Focus on the gut-brain axis: Multiple sclerosis, the intestinal barrier and the microbiome.
Abstract The brain-gut axis serves as the bidirectional connection between the gut microbiome, the intestinal barrier and the immune system that might be relevant for the pathophysiology of inflammatory demyelinating diseases. People with multiple sclerosis have been shown to have an altered microbiome, increased intestinal permeability and changes in bile acid metabolism. Experimental evidence suggests that these changes can lead to profound alterations of peripheral and central nervous system immune regulation. Besides being of pathophysiological interest, the brain-gut axis could also open new avenues of therap...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - October 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Camara-Lemarroy CR, Metz LM, Yong VW Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Hepatocellular carcinoma in Latin America: Diagnosis and treatment challenges.
lva M Abstract Latin America, a region with a population greater than 600000000 individuals, is well known due to its wide geographic, socio-cultural and economic heterogeneity. Access to health care remains as the main barrier that challenges routine screening, early diagnosis and proper treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, identification of population at risk, implementation of surveillance programs and access to curative treatments has been poorly obtained in the region. Different retrospective cohort studies from the region have shown flaws in the implementation process of routine surveillan...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - October 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Piñero F, Poniachik J, Ridruejo E, Silva M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

New prognostic biomarkers of mortality in patients undergoing liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abstract The outcome prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) was classically established using various macromorphological factors and serum alpha-fetoprotein levels prior to LT. However, other biomarkers have recently been reported to be associated with the prognosis of HCC patients undergoing to LT. This review summarizes clinical data on these new biomarkers. High blood levels of malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18, soluble CD40 ligand, substance P, C-reactive protein, and vascular endothelial growth factor, increased neu...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - October 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lorente L Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Colonoscopy attachments for the detection of precancerous lesions during colonoscopy: A review of the literature.
Abstract Although colonoscopy has been proven effective in reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer through the detection and removal of precancerous lesions, it remains an imperfect examination, as it can fail in detecting up to almost one fourth of existing adenomas. Among reasons accounting for such failures, is the inability to meticulously visualize the colonic mucosa located either proximal to haustral folds or anatomic curves, including the hepatic and splenic flexures. In order to overcome these limitations, various colonoscope attachments aiming to improve mucosal visualization have been developed. All...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - October 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Gkolfakis P, Tziatzios G, Spartalis E, Papanikolaou IS, Triantafyllou K Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

VSL#3 can prevent ulcerative colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice.
CONCLUSION: VSL#3 can prevent UC-associated carcinogenesis in mice, reduce the colonic mucosal inflammation levels, and rebalance the fecal and mucosal intestinal microbiota. PMID: 30310258 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - October 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wang CS, Li WB, Wang HY, Ma YM, Zhao XH, Yang H, Qian JM, Li JN Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Potential involvement of heat shock proteins in pancreatic-duodenal homeobox-1-mediated effects on the genesis of gastric cancer: A 2D gel-based proteomic study.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the potential involvement of HSPs in PDX1-mediated effects on the genesis of gastric cancer. PMID: 30310259 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - October 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ma J, Wang BB, Ma XY, Deng WP, Xu LS, Sha WH Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Evaluation of elastography combined with serological indexes for hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
CONCLUSION: SWV combined with serological indexes can improve the accuracy of diagnosis for CHB hepatic fibrosis. Serum indexes can help diagnose the degree of hepatic fibrosis. PMID: 30310260 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - October 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xu B, Zhou NM, Cao WT, Li XJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Risk factors for liver disease among adults of Mexican descent in the United States and Mexico.
CONCLUSION: In this study, Mexican-Americans in the US had more risk factors for CLD than their counterparts in Mexico. These findings can be used to design and implement more effective health promotion policies and programs to address the specific factors that put Mexicans at higher risk of developing CLD in both countries. PMID: 30310261 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - October 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Flores YN, Zhang ZF, Bastani R, Leng M, Crespi CM, Ramírez-Palacios P, Stevens H, Salmerón J Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Cerebral lipiodol embolism related to a vascular lake during chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature.
