The interplay between renin-angiotensin system activation, abnormal myocardial deformation and neurohumoral activation in hypertensive heart disease: a speckle tracking echocardiography study
AbstractAngiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) promotes cardiac fibrosis. LV myocardial deformation and torsion are markers of subclinical myocardial dysfunction. We investigated the association of serum ACE levels with LV deformation markers in untreated hypertensives. In 120 untreated patients (age: 53.5  ± 11.2 years) with essential hypertension and 60 healthy controls, we measured (a) LV longitudinal, circumferential and radial strain (S), peak torsion and the percentage changes between peak twisting and untwisting at the end of early diastolic filling (%dpTw-UtwEDF) using speckle tracking echocardiog...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The role of left ventricular deformation in the assessment of microvascular obstruction and intramyocardial haemorrhage
AbstractIn the setting of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), it remains unclear which strain parameter most strongly correlates with microvascular obstruction (MVO) or intramyocardial haemorrhage (IMH). We aimed to investigate the association of MVO, IMH and convalescent left ventricular (LV) remodelling with strain parameters measured with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Forty-three patients with reperfused STEMI and 10 age and gender matched healthy controls underwent CMR within 3-days and at 3-months following reperfused STEMI. Cine, T2-weighted, T2*-imaging and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of a novel 2D perfusion angiography technique independent of pump injections for assessment of interventional treatment of peripheral vascular disease
AbstractTo evaluate a novel 2D-perfusion angiography (2D-PA) technique allowing pro- and retrospective flow analysis based on a proximal reference region of interest (ROI) and distal target ROI in patients treated for peripheral arterial disease. 2D-PA allows quantifying blood flow by post-processing of digital subtraction angiography (DSA). 2D-PA was performed pre and post interventional treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD; n  = 24; 13 angioplasties, 11 stents) in 21 patients (17 men, 72 ± 9y) with Fontaine stage IIB / III. Time-to-peak (TTP), peak density (PD) and area-under-t...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Heart deformation analysis: the distribution of regional myocardial motion patterns at left ventricle
AbstractThe aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that heart deformation analysis (HDA) is able to discriminate regional myocardial motion patterns on the left ventricle (LV). Totally 21 healthy volunteers (15 men and 6 women) without documented cardiovascular diseases were recruited. Cine MRI was performed on those subjects at four-chamber, two-chamber, and short-axis views. The variations of segmental myocardial motion indices of the LV, which were measured with the HDA tool, were investigated. Regional displacement, velocity, strain and strain rate were compared between lateral wall and septal wall usingt ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Right ventricular relative wall thickness as a predictor of outcomes and of right ventricular reverse remodeling for patients with pulmonary hypertension
AbstractMid-term right ventricular (RV) reverse remodeling after treatment in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with long-term outcome as well as baseline RV remodeling. However, baseline factors influencing mid-term RV reverse remodeling after treatment and its prognostic capability remain unclear. We studied 54 PH patients. Mid-term RV remodeling was assessed in terms of the RV area, which was traced planimetrically at the end-systole (RVESA). RV reverse remodeling was defined as a relative decrease in the RVESA of at least 15% at 10.2  ± 9.4 months after treatment. Long-term fo...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

High prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in Brazilian postmenopausal women with low and intermediate risk by Framingham score
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SA in Brazilian asymptomatic postmenopausal women in Framingham Risk Score (FRS) low and intermediate groups. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) scans were performed in 138 asymptomatic postmenopausal women (56.1  ± 4.9 years of age) to survey for coronary artery and aortic calcification (CT scan) and assess carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and identify carotid plaques (US). The mean FRS was 2.64 ± 2.13 %. The prevalence of increased CIMT, carotid plaques, increased CIMT and/or plaques, coro nary artery calcifica...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 19, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comparison of vascular responses after different types of second-generation drug-eluting stents implantation detected by optical coherence tomography
