MRI use for atrial tissue characterization in arrhythmias and for EP procedure guidance
AbstractWe review the utilization of magnetic resonance imaging methods for classifying atrial tissue properties that act as a substrate for common cardiac arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation. We then review state-of-the-art methods for mapping this substrate as a predicate for treatment, as well as methods used to ablate the electrical pathways that cause arrhythmia and restore patients to sinus rhythm. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - June 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Localization of angiosarcoma by peri-operative transesophageal echocardiography
AbstractTransthoracic echocardiography (TTE), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) cannot always clearly identify angiosarcoma. A 22  year old woman presented with dyspnea. Preoperative TTE showed no tumor, and CT and MR both gave the impression that an extra-cardiac, mediastinal tumor was present. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), performed during surgery showed an intra-cardiac tumor, which was a well-delineated mass at the intra-ventricular groove of the right heart and surrounding the superior vena cava. The tumor was excised and found to be a malignant angiosarcoma. TEE provides diagnostic a...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - June 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

High electrical activity at the connection site of previously undetected anomalous pulmonary venous drainage in a patient presenting with atrial fibrillation
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - June 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

SASHA versus ShMOLLI: a comparison of T1 mapping methods in health and dilated cardiomyopathy at 3  T
This study aims to to determine the native T1 time, post contrast T1 time and extracellular volume (ECV) derived from T1 mapping and to evaluate the ability of T1 mapping techniques to discriminate healthy myocardium from dilated cardiomyopathy. Seventy-nine participants underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers and twenty-two patients with Dilated cardiomyopathy were included in the study. Each participant had T1 mapping sequences performed at 3  T in the mid short axis slice—both SASHA and ShMOLLI T1 mapping were...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - June 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fractional flow reserve: a clinical perspective
AbstractFractional flow reserve (FFR) is a reference invasive diagnostic test to assess the physiological significance of an epicardial coronary artery stenosis. FFR-guided percutaneous coronary intervention in stable coronary artery disease has been assessed in three seminal clinical trials and the indications for FFR assessment are expanding into other clinical scenarios. In this article we review the theoretical, experimental and clinical basis for FFR measurement. We place FFR measurement in the context of the comprehensive invasive assessment of coronary physiology in patients presenting with known or suspected angina...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - June 2, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comparison of in-stent neoatherosclerosis and tissue characteristics between early and late in-stent restenosis in second-generation drug-eluting stents: an optical coherence tomography study
AbstractOptical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) was utilized to compare the prevalence of neoatherosclerosis (NA) and morphological characteristics of the neointimal tissue in second generation drug eluting stent (G2-DES)-treated lesions between early (1 year, L-ISR) in-stent restenotic phases. Data comparing NA and in vivo tissue characteristics between early and late in-stent restenosis (ISR) after implantation of G2-DES is limited. An OFDI analysis was performed in 50 G2-DESs {35 everolimus-eluting stent [22 cobalt-chromium (CoCr), 13 platinum-chromium (PtCr)], and 15 biolimus-eluting stent [BES]} ISR lesions (46 consec...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - April 25, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Myocardial salvage after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction presenting early versus late after symptom onset
AbstractPrimary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the treatment of choice in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) presenting within 12  h of symptom onset. A benefit in the subacute stage is less clear. The aim of the present analysis was to compare myocardial salvage and infarct size between patients with early and late reperfusion after STEMI. We compared cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) data from a randomized controlled trial ( RCT) in STEMI patients presenting within 12 h (n = 695) and a RCT of subacute STEMI patients presenting between 12 and 48 h (n =&...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - April 24, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fluorescent angioscopic imaging of calcium phosphate tribasic: precursor of hydroxyapatite, the major calcium deposit in human coronary plaques
AbstractCoronary calcification is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease. Hydroxyapatite that is formed by polymerization from calcium phosphate tribasic (CPT) is the major constituent of coronary calcium deposits. If CPT could be visualized, coronary calcification could be predicted and prevented. We discovered that when CPT and collagen I, the main constituent of collagen fibers, are mixed with lac dye (LD) and then exposed to fluorescent light excited at 345  ± 15 nm and emitted at 420 nm, a purple fluorescence that is characteristic of CPT only is elicited. So, we examined localization ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - April 21, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left atrial electromechanical conduction time predicts atrial fibrillation in patients with mitral stenosis: a 5-year follow-up speckle-tracking echocardiography study