Abstract A male patient underwent conventional transcatheter chemoembolization for advanced recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Even after the injection of 7 mL of lipiodol followed by gelatin sponge particles, the flow of feeding arteries did not slow down. A repeat angiography revealed a newly developed vascular lake draining into systemic veins; however, embolization was continued without taking noticing of the vascular lake. The patient's level of consciousness deteriorated immediately after the procedure, and non-contrast computed tomography revealed pulmonary and cerebral lipiodol embolisms. The patien...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - October 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ishimaru H, Morikawa M, Sakugawa T, Sakamoto I, Motoyoshi Y, Ikebe Y, Uetani M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Interleukin 12/interleukin 23 pathway: Biological basis and therapeutic effect in patients with Crohn's disease.
Abstract Considering that both innate and adaptive immune responses are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), novel therapeutic options have significantly been developed. Biological agents represent an important addition to the conventional treatments for immuno-inflammatory conditions, acting as antagonists of adhesion molecules or various inflammatory cytokines. The interleukin 12 (IL-12)/IL-23 common pathway has been found to play a determinant role in the induction of inflammation in adaptive immune responses. In particular, IL-23 promotes the differentiation of naïve T helper cells into T...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Aggeletopoulou I, Assimakopoulos SF, Konstantakis C, Triantos C Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Role of microRNAs in alcohol-induced liver disorders and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
J, Marcos M Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate multiple physiological and pathological functions through the modulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Accumulating evidence has established a role for miRNAs in the development and pathogenesis of liver disease. Specifically, a large number of studies have assessed the role of miRNAs in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), two diseases that share common underlying mechanisms and pathological characteristics. The purpose of the current review is to summarize and update the...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Torres JL, Novo-Veleiro I, Manzanedo L, Alvela-Suárez L, Macías R, Laso FJ, Marcos M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Calcium-sensing receptor in colorectal inflammation and cancer: Current insights and future perspectives.
Abstract The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is best known for its action in the parathyroid gland and kidneys where it controls body calcium homeostasis. However, the CaSR has different roles in the gastrointestinal tract, where it is ubiquitously expressed. In the colon, the CaSR is involved in controlling multiple mechanisms, including fluid transport, inflammation, cell proliferation and differentiation. Although the expression pattern and functions of the CaSR in the colonic microenvironment are far from being completely understood, evidence has been accumulating that the CaSR might play a prote...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Iamartino L, Elajnaf T, Kallay E, Schepelmann M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Production of extracellular lysophosphatidic acid in the regulation of adipocyte functions and liver fibrosis.
Abstract Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a glycerophospholipid, consists of a glycerol backbone connected to a phosphate head group and an acyl chain linked to sn-1 or sn-2 position. In the circulation, LPA is in sub-millimolar range and mainly derived from hydrolysis of lysophosphatidylcholine, a process mediated by lysophospholipase D activity in proteins such as autotaxin (ATX). Intracellular and extracellular LPAs act as bioactive lipid mediators with diverse functions in almost every mammalian cell type. The binding of LPA to its receptors LPA1-6 activates multiple cellular processes such as migration, prolifera...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yang F, Chen GX Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Ten years of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma: Are there any predictive and/or prognostic markers?
Abstract Sorafenib has been considered the standard of care for patients with advanced unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) since 2007 and numerous studies have investigated the role of markers involved in the angiogenesis process at both the expression and genetic level and clinical aspect. What results have ten years of research produced? Several clinical and biological markers are associated with prognosis. The most interesting clinical parameters are adverse events, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage, and macroscopic vascular invasion, while several single nucleotide polymorphisms and plasma angiopoiet...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Marisi G, Cucchetti A, Ulivi P, Canale M, Cabibbo G, Solaini L, Foschi FG, De Matteis S, Ercolani G, Valgiusti M, Frassineti GL, Scartozzi M, Casadei Gardini A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Differential expression of mucin 1 and mucin 2 in colorectal cancer.
CONCLUSION: A combination of tissue overexpression of MUC1, reduced MUC2 expression, and high ratio of MUC1/MUC2 is a factor of poor prognosis in CRC patients. MUC2 tissue expression allows to differentiate mucinous and nonmucinous CRC subtypes. PMID: 30271081 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kasprzak A, Siodła E, Andrzejewska M, Szmeja J, Seraszek-Jaros A, Cofta S, Szaflarski W Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Mechanism of combined use of vitamin D and puerarin in anti-hepatic fibrosis by regulating the Wnt/ β-catenin signalling pathway.