AbstractFew studies have directly compared vascular responses to second-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs). We performed optical coherence tomography examinations in 56 consecutive patients with implanted single stent [19 cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (CoCr-EES), 22 platinum-chromium EES (PtCr-EES), and 15 resolute zotarolimus-eluting stents (R-ZES)] for de novo lesions, and who did not have restenosis at their 9-month follow-up. Neointimal thickness (NIT), stent apposition, and neointimal coverage were assessed in every strut. A neointimal unevenness score [(NUS), maximum NIT/average NIT in the same cross-s...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Predictors of acute scaffold recoil after implantation of the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold: an optical coherence tomography assessment in native coronary arteries
This study investigated the predictors of acute recoil after implantation of everolimus-eluting BRS based on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Thirty-nine patients (56 scaffolds) were enrolled. Acute absolute recoil by quantitative coronary angiography was defined as the difference between the mean diameter of the last inflated balloon (X) and the mean lumen diameter of BRS immediately after balloon deflation (Y). Acute percent recoil was defined as (X  − Y) × 100/X. Plaque eccentricity (PE) and plaque composition (PC) were assessed by OCT. PC was classified into two different type...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Three-dimensional printing of an aortic model for transcatheter aortic valve implantation: possible clinical applications
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neointimal response to everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffolds implanted at bifurcating coronary segments: insights from optical coherence tomography
AbstractHeterogeneity of neointimal thickness is observed after drug-eluting stents implantation in bifurcation lesions (BL). We evaluated the vascular response of everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) struts deployed at BL using optical coherence tomography (OCT). 50 patients (64 scaffolds) underwent follow-up OCT after BRS implantation. Cross-sectional areas of each BL with a side branch more than 1.5  mm were analyzed using OCT every 200 µm. All images were divided into three regions according to shear stress: the 1/2 circumference of the vessel opposite to the ostium (OO), the vessel wall adja...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of left anterior descending artery stenosis of intermediate severity by fractional flow reserve, instantaneous wave-free ratio, and non-invasive coronary flow reserve
AbstractTo test the usefulness of non-invasive coronary flow reserve (CFR) by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography by comparison to invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (IFR), a new vasodilator-free index of coronary stenosis severity, in patients with left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis of intermediate severity (IS) and stable coronary artery disease. 94 consecutive patients (mean age 68  ± 10 years) with angiographic LAD stenosis of IS (50–70 % diameter stenosis), were prospectively studied. IFR was calculated as a trans-lesion pressure ra...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Percutaneous bicuspidalization of the tricuspid valve using the MitraClip system
AbstractAn 84-year-old man with cardial senile amyloidosis and severe tricuspid regurgitation was referred for right sided heart failure symptoms. The patient was scheduled for a percutaneous treatment due to the prohibitive risk of surgery. Two MitraClips were implanted using a transjugular approach with successful echocardiographic and clinical results. This case shows the rational of the procedural with a bicuspidalization of the valve demonstrated at the three dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Myocardial strain pattern in patients with cardiac amyloidosis secondary to multiple myeloma: a cardiac MRI feature tracking study
AbstractCardiac MRI is frequently used in the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. Feature tracking is a novel method of analyzing myocardial strain at the myocardial borders. We investigated myocardial deformation mechanics of both the right and left ventricles in patients with multiple myeloma with suspected cardiac amyloidosis. Comprehensive strain analysis was performed in 43 patients with multiple myeloma and suspected cardiac amyloidosis. MRI strain by feature tracking was measured using 2D cardiac performance analysis MR software (Tomtec, Germany). Global longitudinal (GLS) and global circumferential (GLC) strain were ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus: a rare entity confirmed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging
We present a representative CCMA case and highlight its typical appearance on magnetic resonance imaging. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correlation between dual-axis rotational coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound in a coronary lesion assessment