AbstractProlonged left atrial electromechanical conduction time is related with atrial electrical remodeling, and is predictive of the development of atrial fibrillation. The aim of our study was to examine whether left atrial electromechanical conduction time (EMT) and left atrial strain as measured by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) are predictors for the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with mitral stenosis (MS) at 5-year follow-up. A total of 81 patients (61% females; mean age 38.1  ± 12.1 years) with mild or moderate MS of rheumatic origin according to ACC/AHA guide...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - April 19, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The utility of global longitudinal strain in the identification of prior myocardial infarction in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction
AbstractPrior myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with increased mortality and is prevalent in certain high risk patient groups. Electrocardiogram may be used in diagnosis, however, sensitivity is limited, thus non-invasive imaging techniques may improve diagnosis. We investigated whether global longitudinal strain (GLS) and longitudinal strain parameters are reduced in patients with prior MI but preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The study included 40 clinical patients with prior MI occurring>3  months previously (defined as subendocardial hyperenhancement on late Gadolinium enhancement imag...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - April 18, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Agreement of tricuspid annular systolic excursion measurement between transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography in the perioperative setting
ConclusionOur study showed that the right ventricular function can be accurately and precisely estimated using TAPSE measurement by TEE in the midesophageal four chamber and deep transgastric right ventricle view at 0 ° using anatomical M-mode. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - April 13, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Association of B-type natriuretic peptide with coronary plaque subtypes detected by coronary computed tomography angiography in patients with stable chest pain
AbstractIncreased B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level has been suggested to improve clinical predictions of coronary events and all-cause mortality. We aimed to analyze the relationship between BNP levels and coronary plaque subtypes as detected by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). 402 subjects undergoing CCTA were enrolled. The relationship between increased levels of BNP and plaque subtypes was tested using multivariable linear and logistic regression analysis. Plaques were categorized into subtypes of calcified, mixed and non-calcified. Coronary plaque was observed in 93 of 402 individuals. The partici...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - April 10, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Coronary flow reserve in mitral stenosis before and after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty
AbstractWe aimed to evaluate the coronary flow reserve (CFR) before and after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV) in patients with mitral stenosis (MS) and its association to clinical events. A prospective study included 45 patients with mitral stenosis candidate for PBMV (age 38  ± 19 years, 27 were females) and 20 with matched age and sex, healthy controls were included in the study. Noninvasive CFR was measured using transthoracic echocardiography and utilizing adenosine stress echocardiography (0.14 mg/kg/min) before PMBV, and one weak post PBMV using multi-tract b alloon valvulop...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - April 4, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Strut protrusion and shape impact on endothelial shear stress: insights from pre-clinical study comparing Mirage and Absorb bioresorbable scaffolds
AbstractProtrusion of scaffold struts is related with local coronary flow dynamics that can promote scaffold restenosis and thrombosis. That fact has prompted us to investigate in vivo the protrusion status of different types of scaffolds and their relationship with endothelial shear stress (ESS) distributions. Six Absorb everolimus-eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds (Absorb, Abbott Vascular) and 11 Mirage sirolimus-eluting Bioresorbable Microfiber Scaffolds (Mirage, Manli Cardiology) were implanted in coronaries of eight mini pigs. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed post-scaffold implantation and obtai...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - April 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Massive floating thrombus in the ascending aorta
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - April 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of radiological risk during coronary angioplasty procedures: comparison of transradial and transfemoral approaches
AbstractIncreasing operator experience and newer available interventional cardiology devices require reassessment of radiological risk related to percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). We aimed at comparison of radiological risk and procedural data of PCIs performed by radial (RA) and femoral (FA) approach in real life patients. Detailed retrospective analysis of 1500 consecutive PCIs with the use of radial or femoral access was performed. Comparison between RA and FA groups included procedural time (PT), fluoroscopy time (FT), radiation dose and contrast volume usage. There was no significant differences between RA an...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 31, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Optimizing left anterior oblique (LAO) caudal imaging in coronary angiography using the Taguchi method: A phantom study with clinical verification