CONCLUSION: The combined application of vitamin D and puerarin is capable of alleviating CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis of rats. As to the mechanism, it is probably because the combined use is able to silence the Wnt1/β-catenin pathway, suppress the activation of hepatic stellate cells, and reduce the secretion of collagen fibers, therefore improving the anti-hepatic fibrosis effect. PMID: 30271082 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Huang GR, Wei SJ, Huang YQ, Xing W, Wang LY, Liang LL Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Frequency, types, and treatment of anemia in Turkish patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Abstract AIM: To specify the type and prevalence of anemia along with a treatment approach for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on 465 patients who were diagnosed with IBD and followed up at our hospital from June 2015 to June 2016 [male: 254, female: 211; average age: 47 ± 14.4; Crohn's disease (CD): 257, Ulcerative Colitis (UC): 208]. Epidemiological and clinical data, such as sex, age, age of diagnosis, type of IBD, disease extension, disease behavior and duration, treatments for IBD and anemia, and surgical history were obtained for each patient. Per Wor...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Bengi G, Keyvan H, Durmaz SB, Akpınar H Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Low-dose spectral insufflation computed tomography protocol preoperatively optimized for T stage esophageal cancer - preliminary research experience.
CONCLUSION: EICT combined with GSI assist allows differential diagnosis between the T1/2 and T3 stages. The ability to differentially diagnose the T3 and T4 stages of medullary ESCC can be improved by quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing the adipose tissue in front of the vertebral body. PMID: 30271084 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zhou Y, Liu D, Hou P, Zha KJ, Wang F, Zhou K, He W, Gao JB Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Novel methionyl-tRNA synthetase gene variants/phenotypes in interstitial lung and liver disease: A case report and review of literature.
Abstract Interstitial lung and liver disease (ILLD) is caused by biallelic mutations in the methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MARS) gene. To date, no genetic changes other than missense variants were reported in the literature. Here, we report a five-month old female infant with typical ILLD (failure to thrive, developmental delay, jaundice, diffuse interstitial lung disease, hepatomegaly with severe steatosis, anemia, and thrombocytosis) showing novel phenotypes such as kidney stones, acetabular dysplasia, prolonged fever, and extreme leukocytosis. Whole exome sequencing revealed a novel truncating variant (c.2158C>T...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 28, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Abuduxikuer K, Feng JY, Lu Y, Xie XB, Chen L, Wang JS Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Role of endoscopic therapy in early esophageal cancer.
Abstract Esophageal carcinoma is a highly lethal cancer associated with high morbidity and mortality. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma are the two distinct histological types. There has been significant progress in endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of early stages of cancer using resection and ablation techniques, as shown in several trials in the recent past. Earlier detection of esophageal cancer and advances in treatment modalities have lead to improvement in the 5-year survival from 5% to about 20% in the past decade. Endoscopic eradication therapy is the preferred modality of ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Malik S, Sharma G, Sanaka MR, Thota PN Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma: What's new on the horizon?
Abstract Treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma remains unsatisfying and so far only prognostic biomarkers like α-fetoprotein have been established. No clear predictive biomarker is currently available for standard of care therapies, including targeted therapies like sorafenib. Novel therapeutic options like immune checkpoint inhibitors may pose new challenges to identification and validation of such markers. Currently, PD-L1 expression via immunohistochemistry and tumor mutational burden via next-generation sequencing are explored as predictive biomarkers for these novel treatments. Limited tissue a...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ocker M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abstract Pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second common malignant liver tumor in children after hepatoblastoma. It differs from the adult HCC in the etiological predisposition, biological behavior and lower frequency of cirrhosis. Perinatally acquired hepatitis-B virus, hepatorenal tyrosinemia, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, glycogen storage disease, Alagille's syndrome and congenital portosystemic shunts are important predisposing factors. Majority of children (87%) are older than 5 years of age. Following mass immunization against hepatitis-B, there has been a drastic fall in the i...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Khanna R, Verma SK Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Changing role of histopathology in the diagnosis and management of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and fatal cancer in the world. HCC frequently presents with advanced disease, has a high recurrence rate and limited treatment options, which leads to very poor prognosis. This warrants urgent improvement in the diagnosis and treatment. Liver biopsy plays very important role in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC, but with technical advancements and progression in the field of imaging, clinical guidelines have restricted the role of biopsy to very limited situations. Biopsy also has its own problems of needle tract seeding of tumor, small risk of com...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Rastogi A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease: Role in diagnosis, management, and treatment.