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of dual-axis rotational coronary angiography (DARCA) for coronary lesion assessment by directly comparing with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). From October 2014 to December 2015, 40 patients (58 lesions) who had undergone both DARCA and IVUS were included in the image analysis. The minimum lumen diameter (MLD), lesion length, reference vessel diameter (RVD) and percent diameter stenosis at the same lesion, were identified and assessed. Significant correlation with IVUS was found for DARCA in either lesion length (r  = 0.90,P 
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 10, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prediction of clinical outcome by myocardial CT perfusion in patients with low-risk unstable angina pectoris
AbstractThe prognostic implications of myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) analyses are unknown. In this sub-study to the CATCH-trial we evaluate the ability of adenosine stress CTP findings to predict mid-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE). In 240 patients with acute-onset chest pain, yet normal electrocardiograms and troponins, a clinically blinded adenosine stress CTP scan was performed in addition to conventional diagnostic evaluation. A reversible perfusion defect (PD) was found in 38 patients (16  %) and during a median follow-up of 19 months (range 12–22 months) 25 patients (10 %...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 6, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Feasibility and diagnostic performance of fractional flow reserve measurement derived from coronary computed tomography angiography in real clinical practice
AbstractNon-invasive fractional flow reserve measured by coronary computed tomography angiography (FFRCT) has demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) in selected patients in prior clinical trials. However, feasibility of FFRCT in unselected population have not been fully evaluated. Among 60 consecutive patients who had suspected significant CAD by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and were planned to undergo invasive coronary angiography, 48 patients were enrolled in this study comparing FFRCT with invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) without any exclusion criteri...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 6, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Reference ranges and determinants of right ventricle outflow tract acceleration time in healthy adults by two-dimensional echocardiography
AbstractThe right ventricular outflow tract acceleration time (RVOT-AT) has shown to progressively shorten with increasing degrees of pulmonary pressure. However, the physiologic ranges of RVOT AT are based on small sample sizes and have not been investigated regarding their determining factors. The aim of this study was to investigate reference values and determining factors of RVOT-AT in a large population of healthy subjects and by values described in the literature. In the first part of the study, 1029 healthy subjects (mean age 45.6  ± 16.0 years, 565 (54.7 %) females) were prospective...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 5, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Acute type A aortic dissection with mediastinal hematoma mimicking massive pulmonary embolus
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 5, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Intravascular imaging comparison of two metallic limus-eluting stents abluminally coated with biodegradable polymers: IVUS and OCT results of the DESTINY trial
AbstractWe sought to compare, by means of IVUS and OCT imaging, the performance of a novel sirolimus-eluting drug-eluting stent (DES) with biodegradable polymer (Inspiron ™) to the Biomatrix™ DES. From the DESTINY trial, a total of 70 randomized patients (2:1) were enrolled in the IVUS substudy (Inspiron™, n = 46; Biomatrix™: n = 20) while 25 patients were evaluated with OCT (Inspiron™, n = 19; Biomatrix™: n = 06) at 9-month follow-up. The main endpoints were % of neointimal tissue obstruction (IVUS) and neointimal stut coverage (OC...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 5, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Timing of the negative effects of trastuzumab on cardiac mechanics after anthracycline chemotherapy
AbstractTrastuzumab (TZB) has been shown to be extremely effective in breast cancer patients over-expressing HER-2, but careful cardiac monitoring is required when TZB is administered with anthracyclines, since the combination can increase its toxicity. Myocardial deformation indexes associated with speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) have proven to be very sensitive in identifying early myocardial dysfunction. An observational, prospective study was designed to assess TZB-induced cardiac damage using STE in patients with HER-2 positive breast cancer who had been sequentially treated with TZB following epirubicin (EPI)...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 30, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Atrial-focused views improve the accuracy of two-dimensional echocardiographic measurements of the left and right atrial volumes: a contribution to the increase in normal values in the guidelines update