AbstractThe aim of this work tried to optimize the spider view of the coronary angiograph for the clinical diagnosis of cardiac artery disease by cardiologists. A qualified spider view in coronary angiography must be exactly a “quasi-spider” image, which can help to diagnose a lesion in left main coronary artery and related regions. Coronary artery phantom was placed in a 75 mm-thick acrylic box to model a 70 kg human thorax. Eighteen groups of various combinations of operating factors of the X-ray facility were org anized based on a Taguchi analysis. The six factors that govern the imaging quality of...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 31, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Validation of the “smart” minimum FFR Algorithm in an unselected all comer population of patients with intermediate coronary stenoses
In this study we used the same “smart” minimum algorithm to analyze data derived fro m a different, commercial pressure wire system (Philips Volcano) and compared the values obtained to both operator-defined steady state FFR and the online automated minimum FFR reported by the pressure wire analyser. For this analysis, we used the data collected during the VERIFY 2 study (Hennigan e t al. in Circ Cardiovasc Interv, doi:10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.116.004016) in which we measured FFR in 257 intermediate coronary stenoses (mean DS 48%) in 197 patients. Maximal hyperaemia was induced using intravenous adenosine (140...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 29, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ventricular pacing site separation by cardiac computed tomography: validation for the prediction of clinical response to cardiac resynchronization therapy
The objective of this study was to investigate associations between standardized measures of ILD by cardiac CT and echocardiographic response to CRT. Forty-two consecutive patients undergoing CRT had serial clinical and echocardiographic evaluations performed in addition to a post-procedural cardiac-gated CT with blinded measurement of direct and circumferential (via the myocardium) ILD measures. Clinical response to CRT, the primary clinical outcome, was defined as a ≥15% reduction in LVESV using echocardiography at 6-months. The mean age and ejection fraction was 63.6 ± 8.9 years and 25.2&thi...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 29, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Coronary flow capacity: concept, promises, and challenges
AbstractThe vasodilator capacity of the coronary circulation is an important diagnostic and prognostic characteristic, and its accurate assessment is therefore an important frontier. The coronary flow capacity (CFC) concept was introduced to overcome the limitations associated with the use of coronary flow reserve (CFR) for this purpose, which are related to the sensitivity of CFR to physiological alterations in systemic and coronary hemodynamics. CFC was developed from positron emission tomography, and was subsequently extrapolated to invasive coronary physiology. These studies suggest that CFC is a robust framework for t...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 28, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Long-term outcome of patients with triphasic mitral flow with a mid-diastolic L wave: prognostic role of left atrial volume and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide
This study assessed long-term prognosis and independent predictors of adverse outcomes in patients with a mid-diastolic L wave. A total of 144 consecutive patients (mean age 63  ± 12 years, 88 female) with a mid-diastolic L wave of ≥0.2 m/s and in sinus rhythm were identified. Patients with significant valvular heart disease, low LV ejection fraction and arrhythmias were excluded. Subjects were followed up for cardiovascular (CV) mortality and hospitalization for h eart failure (HF). During follow-up for a median of 44 months (1–76), CV deaths and hospitalization for HF occurred in 41 (28...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 27, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Improving on the diagnostic characteristics of echocardiography for pulmonary hypertension
AbstractThis retrospective study evaluated the diagnostic characteristics of a combination of echocardiographic parameters for pulmonary hypertension (PH). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) estimation by echocardiography (echo) is used to screen for PH. However, the sensitivity of this method is suboptimal. We hypothesized that RVSP estimation in conjunction with other echo parameters would improve the value of echo for PH. The Duke Echo database was queried for adult patients with known or suspected PH who had undergone both echo and right heart catheterization (RHC) within a 24  h period between 1/1/2008 an...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 24, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Coronary artery calcium in breast cancer survivors after radiation therapy
In conclusion, breast cancer survivors after radiation therapy are not more likely to show coronary artery calcium on follow-up CT imaging. Our results thus do not support radiation-induced accelerated coronary artery disease as an explanation for higher rates of heart disease in this group. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 24, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Machine learning of the spatio-temporal characteristics of echocardiographic deformation curves for infarct classification
This study shows the potential of machine learning in the field of cardiac deformation imaging where an efficient representation of the spatio-temporal characteristics of the segmental deformation curves allowed automatic classification of infarcted from control hearts with high accuracy. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 20, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Altered synchrony of right ventricular contraction in borderline pulmonary hypertension
