Intravascular ultrasound guidance of percutaneous coronary intervention in ostial chronic total occlusions: a description of the technique and procedural results
AbstractInability to cross the lesion with a guidewire is the most common reason for failure in percutaneous revascularization (PCI) of chronic total occlusions (CTOs). An ostial or stumpless CTO is an acknowledged challenge for CTO recanalization due to difficulty in successful wiring. IVUS imaging provides the opportunity to visualize the occluded vessel and to aid guidewire advancement. We review the value of this technique in a single-centre experience of CTO PCI. This series involves 22 patients who underwent CTO-PCI using IVUS guidance for stumpless CTO wiring at our institution. CTO operators with extensive IVUS exp...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 14, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

NASCI AHA young investigator finalists 2016
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 14, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Myocardial perfusion imaging with PET
AbstractNoninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease remains a challenging task, with a large armamentarium of diagnostic modalities. Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is widely used for this purpose whereby cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) is considered the gold standard. Next to relative radiotracer distribution, PET allows for measurement of absolute myocardial blood flow. This quantification of perfusion improves diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value. Cardiac hybrid imaging relies on the fusion of anatomical and functional imaging using coronary computed tomography angiography and MPI, respectively, ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 10, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Superficial wall stress assessed from 4-D analysis of coronary angiography in vivo
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 10, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Rb-82 PET/CT left ventricular mass-to-volume ratios
AbstractLeft ventricular (LV) mass:volume ratios indexed to body size (Mi/Vi) provide risk stratification for cardiac events. We sought to determine whether Rb-82 PET mass and volume indices are similar to MRI normal values for low likelihood subjects, and whether abnormal indices are related to abnormal myocardial blood flow (MBF). Data were analyzed retrospectively for 194 patients referred for rest/stress Rb-82 PET. LV EF, volume and mass values were calculated and mass:volume ratios were indexed to patients ’ height and weight. MBF was computed from the first pass dynamic component of PET data. 53 patients at low...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Improving the visual field in coronary artery by with non-obstructive angioscopy: dual infusion method
This study examines visual field expansion by a dual infusion method, which involves an infusion from the probing and guiding catheters, and the relationships between visual grade and vessel characteristics. Thirty-two patients and thirty patients performed coronary plaque analysis with NOA using the conventional method and the novel dual infusion method, respectively. Images were blindly analyzed retrospectively. Visual fields were assessed from image slices using a 5-point scale (0  = invisible, 1 = poor, 2 = adequate, 3 = good, 4 = excellent) at 5-s i...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Transthoracic contrast echocardiography using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents for the diagnosis of patent foramen ovale
Abstract To evaluate the utility of transthoracic contrast echocardiography (cTTE) using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents for diagnosing right-to-left shunt (RLS) caused by patent foramen ovale (PFO) compared to that of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). We investigated 125 patients admitted to our neurology department with unexplained cerebral infarction and migraine. All patients underwent cTTE using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents, after which they underwent transthoracic echocardiography. The Doppler signal was recorded during the Valsalva maneuver, and TEE examinations wer...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Serial changes in the three-dimensional aspect of the side-branch ostium jailed by a drug-eluting stent assessed by optical coherence tomography
AbstractThe present study investigated serial changes in the three-dimensional (3D) aspect of the jailed side-branch (SB) ostium. We evaluated 32 patients who underwent examination with optical coherence tomography (OCT) both at baseline and at follow-up. After reconstruction of the 3D images, we classified the configuration of overhanging struts at the SB orifice into three groups according to the 3D aspect of the jailing configuration. The number of compartments divided by the stent strut was counted. The side-branch flow area (SBFA), i.e., the area of the SB ostium except for jailing struts, was measured by cut-plane an...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Right atrial strain is predictive of clinical outcomes and invasive hemodynamic data in group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension
AbstractTransthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a practical and widely used tool for risk stratification in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesized that right atrial (RA) reservoir function, represented by peak RA systolic strain, correlates with invasive hemodynamic measurements and clinical outcomes in PAH. Patients with group 1 PAH who had TTE within 6 months of index PAH clinic visit and right heart catheterization were included in this retrospective study. Peak RA strain in the 2D apical 4-chamber view was measured with speckle-tracking software. The primary endpoint was a composite of prostacyclin init...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Right ventricular systolic function, determined by echocardiography, after percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty in children with isolated pulmonary stenosis
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 4, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Transthyretin cardiac amyloid and aortic stenosis in the elderly, the role of nuclear imaging
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 2, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Influence of scan technique on intracoronary transluminal attenuation gradient in coronary CT angiography using 128-slice dual source CT: multi-beat versus one-beat scan
AbstractThe purpose of our study was to investigate the impact of temporal uniformity and adjustment by the contrast opacification enhancement in the aorta on the performance of transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG) for obstructive coronary artery disease. A total of 274 coronary arteries from 94 patients who underwent both multi- and single-beat scan using 128-slice scanner at the same time were enrolled. TAG and corrected coronary opacification (CCO) of both scan technique were compared against obstructive coronary arteries defined by diameter stenosis  ≥50%. In per-vessel analysis, both TAG and CCO were slig...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Relationship between gated myocardial perfusion SPECT findings and hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, and heart rate changes after Dipyridamole infusion
AbstractAfter dipyridamole infusion, electrocardiographic (ECG), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) changes were seen. We tried to investigate whether there is a relationship between hemodynamic, ECG and HR changes after dipyridamole infusion and gated myocardial perfusion SPECT findings. We studied 206 consecutive patients which underwent a 2-day protocol Dipyridamole Stress/Rest Tc99m-Sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), HR and ECG were recorded. HR was mildly increased while SBP and DBP were mildly decreased after Dipyridamole infusion. There was only...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left bundle-branch block contraction patterns identified from radial-strain analysis predicts outcomes following cardiac resynchronization therapy
In conclusion, an LBBB-contraction pattern identified from radial-strain analysis in the mid-ventricular short-axis view predicted reverse remodeling and outcome following CRT, similarly to the longitudinal-strain analysis. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Value of three-dimensional strain parameters for predicting left ventricular remodeling after ST-elevation myocardial infarction
This study was to evaluate the value of multi-directional strain parameters derived from three-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) for predicting left ventricular (LV) remodeling after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with that of two-dimensional (2D) global longitudinal strain (GLS). A total of 110 patients (mean age, 54  ± 9 years) after STEMI treated with primary PCI were enrolled in our study. At baseline (within 24 h after PCI), standard 2D echocardiography, 2D STE and 3D STE were performed t...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiac MOLLI T 1 mapping at 3.0 T: comparison of patient-adaptive dual-source RF and conventional RF transmission
AbstractTo prospectively compare image quality and myocardial T1 relaxation times of modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) imaging at 3.0  T (T) acquired with patient-adaptive dual-source (DS) and conventional single-source (SS) radiofrequency (RF) transmission. Pre- and post-contrast MOLLI T1 mapping using SS and DS was acquired in 27 patients. Patient wise and segment wise analysis of T1 times was performed. The correlation of DS MOLLI measurements with a reference spin echo sequence was analysed in phantom experiments. DS MOLLI imaging reduced T1 standard deviation in 14 out of 16 myocardial segments (87....