In conclusion, atrial-focused views are a more accurate alternative to standard apical views, which provides larger volumes. This finding can explain the increase in the normal values in the recent guidelines update, which was mostly driven by the use of atrial-focused views, rather than by the differences between MOD and AL technique s. This understanding is essential in order to correctly integrate the revised normal values into clinical practice. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 30, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Changes in cardiac function and structure in newly diagnosed Graves ’ disease. A conventional and 2D-speckle tracking echocardiography study
AbstractOverproduction of thyroid hormones leads to structural as well as functional cardiac changes. Conventional echocardiography but also recently developed sophisticated two-dimensional echocardiography speckle (2D-STE) tracking allow elaborate evaluation of these changes. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of thyroid hormones overproduction on the heart in patients with Graves ’ disease and changes that occur after 6 months thyrostatic therapy. We conducted a prospective, case-control study of 6 months duration. Full echocardiographic assessment at diagnosis and after 6 months of thyrostatic therapy were...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 27, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

National trends among radiologists in reporting coronary artery calcium in non-gated chest computed tomography
AbstractCoronary artery calcification (CAC) is a known risk factor for adverse outcomes in the general population and in patients with coronary artery disease. We performed a survey of United States radiologists to evaluate the trends in reporting the presence or absence of CAC on NCCT examinations. An 11 multiple-choice questionnaire was distributed to members of the American College of Radiology, and 530 members participated in the study. Eighty-seven percent of the analyzed group report the presence of CAC on standard CT scans of the chest, and approximately half them (52  %) use a qualitative modifier. Only 32&t...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Three-dimensional printed models in congenital heart disease
AbstractThe purpose of this article is to discuss technical considerations and current applications of three-dimensional (3D) printing in congenital heart disease (CHD). CHD represent an attractive field for the application of 3D printed models, with consistent progress made in the past decade. Current 3D models are able to reproduce complex cardiac and extra-cardiac anatomy including small details with very limited range of errors (
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ethnic differences in coronary plaque and epicardial fat volume quantified using computed tomography
AbstractEpidemiological studies observed a higher prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis in South Asians when compared to Caucasians, but quantitative computed tomography differences in aggregate plaque volume (APV) and epicardial fat volume (EFV) between South Asians, Southeast or East Asians (SEEAs) and Caucasians remain unknown. We aimed to compare APV and EFV quantified on computed-tomographic-coronary-angiography (CTCA) between South Asian, SEEA and Caucasian populations residing in Australia. Age, gender and body-mass-index matched subjects from three ethnic groups who underwent clinically indicated 320-detector CTCA...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left ventricular non-compaction and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: the significant diagnostic value of longitudinal strain
AbstractLeft ventricular non-compaction (LV NC) is characterized by abnormal trabeculations that are mainly at the LV apex. Distinction between LV NC and non-specific dilated cardiomyopathies (DCMs) remains often challenging. We sought to find additive tools comparing the longitudinal strain characteristics of LVNC versus idiopathic DCM in a cohort of patients. 48 cases of LVNC (derivation cohort) were compared with 45 cases of DCM. Global and regional multi-layer (sub-endocardial, mid-wall, and sub-epicardial) LV longitudinal strain analysis was performed. Results were compared to define the best tool for distinguishing L...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

T1 mapping in children and young adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
AbstractTo assess the global and segmental left ventricular (LV) native T1 and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) in children and young adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) compared to a control cohort. The study population included 21 HCM patients (mean 14.1  ± 4.6 years) and 21 controls (mean 15.7 ± 1.5 years). Native modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence was performed before and after contrast injection in 3 short axis planes. Global and segmental LV native T1 and ECV were quantified and compared between HCM patients and controls. Mean native T1 in HCM patie...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left ventricular torsion and circumferential strain responses to exercise in patients with ischemic coronary artery disease