This study aimed at the identification and functional significance of RV dyssynchrony in borderline PH defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure between (mPAP) 20 and 25  mmHg. RV dyssynchrony was measured by 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in 17 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), 13 patients with borderline PH and 14 controls. Dyssynchrony was defined as the R-R interval-corrected standard deviation of the times to peak-systolic s train for the basal and medium segments of the RV. All the PH patients underwent a right heart catheterization. RV dyssynchrony amounted to 69 &pl...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 19, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular imaging 2016 in the International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 18, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in acute and chronic ischemic heart disease
AbstractCardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a multi-parametric, multi-planar, non-invasive imaging technique, which allows accurate determination of biventricular function and precise myocardial tissue characterization in a one-stop-shop technique, free from the use of ionizing radiations. Though CMR has been increasingly applied over the last two decades in every-day clinical practice, its widest application has been in the assessment of ischemic cardiomyopathy. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 18, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Association of native T1 times with biventricular function and hemodynamics in precapillary pulmonary hypertension
AbstractIn precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients, we sought to (1) investigate the relationship between ventricular insertion point (VIP) T1 times, hemodynamic parameters, and biventricular function, and (2) determine the predictors of anterior and inferior VIP T1 time. Twenty-two patients with precapillary PH underwent 1.5-T cardiac MR, right heart catheterization (RHC), and echocardiography. A group of 10 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers served as controls. Biventricular function, morphology and mass were obtained from short-axis cine images. Native T1 times at anterior, inferior VIP, septum and LV lat...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 17, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ascending aortic distensibility and target organ damage in primary hypertension without diabetes
AbstractTo investigate the relationship between ascending aortic distensibility (AAD) and hypertensive target organ damage (TOD) and its potential value in prediction. One hundred and sixty seven primary hypertension inpatients who underwent coronary CTA examination were enrolled into our study. Retrospective ECG-triggering scanning mode were applied and the images were reconstructed every 5% phase in the entire R –R interval. Maximum and minimum ascending aortic areas as well as the AAD value were calculated on the interested slice. AAD (P 
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 16, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Three-dimensional speckle tracking longitudinal strain is related to myocardial fibrosis determined by late-gadolinium enhancement
AbstractThree-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a reliable clinical tool for accurate measurements of left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF). In this prospective study, we sought to identify an association between 3DSTE longitudinal strain abnormalities and areas of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). In 50 patients (52  ± 18.5 years old) referred to our hospital for clinically indicated CMR, 3D full-volume trans-thoracic acquisitions on apical views were performed within 1 h of CMR, in order to obtain LV volumes and ejection fraction as well as global an...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 15, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dissipative energy loss within the left ventricle detected by vector flow mapping in diabetic patients with controlled and uncontrolled blood glucose levels
AbstractDiabetes mellitus (DM) is related to increased risks of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy and secondary hypertension. Dissipative energy loss (EL) derived from vector flow mapping (VFM) is thought to reflect the efficiency of blood flow and has been deemed to be an index for the evaluation of left ventricular function. Our study aimed to investigate the value of dissipative EL in diabetic patients with controlled and uncontrolled blood glucose by VFM. Eighty-eight patients with DM and 58 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. All of the patients received echocardi...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 15, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comprehensive 4-stage categorization of bicuspid aortic valve leaflet morphology by cardiac MRI in 386 patients
AbstractBicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is heterogeneous and related to valve dysfunction and aortopathy. Appropriate follow up and surveillance of patients with BAV may depend on correct phenotypic categorization. There are multiple classification schemes, however a need exists to comprehensively capture commissure fusion, leaflet asymmetry, and valve orifice orientation. Our aim was to develop a BAV classification scheme for use at MRI to ascertain the frequency of different phenotypes and the consistency of BAV classification. The BAV classification scheme builds on the Sievers surgical BAV classification, adding va...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 15, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dual compression is not an uncommon type of iliac vein compression syndrome
We described an underestimated type of IVCS with dual compression by right and left common iliac arteries (LCIA) simultaneously. Thirty-one patients with IVCS were retrospectively included. All patients received trans-catheter venography and computed tomography (CT) examinations for diagnosing and evaluating IVCS. Late venography and reconstructed CT were used for evaluating the anatomical relationship among LCIV, RCIA and LCIA. Imaging manifestations as well as demographic data were collected and evaluated by two experienced radiologists. Sole and dual compression were found in 32.3% (n  = 10) and 67.7% (n&t...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 13, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dual-contrast agent photon-counting computed tomography of the heart: initial experience