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 30, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Incremental value of cardiac magnetic resonance for the evaluation of cardiac tumors in adults: experience of a high volume tertiary cardiology centre
AbstractTo assess the value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in evaluating cardiac tumours in a tertiary cardiology centre. Between 2004 and 2014, 125 patients (pts.) from a total of 17000 who received a CMR examination in our institution were referred with the suspicion of cardiac tumours. A dedicated protocol was used that included standard cine SSFP acquisitions as well as tissue characterization using T1 and T2 black-blood (T1 BB and T2 BB respectively) with and without fat suppression, perfusion of the structure and late gadolinium enhancement. Patients ’ files were retrospectively analysed and data r...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 30, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Subclinical atherosclerosis detected by coronary computed tomographic angiography in Qatar: a comparison between Qataris and south Asian migrants
ConclusionsIn this first study of CCTA findings performed in a Middle Eastern country, we observed a high prevalence of obstructive CAD in a middle-aged cohort. There were no significant differences in CCTA findings between Qataris and South Asians after adjustment for clinical risk factors. Future studies are needed to identify patterns of coronary atherosclerosis by CCTA in non-European populations where cardiovascular disease is increasingly prevalent. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 27, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical applications of multi-parametric CMR in myocarditis and systemic inflammatory diseases
AbstractCardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has changed the management of suspected viral myocarditis by providing a ‘positive’ diagnostic test and has lead to new insights into myocardial involvement in systemic inflammatory conditions. In this review we analyse the use of CMR tissue characterisation techniques across the available studies including T2 weighted imaging, early gadolinium enhancement, late gado linium enhancement, Lake Louise Criteria, T2 mapping, T1 mapping and extracellular volume assessment. We also discuss the use of multiparametric CMR in acute cardiac transplant rejection and a variety of inf...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 27, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left atrial size and function as assessed by computed tomography in cardiac resynchronization therapy: Association to echocardiographic and clinical outcome
AbstractTo evaluate whether baseline left atrial (LA) volume and function were associated with clinical or echocardiographic response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), and to determine LA reverse remodeling as assessed by computed tomography (CT). We prospectively included patients receiving a CRT system who underwent dynamic cardiac CT with measurement of LA size and function before and 6  months after implantation. Patients alive not hospitalized for heart failure, and improving ≥1 NYHA class or ≥10% in 6-min walk test after 6 months follow-up were classified as clinical responders. Echocardiogr...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 25, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Investigating the value of right heart echocardiographic metrics for detection of pulmonary hypertension in patients with advanced lung disease
This study determined whether novel right heart echocardiography metrics help to detect pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with advanced lung disease (ALD). We reviewed echocardiography and catheterization data of 192 patients from the Stanford ALD registry and echocardiograms of 50 healthy controls. Accuracy of echocardiographic right heart metrics to detect PH was assessed using logistic regression and area under the ROC curves (AUC) analysis. Patients were divided into a derivation (n  = 92) and validation cohort (n = 100). Experimental validation was assessed in a piglet model of mild P...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 24, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Subclinical markers of cardiovascular disease predict adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction
AbstractEmerging cardiovascular biomarkers, such as speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), have recently demonstrated the presence of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction and arterial stiffening in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and no previous cardiovascular history. However, limited information exists on the prognostic impact of these biomarkers. We aimed to investigate whether STE and aPWV predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in this patient population. In this cohort study we prospectively analysed 106 CKD patients with no overt cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 24, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Selective anti-scatter grid removal during coronary angiography and PCI: a simple and safe technique for radiation reduction
AbstractObjectives The aim of this study was to quantify the radiation dose reduction during coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) through removal of the anti-scatter grid (ASG), and to assess its impact on image quality in adult patients with a low body mass index (BMI).Methods A phantom with different thicknesses of acrylic was used with a Westmead Test Object to simulate patient sizes and assess image quality. 129 low BMI patients underwent coronary angiography or PCI with or without the ASG in situ. Radiation dose was compared between both patient groups.Results With the same imaging system ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 24, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Two-by-two cross-over study to evaluate agreement between versions of a quantitative coronary analysis system (QAngio XA)