Abstract Endoscopy plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy have long been used in the care of patients with IBD. As endoscopic technologies have progressed, tools such as endoscopic ultrasound, capsule endoscopy, and balloon-assisted enteroscopy have expanded the role of endoscopy in IBD. Furthermore, chromoendoscopy has enhanced our ability to detect dysplasia in IBD. In this review article, we will focus on the roles, indications, and limitations of these tools in IBD. We will als...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Spiceland CM, Lodhia N Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Biosimilars in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease.
Abstract The introduction of biological treatments has changed disease outcomes for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Biologicals have high efficacy, and can induce and maintain remission after failed responses to conventional immunosuppressive and/or steroid therapy. The increasing occurrence of severe disease at diagnosis has resulted in infliximab being more often introduced as the first-line treatment in a "top-down" approach. Besides their favourable efficacy and safety profile, biologicals have one significant disadvantage, which is their high cost. This results in many patients stopping th...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sieczkowska-Golub J, Jarzebicka D, Oracz G, Kierkus J Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Adiponectin affects the mechanical responses in strips from the mouse gastric fundus.
Abstract AIM: To investigate whether the adipocytes derived hormone adiponectin (ADPN) affects the mechanical responses in strips from the mouse gastric fundus. METHODS: For functional experiments, gastric strips from the fundal region were cut in the direction of the longitudinal muscle layer and placed in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution. Mechanical responses were recorded via force-displacement transducers, which were coupled to a polygraph for continuous recording of isometric tension. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) was applied via two platinum wire rings through which the preparation w...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Idrizaj E, Garella R, Castellini G, Mohr H, Pellegata NS, Francini F, Ricca V, Squecco R, Baccari MC Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Daikenchuto (Da-Jian-Zhong-Tang) ameliorates intestinal fibrosis by activating myofibroblast transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel.
CONCLUSION: The effects of DKT on the expression and activation of the TRPA1 channel could be advantageous for suppressing intestinal fibrosis, and benefit inflammatory bowel disease treatment. PMID: 30254408 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Hiraishi K, Kurahara LH, Sumiyoshi M, Hu YP, Koga K, Onitsuka M, Kojima D, Yue L, Takedatsu H, Jian YW, Inoue R Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Portosplenomesenteric vein thrombosis in patients with early-stage severe acute pancreatitis.
Abstract AIM: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of portosplenomesenteric vein thrombosis (PSMVT) in the early stage of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Patients with SAP in a tertiary care setting from January 2014 to December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. All contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) studies were reassessed and reviewed. Clinical outcome measures were compared between SAP patients with and without PSMVT in the early stage of the disease. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were sequentially performed to assess potential risk factors for the de...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ding L, Deng F, Yu C, He WH, Xia L, Zhou M, Huang X, Lei YP, Zhou XJ, Zhu Y, Lu NH Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody titer and its association with gastric nodularity, atrophy, and age: A cross-sectional study.
Abstract AIM: To clarify the role of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibody titers in gastric cancer. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the effect of patients' baseline characteristics and endoscopic findings on their serum antibody titers were assessed. We evaluated consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and their first evaluation for H. pylori infection using a serum antibody test. We excluded patients with a history of eradication therapy. The participants were divided into four groups according to their E-plate serum antibody titer. Patients with serum antibody titers
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Toyoshima O, Nishizawa T, Sakitani K, Yamakawa T, Takahashi Y, Yamamichi N, Hata K, Seto Y, Koike K, Watanabe H, Suzuki H Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Real-life chromoendoscopy for dysplasia surveillance in ulcerative colitis.
