qing-Jie Li John H Winston Source Type: research

Association of gene and protein expression and genetic polymorphism of CC chemokine ligand 4 in colorectal cancer
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):5076-5087. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5076.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Leukocytes, such as T cells and macrophages, play an important role in tumorigenesis. CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 4, which is produced by lymphocytes and macrophages, has been found to be expressed in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and is a potent chemoattractant for various leukocytes.AIM: To examine CCL4 expression and its genetic polymorphism rs10491121 in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and evaluate their prognostic significance.METHODS: Luminex technology was used to determine CCL4 Levels in CRC tissue ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Levar Shamoun Kalle Landerholm Amanda Balboa Ramilo Roland E Andersson Jan Dimberg Dick W ågsäter Source Type: research

Clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):5088-5099. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5088.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: As a country with a high burden of hepatitis B, China has about 86 million cases of hepatitis B virus infection, ranking the first in the world. Currently, there are about 390000 deaths due to hepatitis B-related complications such as liver cirrhosis and liver cancer every year. Consequently, how to control portal hypertension, improve liver functional reserve, and reduce the incidence of hepatic failure and liver cancer in such patients is the focus of current clinical attention. Previous clinical study in our center sug...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xin Yao Shan Huang Hao Zhou Shan-Hong Tang Jian-Ping Qin Source Type: research

Assessing disease activity using the pediatric Crohn's disease activity index: Can we use subjective or objective parameters alone?
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):5100-5111. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5100.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: The pediatric Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI) is used as a standard tool to assess disease activity in clinical trials for pediatric Crohn's disease.AIM: To examine which items on the PCDAI drive assessment of disease activity, and how subgroups of subjective and objective items reflect change in disease state over time.METHODS: Selective raw data from three prospectively collected datasets were combined, including 703 children with full PCDAI data at baseline, at 3-mo (Q1, n = 670), and 1-year (Q4, n = 474). Chang...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Amy Grant Trudy Lerer Anne M Griffiths J S Hyams Anthony Otley Source Type: research

Na ïve hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B patients are at risk of carotid atherosclerosis: A prospective study
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 14;27(30):5112-5125. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i30.5112.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: There is an increased risk of atherosclerosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C or human immunodeficiency virus, but there is scarce data on hepatitis B virus infection. The hypothesis of this study is that hepatitis B virus infection increases the risk of carotid plaques and subclinical atherosclerosis in naïve hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative subjects.AIM: To assess the rate of carotid plaques and subclinical atherosclerosis in naïve HBeAg negative subjects in comparison with a cohort of healthy contr...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mar Riveiro-Barciela Cristina Marcos-Fosch Fernando Martinez-Valle Fabrizio Bronte Olimpia Orozco Isidro Sanz-P érez Daniele Torres Maria-Teresa Salcedo Salvatore Petta Rafael Esteban Antonio Craxi Maria Buti Source Type: research

Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of gastric dysplasia and early cancer: Current evidence and what the future may hold
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 21;27(31):5126-5151. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5126.ABSTRACTGastric cancer accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide cancer-related morbidity and mortality. The well documented precancerous cascade provides an opportunity for clinicians to detect and treat gastric cancers at an endoscopically curable stage. In high prevalence regions such as Japan and Korea, this has led to the implementation of population screening programs. However, guidelines remain ambiguous in lower prevalence regions. In recent years, there have been many advances in the endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of ea...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Edward Young Hamish Philpott Rajvinder Singh Source Type: research

< em > Helicobacter pylori < /em > eradication: Exploring its impacts on the gastric mucosa
World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Aug 21;27(31):5152-5170. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i31.5152.ABSTRACTHelicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects approximately 50% of all humans globally. Persistent H. pylori infection causes multiple gastric and extragastric diseases, indicating the importance of early diagnosis and timely treatment. H. pylori eradication produces dramatic changes in the gastric mucosa, resulting in restored function. Consequently, to better understand the importance of H. pylori eradication and clarify the subsequent recovery of gastric mucosal functions after eradication, we summarize histological, endoscopic, and gas...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chun-Yan Weng Jing-Li Xu Shao-Peng Sun Kai-Jie Wang Bin Lv Source Type: research