AbstractLV torsion during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is not well known. Circumferential strain (CS) and left ventricular (LV) torsion (Tor) have not been evaluated during ischemia in these patients. We aimed to assess the effect of ischemia during exercise echocardiography (ExE) on CS and Tor. We studied a group of 73 patients with true positive ExE results (Ischemic group: ischemia plus an abnormal coronary angiogram) and a matched control group of 66 patients with negative ExE and either normal coronary angiography or low post-test probability of CAD. Basal rotation (Rot) and apical rotation ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gestational changes in left ventricular myocardial contractile function: new insights from two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography
AbstractThe goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of pregnancy and labor on left ventricular (LV) myocardial mechanics using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Pregnancy is characterized by profound hormonal and hemodynamic alterations that directly or indirectly influence cardiac structure and function. However, the impact of these changes on left ventricular (LV) myocardial contractile function has not been fully elucidated. In this prospective, longitudinal study, 35 pregnant women underwent serial clinical and echocardiographic evaluation during each trimester and at labor. Two dimensional STE was perform...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Estimation of myocardial strain from non-rigid registration and highly accelerated cine CMR
AbstractSparsely sampled cardiac cine accelerated acquisitions show promise for faster evaluation of left-ventricular function. Myocardial strain estimation using image feature tracking methods is also becoming widespread. However, it is not known whether highly accelerated acquisitions also provide reliable feature tracking strain estimates. Twenty patients and twenty healthy volunteers were imaged with conventional 14-beat/slice cine acquisition (STD), 4 × accelerated 4-beat/slice acquisition with iterative reconstruction (R4), and a 9.2× accelerated 2-beat/slice real-time acquisition with sparse sampling and...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging for lipid core detection: an ex-vivo validation study
In this study, we investigated the ability of quantitative attenuation, derived from intravascular OCT, to detect plaque lipid. Lipid cores are associated with a high attenuation coefficient. We compared the index of plaque attenuation (IPA), a local quantitative measure of attenuation, to the manually measured lipid score (arc and length) on OCT images, and to the plaque characterization ex-vivo. We confirmed a correlation between the IPA and lipid scores (r2 >  0.7). Comparison to histology shows that high attenuation is associated with fibroatheroma, but also with macrophage presence. IPA is a robust, r...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 11, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of right atrial function by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in patients with right ventricular myocardial infarction
AbstractRight ventricular myocardial infarction (RVMI) damages the systolic and diastolic functions of the RV, so the right atrium interacts with the RV with an acutely altered function. The aim of our study was to compare right atrial function as evaluated by 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) between patients with inferior wall myocardial infarction (INFMI) and patients affected by both inferior myocardial infarction and right ventricular myocardial infarction (INFMI  + RVMI). Our study recruited 70 consecutive patients with INFMI (43 patients without RVMI and 27 patients with RVMI). Right atrial ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Very early tissue coverage after drug-eluting stent implantation: an optical coherence tomography study
AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate neointimal coverage in the very early phase after second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients who underwent staged percutaneous coronary intervention within 30  days after DES implantation were enrolled. OCT was performed to observe DES previously implanted. The median time interval from implantation to OCT examination was 21.5 days. A total of 10,625 struts of 54 stents (52 everolimus-eluting stents and 2 zotarolimus-eluting stents) in 42 lesions were a nalyzed. Strut tissue coverage was observed in 71.1&...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 5, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Double-contrast, single-phase computed tomography angiography for ruling out left atrial appendage thrombus prior to atrial fibrillation ablation
We present results from a double-contrast, single-phase CTA protocol used in our daily clinical practice. In patients who underwent AF ablation between 2011 and 2015, double-contrast, single-phase CTA was performed prior to ablation. Two contrast boluses (30 and 70  ml) with 25-s interbolus delay were administered followed by prospectively triggered cardiac CTA. Only patients with left atrial (LA) or LAA filling defects underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to rule out thrombus. Prior to ablation, 605 CTA-scans were performed (median radiation dose : 3.1 mSv). In 579 CTA-scans (95.7 %), the LA a...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 5, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hold off on that shot of Java: more evidence that caffeine intake leads to false negative adenosine stress myocardial perfusion