AbstractTo determine the feasibility of dual —contrast agent imaging of the heart using photon-counting detector (PCD) computed tomography (CT) to simultaneously assess both first-pass and late enhancement of the myocardium. An occlusion-reperfusion canine model of myocardial infarction was used. Gadolinium-based contrast was injected 10 min prior to PCD CT. Iodinated contrast was infused immediately prior to PCD CT, thus capturing late gadolinium enhancement as well as first-pass iodine enhancement. Gadolinium and iodine maps were calculated using a linear material decomposition technique and compared to single-ener...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 13, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantitative analysis of late gadolinium enhancement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: comparison of diagnostic performance in myocardial fibrosis between gadobutrol and gadopentetate dimeglumine
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to compare different semi-automated late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) quantification techniques using gadobutrol and gadopentetate dimeglumine contrast agents with regard to the diagnosis of fibrotic myocardium in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Thirty patients with HCM underwent two cardiac MRI protocols with use of gadobutrol and gadopentetate dimeglumine. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between LGE area and remote myocardium (CNRremote), between LGE area and left ventricular blood pool (CNRpool), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in LGE were compared. The presence and q...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 13, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left ventricular mechanics in isolated mild mitral stenosis: a three dimensional speckle tracking study
AbstractIn a fraction of patients with mild mitral stenosis, left ventricular systolic function deteriorates despite the lack of hemodynamic load imposed by the dysfunctioning valve. Neither the predisposing factors nor the earlier changes in left ventricular contractility were understood adequately. In the present study we aimed to evaluate left ventricular mechanics using three-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking echocardiography. A total of 31 patients with mild rheumatic mitral stenosis and 27 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. All subjects included to the study underwent echocardiographic examination to collec...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 11, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Intravascular ultrasound to assess for baffle stenosis after Mustard procedure
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 11, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT myocardial perfusion imaging: current status and future perspectives
AbstractComputed tomography myocardial perfusion (CTP) combined with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) may constitute a “1-stop shop” for the noninvasive diagnosis of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis during a single CT examination. CTP shows high diagnostic performance and provides incremental value over CCTA for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis in patients with a high A gatston calcium score or coronary artery stents. Future studies should determine the optimal protocol and clinical value of CTP for guiding revascularization strategy and prognostication....
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 9, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neoatherosclerosis assessed with optical coherence tomography in restenotic bare metal and first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents
AbstractAlthough reported in bare metal stents (BMS) and first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES), little is known about neoatherosclerosis in second-generation DES. We used optical coherence tomography to evaluate neoatherosclerosis among different stent generations. Overall, 274 in-stent restenosis (ISR) lesions (duration from implantation 56.9  ± 47.2 months) in 274 patients were assessed for the presence of neoatherosclerosis. Neoatherosclerosis was identified in 38.7% of lesions (106/274): 23.0% second-generation DES (38/165), 65.1% first-generation DES (54/83), and 53.8% BMS (14/26). In the neo...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 9, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A systematic review of imaging anatomy in predicting functional significance of coronary stenoses determined by fractional flow reserve
AbstractFractional flow reserve (FFR) is the current gold standard to assess the physiological significance of coronary stenoses. With the development of coronary imaging techniques, several anatomic parameters have been investigated in vivo and their associations with FFR have been studied. The aim of this review is to summarize the accuracy of anatomic parameters derived by the present coronary imaging techniques including invasive coronary angiography, coronary computed tomography angiography, intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography, in predicting a significant FFR. The impact of patient characteristic...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Value of tissue Doppler-derived Tei index and two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging derived longitudinal strain on predicting outcome of patients with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis
AbstractPrognosis of patients with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA) is poor. Speckle tracking imaging (STI) derived longitudinal deformation parameters and Doppler-derived left ventricular (LV) Tei index are valuable predictors of outcome in patients with AL-CA. We estimated the prognostic utility of Tei index and deformation parameters in 58 comprehensively phenotyped patients with AL-CA after a median follow-up of 365 days (quartiles 121, 365 days). The primary end point was all-cause mortality. 19 (33%) patients died during follow-up. Tei index (0.89  ± 0.29 vs. 0.61 ± 0.16, p 