CONCLUSION: Chromoendoscopy seems to be of value for dysplasia surveillance of ulcerative colitis in a community hospital setting. The yield of non-targeted biopsies is negligible. PMID: 30254411 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Klepp P, Tollisen A, Røseth A, Cvancarova Småstuen M, Andersen SN, Vatn M, Moum BA, Brackmann S Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Usefulness of the clip-flap method of endoscopic submucosal dissection: A randomized controlled trial.
CONCLUSION: For patients with early-stage gastric tumors, the clip-flap method has no advantage in efficacy or safety compared with the conventional method. PMID: 30254412 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ban H, Sugimoto M, Otsuka T, Murata M, Nakata T, Hasegawa H, Inatomi O, Bamba S, Andoh A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Infant cholestasis patient with a novel missense mutation in the AKR1D1 gene successfully treated by early adequate supplementation with chenodeoxycholic acid: A case report and review of the literature.
We describe an infant who presented with hyperbilirubinemia and coagulopathy but normal bile acid and γ-glutamyltransferase. Gene analysis was performed using genomic DNA from peripheral lymphocytes from the patient, his parents, and his elder brother. The patient was compound heterozygous for c.919C>T in exon 8 and exhibited a loss of heterozygosity of the AKR1D1 gene, which led to an amino acid substitution of arginine by cysteine at amino acid position 307 (p.R307C). Based on these mutations, the patient was confirmed to have primary 5β-reductase deficiency. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment did not ha...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 21, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wang HH, Wen FQ, Dai DL, Wang JS, Zhao J, Setchell KD, Shi LN, Zhou SM, Liu SX, Yang QH Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Clinical impact of microbiome in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.
Abstract Cirrhosis is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Recent studies are trying to clarify the role of microbiome in clinical exacerbation of patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Nowadays, it is accepted that patients with cirrhosis have altered salivary and enteric microbiome, characterized by the presence of dysbiosis. This altered microbiome along with small bowel bacterial overgrowth, through translocation across the gut, is associated with the development of decompensating complications. Studies have analyzed the correlation of certain bacterial families with the development of hepatic encep...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Oikonomou T, Papatheodoridis GV, Samarkos M, Goulis I, Cholongitas E Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Implication of neurohormonal-coupled mechanisms of gastric emptying and pancreatic secretory function in diabetic gastroparesis.
Abstract Recently, diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) has received much attention as its prevalence is increasing in a dramatic fashion and management of patients with DGP represents a challenge in the clinical practice due to the limited therapeutic options. DGP highlights an interrelationship between the gastric emptying and pancreatic secretory function that regulate a wide range of digestive and metabolic functions, respectively. It well documented that both gastric emptying and pancreatic secretion are under delicate control by multiple neurohormonal mechanisms including extrinsic parasympathetic pathways and gastr...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mussa BM, Sood S, Verberne AJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Drug resistance and new therapies in colorectal cancer.
Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is often diagnosed at an advanced stage when tumor cell dissemination has taken place. Chemo- and targeted therapies provide only a limited increase of overall survival for these patients. The major reason for clinical outcome finds its origin in therapy resistance. Escape mechanisms to both chemo- and targeted therapy remain the main culprits. Here, we evaluate major resistant mechanisms and elaborate on potential new therapies. Amongst promising therapies is α-amanitin antibody-drug conjugate targeting hemizygous p53 loss. It becomes clear that a dynamic interaction with th...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Van der Jeught K, Xu HC, Li YJ, Lu XB, Ji G Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Role of two-dimensional shear wave elastography in chronic liver diseases: A narrative review.
Abstract Liver biopsy is the gold standard for evaluating the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. However, due to the many limitations of liver biopsy, there has been much interest in the use of noninvasive techniques for this purpose. Among these techniques real-time two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) has the advantage of measuring tissue elasticity with the guidance of B-mode images. Recently, many studies have been conducted on the application of 2D-SWE in patients with various liver diseases, and their validity has been confirmed. Here, we briefly discuss the role of ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jeong JY, Cho YS, Sohn JH Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Delta-like ligand 4 in hepatocellular carcinoma intrinsically promotes tumour growth and suppresses hepatitis B virus replication.