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 30, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A novel approach to diagnosing coronary artery disease: acoustic detection of coronary turbulence
AbstractAtherosclerotic disease within coronary arteries causes disruption of normal, laminar flow and generates flow turbulence. The characteristic acoustic waves generated by coronary turbulence serve as a novel diagnostic target. The frequency range and timing of microbruits associated with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) have been characterized. Technological advancements in sensor, data filtering and analytic capabilities may allow use of intracoronary turbulence for diagnostic and risk stratification purposes. Acoustic detection (AD) systems are based on the premise that the faint auditory signature of obst...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 30, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Severe in-stent restenosis missed by coronary CT angiography and accurately detected with FFR CT
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 30, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A new method to estimate pulmonary vascular resistance using diastolic pulmonary artery-right ventricular pressure gradients derived from continuous-wave Doppler velocity measurements of pulmonary regurgitation
AbstractPulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is an important hemodynamic parameter in patients with heart failure, especially when the pulmonary arterial pressure is lower due to reduced stroke volume. Several echocardiographic methods to estimate PVR have been proposed, but their applications in patients with organic left-sided heart diseases have been limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the usefulness of our new method to estimate PVR (PVRPR) based on the continuous-wave Doppler velocity measurements of pulmonary regurgitation in these patients. In 43 patients who underwent right heart catheterization, PV...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 29, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiac magnetic resonance and galectin-3 level as predictors of prognostic outcomes for non-ischemic cardiomyopathy patients
This study was aimed at determining whether late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in conjunction with Galectin-3 (Gal-3) level offered more precise prognosis of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) in comparison to LGE alone. Results of LGE and Gal-3 expression in 192 patients with NICM, including 85 subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 107 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), were examined. As suggested by the characteristics of LGE and Gal-3 levels, patients were divided into four groups: LGE positive  + low Gal-3 (n = 10 for DCM, n = 15 for HCM), LGE positive +&thi...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic and prognostic value of right ventricular strain in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and relatively preserved functional capacity studied with echocardiography and magnetic resonance
AbstractRight ventricular (RV) dysfunction harbingers adverse prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although conventional two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) is limited for RV systolic function quantitation, RV strain can be a useful tool. The diagnostic and prognostic impact of 2DE speckle-tracking RV longitudinal strain was evaluated, including other 2DE systolic indexes, in a group of PAH patients without severe impairment of functional capacity, chronic pulmonary thromboembolism or left ventricular dysfunction. Sixty-six group I PAH patients, 67  % NYHA functional class I or II (none in IV) were...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Bioresorbable vascular scaffold fracture in the overlapping zone as cause of accelerated neoatherosclerosis and in-scaffold very-late thrombosis
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Improved border sharpness of post-infarct scar by a novel self-navigated free-breathing high-resolution 3D whole-heart inversion recovery magnetic resonance approach
This study evaluates the performance of a novel high-resolution 3D self-navigated free-breathing inversion recovery magnetic resonance pulse sequence (3D-SN-LGE) vs. conventional 2D breath-hold LGE (2D-LGE) with regard to sharpness of borders (SBorder) of post-infarction scar. Patients with post-infarction scar underwent two magnetic resonance examinations for conventional 2D-LGE and high-resolution 3D-SN-LGE acquisitions (both 15  min after 0.2 mmol/kg Gadobutrol IV) at 1.5T. In the prototype 3D-SN-LGE sequence, each ECG-triggered radial steady-state-free-precession read-out segment is preceded by a non-slice-se...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Regression equations of Z score and echocardiographic nomograms for coronary sinus in healthy children