AbstractThe current version (ver. 7.3) of the popular quantitative coronary analysis system QAngio XA (Medis Medical Imaging System BV, Leiden, the Netherlands) is widely used without evaluating the agreement between the current and older versions in relation to a change of algorithms. The purpose of this study was to assess the equivalence of averages between QAngio XA versions 7.3 and 6.0. Based on the calculated sample size, angiographic images of 100 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention of a single target lesion were randomly selected from two published studies (OUCH-TL: 154 lesions; OUCH-PRO: 160 ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 21, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A comprehensive analysis of cardiac valve plane displacement in healthy adults: age-stratified normal values by cardiac magnetic resonance
AbstractCardiac valve plane displacement (CVPD) reflects longitudinal LV function. The purpose of the present study was to determine regional heterogeneity of CVPD in healthy adults to provide normal values by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). We measured the anterior aortic plane systolic excursion (AAPSE); the anterior, anterolateral, inferolateral, inferior, and inferoseptal mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE); and the lateral tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). Systolic excursion was measured as the distance from peak end-diastolic to peak end-sysstolic annular position (peak-to-peak) in cin...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 21, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

An undifferentiated pulmonary carcinoma growing into the left atrium causing cardiac embolism
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 21, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Influence of dose reduction and iterative reconstruction on CT calcium scores: a multi-manufacturer dynamic phantom study
AbstractTo evaluate the influence of dose reduction in combination with iterative reconstruction (IR) on coronary calcium scores (CCS) in a dynamic phantom on state-of-the-art CT systems from different manufacturers. Calcified inserts in an anthropomorphic chest phantom were translated at 20  mm/s corresponding to heart rates between 60 and 75 bpm. The inserts were scanned five times with routinely used CCS protocols at reference dose and 40 and 80% dose reduction on four high-end CT systems. Filtered back projection (FBP) and increasing levels of IR were applied. Noise levels were de termined. CCS, quantified as...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 19, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prediction of left ventricular contractile recovery using tissue Doppler strain and strain rate measurements at rest in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention
Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the ability of tissue Doppler (TD) deformation analysis at rest to predict left ventricular contractile recovery in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This prospective cohort enrolled 67 patients with segmental wall motion abnormality. Assessment of each segment was performed at rest and during low dose Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) using a 4 point scoring system, TD peak systolic strain (PSS) and peak systolic strain rate (PSSR). The study followed up the patients for contractile improvement after 6  months of successful PCI by echocard...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 13, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of revascularization of coronary chronic total occlusion on left ventricular function and electrical stability: analysis by speckle tracking echocardiography and signal-averaged electrocardiogram
AbstractThe present study aimed to assess the mechanisms of effects of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) from two different aspects: left ventricular (LV) systolic function assessed by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) and electrical stability evaluated by late potential on signal-averaged electrocardiogram (SAECG). We conducted a prospective observational study with consecutive CTO-PCI patients. 2D-STE and SAECG were performed before PCI, and after 1-day and 3-months of procedure. 2D-STE computed global longitudinal strain (GLS) and regional longitudinal st...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 13, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

High wall shear stress and high-risk plaque: an emerging concept
AbstractIn recent years, there has been a significant effort to identify high-risk plaquesin vivo prior to acute events. While number of imaging modalities have been developed to identify morphologic characteristics of high-risk plaques, prospective natural-history observational studies suggest that vulnerability is not solely dependent on plaque morphology and likely involves additional contributing mechanisms. High wall shear stress (WSS) has recently been proposed as one possible causative factor, promoting the development of high-risk plaques. High WSS has been shown to induce specific changes in endothelial cell behav...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 10, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiac CT Angiography (CCTA) predicts left atrial appendage occluder device size and procedure outcome
ConclusionsCCTA LAA ostial perimeter predicted better the optimal occluder size as compared with the currently used LAA TEE diameter. Moreover, CCTA 3D data may help in predicting potential complications. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 9, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left ventricular filling pressure by septal and lateral E/e ′ equally predict cardiovascular events in the general population
Conclusions: Septal and lateral E/e ′ are equally useful in predicting cardiac events in the general population. Measuring both sites provides no further predictive value than measuring a single site. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 9, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus: not always a benign condition!