Abstract AIM: To investigate the role of Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4) on tumour growth in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vivo. METHODS: We suppressed DLL4 expression in an HBV expressing HCC cell line, HepG2.2.15 and analysed the growth ability of cells as subcutaneous tumours in nude mice. The expression of tumour angiogenesis regulators, VEGF-A and VEGF-R2 in tumour xenografts were examined by western blotting. The tumour proliferation and neovasculature were examined by immunohistochemistry. The viral replication and viral protein expression were measured by quantitative...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kunanopparat A, Issara-Amphorn J, Leelahavanichkul A, Sanpavat A, Patumraj S, Tangkijvanich P, Palaga T, Hirankarn N Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Optimal immunosuppressor induces stable gut microbiota after liver transplantation.
CONCLUSION: Compared to the low or high dosage of FK506, an optimal dosage of FK506 induced immunosuppression, normal graft function and stable gut microbiota following LT in rats. The stable gut microbiota presented increased probiotics and decreased potential pathogenic endotoxin-producing bacteria. These findings provide a novel strategy based on gut microbiota for immunosuppressive dosage assessment for recipients following LT. PMID: 30228781 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jiang JW, Ren ZG, Lu HF, Zhang H, Li A, Cui GY, Jia JJ, Xie HY, Chen XH, He Y, Jiang L, Li LJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Formin-like 3 regulates RhoC/FAK pathway and actin assembly to promote cell invasion in colorectal carcinoma.
Abstract AIM: To clarify the underlying mechanism of formin-like 3 (FMNL3) in the promotion of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cell invasion. METHODS: The in vitro biological function analyses of FMNL3 were performed by gain- and loss-of function approaches. Changes in the F-actin cytoskeleton were detected by the technologies of phalloidin-TRITC labeling and confocal microscopy. The signaling pathway mediated by FMNL3 was explored by western blot, gelatin zymograph assay, co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), immunofluorescence co-localization, and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay. RESULTS: The in v...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zeng YF, Xiao YS, Liu Y, Luo XJ, Wen LD, Liu Q, Chen M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Low expression of CDK5RAP3 and DDRGK1 indicates a poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer.
CONCLUSION: The co-expression of CDK5RAP3 and DDRGK1 is an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer, which can provide a more accurate model for the long-term prognosis. PMID: 30228783 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lin JX, Xie XS, Weng XF, Zheng CH, Xie JW, Wang JB, Lu J, Chen QY, Cao LL, Lin M, Tu RH, Li P, Huang CM Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding in elderly patients on low dose aspirin therapy.
Abstract AIM: To determine the clinical characteristics of elderly patients of hemorrhagic gastroduodenal ulcer on low-dose aspirin (LDA) therapy. METHODS: A total of 1105 patients with hemorrhagic gastroduodenal ulcer treated in our hospital between January 2000 and March 2016 were grouped by age and drugs used, and these groups were compared in several factors. These groups were compared in terms of length of hospital stay, presence/absence of hemoglobin (Hb) decrease, presence/absence of blood transfusion, Forrest I, percentage of Helicobacter pylori infection, presence/absence of underlying disease, and...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Fukushi K, Tominaga K, Nagashima K, Kanamori A, Izawa N, Kanazawa M, Sasai T, Hiraishi H Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Predicting the presence of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy with National Cancer Institute Colorectal Cancer Risk-Assessment Tool.
CONCLUSION: Patients with the higher NCI risk score have higher risk of AP and subsequent CRC; therefore, measures to increase the effectiveness of CRC detection in these patients include longer withdrawal time, early surveillance colonoscopy, and choosing flexible colonoscopy over other CRC screening modalities. PMID: 30228785 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tariq H, Kamal MU, Patel H, Patel R, Ameen M, Elona S, Khalifa M, Azam S, Zhang A, Kumar K, Baiomi A, Shaikh D, Makker J Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Somalia: Systematic review and meta-analysis study.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of all forms of viral hepatitis in Somalia and it also indicates that chronic HBV was the commonest cause of chronic liver disease. This highlights needs for urgent public health interventions and strategic policy directions to controlling the burden of the disease. PMID: 30228786 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Hassan-Kadle MA, Osman MS, Ogurtsov PP Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Unicentric Castleman disease presenting as a retroperitoneal peripancreatic mass: A report of two cases and review of literature.