We report new, reliable echocardiographic Z scores for the CS diameter derived from a large population of healthy Chinese children. The Z scores can be us ed in echocardiographic examinations. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Optimisation of coronary vascular territorial 3D echocardiographic strain imaging using computed tomography: a feasibility study using image fusion
AbstractCurrent echocardiographic assessments of coronary vascular territories use the 17-segment model and are based on general assumptions of coronary vascular distribution. Fusion of 3D echocardiography (3DE) with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) derived coronary anatomy may provide a more accurate assessment of left ventricular (LV) territorial function. We aimed to test the feasibility of MDCT and 3DE fusion and to compare territorial longitudinal strain (LS) using the 17-segment model and a MDCT-guided vascular model. 28 patients underwent 320-slice MDCT and transthoracic 3DE on the same day followed by invas...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Off-resonance magnetic resonance angiography improves visualization of in-stent lumen in peripheral nitinol stents compared to conventional T1-weighted acquisitions: an in vitro comparison study
AbstractTo compare the value of inversion recovery with on-resonant water suppression (IRON) to conventional T1-weighted (T1w) MRA and computed tomography angiography (CTA) for visualization of peripheral nitinol stents. We visualized 14 different peripheral nitinol stents in vitro both using Gadolinium (Gd) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles (USPIOs) for conventional T1w and IRON-MRA using clinical grade 1.5T MR scanner and iodinated contrast material for CTA using a 256-slice CT scanner. Parameter assessment included signal- and contrast-to-noise ratio (S/CNR), relative in-stent signal and artificial lum...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

In-vivo validation of a new clinical tool to quantify three-dimensional myocardial strain using ultrasound
AbstractThree-dimensional (3D) strain analysis based on real-time 3-D echocardiography (RT3DE) has emerged as a novel technique to quantify regional myocardial function. The goal of this study was to evaluate accuracy of a novel model-based 3D tracking tool (eSie Volume Mechanics, Siemens Ultrasound, Mountain View, CA, USA) using sonomicrometry as an independent measure of cardiac deformation. Thirteen sheep were instrumented with microcrystals sutured to the epi- and endocardium of the inferolateral left ventricular wall to trace myocardial deformation along its three directional axes of motion. Paired acquisitions of RT3...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Two-dimensional and three-dimensional left ventricular deformation analysis: a study in competitive athletes
AbstractTwo-dimensional (2D) speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) has clarified functional adaptations accompanying the morphological features of ‘athlete’s heart’. However, 2D STE has some limitations, potentially overcome by three-dimensional (3D) STE. Unfortunately, discrepancies between 2D- and 3D STE have been described. We therefore sought to evaluate whether dimensional and functional differences exist between athletes and contro ls and whether 2D and 3D left ventricular (LV) strains differ in athletes. One hundred sixty-one individuals (91 athletes, 70 controls) were analysed. Athletes were mem...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multilayer longitudinal strain at rest may help to predict significant stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery in patients with suspected non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome
AbstractTwo-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) multilayer analysis of myocardial deformation is a non-invasive method that enables discrimination of transmural differences owing to myocardial ischemia or necrosis. We wished to ascertain if multilayer longitudinal strains at rest are associated with significant ( ≥70 %) stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) in patients with suspected non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Our cohort comprised 113 consecutive patients with suspected NSTE-ACS and preserved ejection fraction (EF). Using coronary angiography, ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dynamic change of high-risk plaque detected by coronary computed tomographic angiography in patients with subclinical coronary artery disease
AbstractWe studied the dynamic change of high-risk plaque detected by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in patients with subclinical coronary artery disease. We analyzed paired CCTA findings in 103 patients. The follow-up period was 1.37  ± 0.49 years. We studied the prevalence and change of high-risk plaque (HRP) defined as positive remodeling, low attenuation plaque, spotty calcification, or napkin-ring sign. Of 413 plaques detected by CCTA, thirty-seven patients had 47 HRP at baseline. At follow-up, eight patients showed di sappearance of HRP. Sixty-six patients had no HRP at bas...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research