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of biventricular systolic strain derived from the two-dimensional and three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in lymphoma patients after anthracycline therapy
AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) for assessment of both left and right ventricular systolic function in patients with lymphoma after anthracycline chemotherapy, compared with two-dimensional (2D) STE. Totally eighty-nine patients undergoing anthracycline containing chemotherapy were studied. Echocardiographic assessment included 2D and 3D left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS) and right ventricular (RV) GLS. All the parameters were analyzed at baseline, after the completion o...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 2, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Editor ’s note February 2017
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 2, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Intermediate CD14 ++ CD16 + monocyte predicts severe coronary stenosis and extensive plaque involvement in asymptomatic individuals
AbstractCirculating leukocyte subtypes and monocyte subsets are independent predictors of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that an increased leukocyte subtype would predict severe coronary stenosis and extensive plaque involvement. We retrospectively analyzed clinical, laboratory, and coronary CT data in a total of 588 asymptomatic adults (69% men; mean age, 57  ± 9 years) undergoing a general health check-up. Intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocyte count had the strongest association with mixed and calcified plaque scores, whereas the numbers of neutrophils and classical CD14++CD16− monocyt...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 26, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The consistency of myocardial strain derived from heart deformation analysis
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to  assess the consistency of semi-automated myocardial strain analysis by prototype software across field strengths, temporal resolutions, and examinations. 35 volunteers (48 ± 13 years; 20% women) and 25 patients (54 ± 12 years; 44% women) without significant cardiac dysfunction underwen t cine cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 1.5 T with a temporal resolution of 39.2 msec. 34 subjects also underwent imaging at 3.0 T; 16 had repeat examinations within 14 days; and 9 underwent CMR with temporal resolutio...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 26, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Association between interleukin-6 and the risk of cardiac events measured by coronary computed tomography angiography
AbstractInterleukin-6 (IL-6) has been found to be a predictor of heart attack. We aimed to investigate the relationship of risk factor IL-6 with extent and severity of the coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluated using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). A total of 303 participants without history of CAD undergoing CCTA were enrolled. Using the model of risk-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards, the association of IL-6 level with major adverse cardiac events (MACE) was detected. The participants were assigned into three study groups based on serum IL-6 level. Compared with those in the lowest tertile, patients wit...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 24, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Routine 18 F-FDG PET/CT does not detect inflammation in the left atrium in patients with atrial fibrillation
In this study, we used 18-Fluor-Deoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) to determine atrial inflammation in patients with and without AF. Retrospectively,18F-FDG PET/CT scans were analyzed. 37 patients with a history of AF were compared to an age and sex matched control group with no history of AF. Standardized uptake values were obtained in the atrial walls, in the left ventricular wall, and in the right ventricular blood pool, respectively. Target to background ratios (TBR) were determined in the atrial and left ventricular walls and compared between the two groups. TBR values of th...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 22, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Open-source, vendor-independent, automated multi-beat tissue Doppler echocardiography analysis
We present an open-source, vendor-independent, drag-and-drop software capable of automating the measurement process. A database of ~8000 tissue Doppler beats (48 patients) from the septal and lateral annuli were analyzed by three expert echocardiographers. We developed an intensity- and gradient-based automated algorithm to measure tissue Doppler velocities. We tested its performance against manual measurements from the expert human operators. Our algorithm showed strong agreement with expert human operators. Performance was indistinguishable from a human operator: for algorithm, mean difference and SDD from the mean of hu...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 20, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Numerical and experimental investigations of the flow –pressure relation in multiple sequential stenoses coronary artery
This study investigates the flow –pressure relation in an idealised multiple sequential stenoses coronary artery model via numerical and experimental approaches. Pressure drop is linearly correlated with flow rate irrespective of the number of stenosis. Computational fluid dynamics results are in good agreement with the experimen tal data, demonstrating reasonable accuracy of vFFR. It was also found that the difference between data obtained with steady and pulsatile flows is negligible, indicating the steady flow may be used instead of pulsatile flow conditions in vFFR computation. This study adds to the current unde...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 20, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cystic mass in the left ventricle: suspected thrombus with inhomogeneous appearance
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 20, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research