Abstract Castleman disease (CD) is a rare disorder of lymph nodes and related tissues. CD generally occurs in the mediastinum, as well as in cervical, retroperitoneal and axillary regions. The disease is classified into two major types: unicentric CD (UCD) and multicentric CD. The occurrence of UCD in the retroperitoneal peripancreatic region is quite rare. We encountered two cases of retroperitoneal peripancreatic UCD in our hospital during the past three years. Following a series of medical examinations, including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, ultrasonography and postoperative histopathologica...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 14, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Cheng JL, Cui J, Wang Y, Xu ZZ, Liu F, Liang SB, Tian H Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Time to think: Selecting patients who may benefit from synchronous resection of primary pancreatic cancer and liver metastases.
Abstract Pancreatic cancer remains a lethal disease and is associated with poor prognosis, particularly for patients with distant metastasis at diagnosis. Recently, Oweira reported a retrospective study that included 13233 metastatic pancreatic cancer patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. They demonstrated that pancreatic cancer patients with isolated liver metastases had worse outcomes than patients with isolated lung metastases or distant nodal metastases. At present, the standard treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer is chemotherapy. However, improvement in the safety of pa...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Shi S, Yu XJ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

From bench to bedside: Fecal calprotectin in inflammatory bowel diseases clinical setting.
In conclusion, FC measurement represents a cheap, safe and reliable test, easy to perform and with a good reproducibility. The main concerns are still related to the choice of the optimal cut-off, both for differentiating IBD from IBS, and for the management of IBD patients. PMID: 30197475 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mumolo MG, Bertani L, Ceccarelli L, Laino G, Di Fluri G, Albano E, Tapete G, Costa F Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Updates on the hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met axis in hepatocellular carcinoma and its therapeutic implications.
a MÁ Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer death. Since the diagnosis of HCC is difficult, in many cases patients with HCC are diagnosed advanced stage of development. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-mesenchymal-epithelial transition receptor (c-Met) axis is a key signaling pathway in HCC, either via canonical or non-canonical pathways. Available treatments against HCC based upon HGF/c-Met inhibition can increase patient lifespan, but do not reach the expected therapeutic benefits. In HCC, c-Met monomers can bind other receptor mon...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: García-Vilas JA, Medina MÁ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

p21-activated kinase signalling in pancreatic cancer: New insights into tumour biology and immune modulation.
Abstract Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive and lethal malignancies worldwide, with a very poor prognosis and a five-year survival rate less than 8%. This dismal outcome is largely due to delayed diagnosis, early distant dissemination and resistance to conventional chemo-therapies. Kras mutation is a well-defined hallmark of pancreatic cancer, with over 95% of cases harbouring Kras mutations that give rise to constitutively active forms of Kras. As important down-stream effectors of Kras, p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are involved in regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion/migration and chem...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wang K, Baldwin GS, Nikfarjam M, He H Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNAs involved in metastasis of gastric cancer.
Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignant diseases. The molecular mechanisms of metastasis remain unclear. Recently, studies have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in metastasis. Therefore, deeper understanding of this mechanism could provide potential diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets for metastatic GC. This review focuses on dysregulated lncRNAs in GC metastases. Due to the identification of multiple diverse mechanisms involved in GC metastasis, we classified them into seven categories, including lncRNAs related to epithelial-mesenchymal tra...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lin MT, Song HJ, Ding XY Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Antiangiogenic therapy for portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis: Current progress and perspectives.
Abstract Developing medicines for hemodynamic disorders that are characteristic of cirrhosis of the liver is a relevant problem in modern hepatology. The increase in hepatic vascular resistance to portal blood flow and subsequent hyperdynamic circulation underlie portal hypertension (PH) and promote its progression, despite the formation of portosystemic collaterals. Angiogenesis and vascular bed restructurization play an important role in PH pathogenesis as well. In this regard, strategic directions in the therapy for PH in cirrhosis include selectively decreasing hepatic vascular resistance while preserving or i...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - September 7, 2018 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Garbuzenko DV, Arefyev NO, Kazachkov EL Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research