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Are biventricular systolic functions impaired in patient with coronoray slow flow? A prospective study with three dimensional speckle tracking
AbstractThe newly developed three dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) technology provides quick and comprehensive quantitative assessment of biventricular myocardial dynamics. The impact of coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) on biventricular functions has not been comprehensively evaluated using this new technology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CSFP on biventricular systolic functions using 3D-STE. Forty patients with CSFP and otherwise normal coronary arteries (NCAs) and 40 age- and sex-matched controls with normal coronary angiograms (CAGs) were prospectively enroll...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricular outflow tract after cardiac surgery
We present a case of false aneurysm caused by a chronic bacterial infection after mechanical aortic valve replacement in otherwise healthy and asymptomatic young man. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 4, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical utility of 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan vs. 99m Tc-HMPAO white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography in extra-cardiac work-up of infective endocarditis
The objectives of this study were to identify the numbers of positive findings detected by each imaging modality, to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings and to define the reproducibility for extra-cardiac foci in patients with definite IE. Each modality was evaluated for numbers and location of positive extra-cardiac foci in patients with definite IE. A team of 2  × 2 cardiologists evaluated each finding to determine clinical relevance. Clinical utility was determined by 4 criteria converted into an ordinal scale. Using the manifestation with highest clinical utility rating in each patient...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Visualizing polymeric bioresorbable scaffolds with three-dimensional image reconstruction using contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography
This study aimed to explore the feasibility of detecting polymeric BRS with 3-dimensional reconstruction of BRS images by contrast-enhanced mCT and to determine the optimal imaging settings. BRSs, made of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), were implanted in coronary bifurcation models. Five treatments were conducted to examine an optimal condition for imaging BRSs: Baseline treatment, samples were filled with normal saline and scanned with mCT immediately; Treatment-1, -2, -3 and -4, samples were filled with contrast medium and scanned with mCT immediately and 1, 2 and 3  h thereafter, corresponding to soaking time of contras...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 30, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantified coronary frequency domain optical coherence tomography signal analysis for the evaluation of erythrocyte-rich thrombus: ex-vivo validation study
AbstractPrevious study has demonstrated that erythrocyte-rich thrombi contain more inflammatory cells and reflect high thrombus burden, leading to impaired myocardial reperfusion in myocardial infarction. The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of quantified frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) signal analysis in evaluating the erythrocyte-rich thrombus with ex-vivo materials. We evaluated 54 specimens of coronary artery thrombus obtained by thrombectomy catheter from 8 patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The thrombi were immersed in saline immediately after thro...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left atrial mechanics strongly predict functional capacity assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing in subjects without structural heart disease
AbstractLeft atrium function is essential for cardiovascular performance and is evaluable by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE). Our aim was to determine how echocardiographic parameters interrelate with exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency in subjects with no structural heart disease. Asymptomatic volunteers, in sinus rhythm and with normal biventricular size and function, were recruited from a community-based population. Individuals with moderate-to-severe valvular disease, pulmonary hypertension, and history of cardiac disease were excluded. We performed a transthoracic echocardiogram and...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left ventricular reverse remodeling in dilated cardiomyopathy- maintained subclinical myocardial systolic and diastolic dysfunction
AbstractIn idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), myocardial deformational parameters and their relationships remain incompletely characterized. We measured those parameters in patients with DCM, during left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR). Prospective study of 50 DCM patients (in sinus rhythm), with left ventricular ejection fraction (EF)II/IV. LVRR occurred in 34% of patients within 17.6  ± 15.6 months and was associated with a reduced rate of death or heart failure hospitalization (5.9% vs. 33.3; p = 0.03). Patients with LVRR had a final EF of 48.9 ± 7.9% (...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comparative assessment of “plaque/media” change on three modalities of IVUS immediately after implantation of either everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold or everolimus-eluting metallic stent in Absorb II study
AbstractThe purpose of the study to assess the comparability of immediate changes in plaque/media volume (PV) on three modalities of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) after implantation of either bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) or everolimus-eluting metallic stent (EES) in Absorb II Study. The two devices have different device volume and ultrasound backscattering that may interfere with the “plaque/media” assessed by three modalities on IVUS: grayscale, backscattering of radiofrequency and brightness function. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial, 501 patients with stable or unstable angina underwen...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of the left atrial appendage structure and morphology: comparison of real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography
In this study, the left atrial appendage (LAA) structure and morphology were assessed using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT3D-TEE) and enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT) scanning, and the two measurements obtained using these different techniques were compared. Two hundred nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients who were prepared to undergo radiofrequency ablation were enrolled, and 62 controls were enrolled prospectively. RT3D-TEE and CT were performed, and the following parameters were measured: LAA orifice diameter, area, depth, maximum volume, and emptying velocity. The d...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of surgical pulmonary valve replacement on ventricular mechanics in children with repaired tetralogy of Fallot
The objective was to assess the impact of surgical PVR on ventricular mechanics in pediatric patients after rTOF. Speckle-tracking analysis was performed in 50 rTOF children, aged 12.6  ± 3.3 years, pre-operatively and 14.5 ± 2.2 months post-PVR. Early post-operative studies 2.2 ± 0.6 months post-PVR were performed in 28 patients. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) pre- and post-PVR was collected. Mid-term post-PVR right ventricular (RV) longitudinal strain increas ed above pre-operative strain (−19.2 ± 2.7 to −22.0...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Exuberant mitral annular calcification
AbstractMitral annular calcification (MAC) is a chronic, progressive process characterized by calcium deposition on the mitral valve annulus. There is no current grading system to relay the severity of MAC. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the extreme end of the severity spectrum in order to describe “exuberant mitral annular calcification”, and a retrospective chart review of all patients with exuberant mitral annulus calcification evaluated at Mayo Clinic Rochester between January 1996 and December 2014 was performed. This is the first study to define criteria of “exuberant mitral an...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Sealing of calcified plaques after bioresorbable scaffold implantations: a five-year follow up
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Stress perfusion magnetic resonance imaging to detect coronary artery lesions in children
ConclusionStress-perfusion CMR, in combination with LGE and wall motion-analysis is a feasible and an accurate method of diagnosing CAD in children. In difficult cases, it also helps guide clinical intervention by complementing conventional CAG with functional information. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 20, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pre-procedural renal resistive index accurately predicts contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients with preserved renal function submitted to coronary angiography
AbstractThe study aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of ultrasonographic intra-renal blood flow parameters, together with the wide range of different risk factors, for the prediction of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with preserved renal function, referred for coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary interventions (CA/PCI). This prospective study covered 95 consecutive patients (69.5% men; median age 65 years) subject to elective or urgent CA/PCI. Data regarding 128 peri-procedural variables were collected. Ultrasonographic intra-renal blood flow parameters, including renal resistive ind...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 19, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Lipid-lowering therapy stabilizes the complexity of non-culprit plaques in human coronary artery: a quantitative assessment using OCT bright spot algorithm
AbstractTo quantitatively evaluate the change of plaque complexity with cholesterol lowering therapy. A total of 44 non-culprit plaques from 30 patients who had serial image acquisition at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months by both optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) were included. Patients were treated with atorvastatin 60  mg (AT60, n = 16) or 20 mg (AT20, n = 14). We applied an OCT bright spot algorithm, which identifies a variety of plaque components including macrophages. The density of bright spot was measured within the superficial 250 &mic...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Longitudinal function and ventricular dyssynchrony are restored in children with pulmonary stenosis after percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty
AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty on longitudinal ventricular dysfunction and cardiac dyssynchrony in children with congenital moderately severe pulmonary stenosis (PS). Forty-eight children with congenital moderately severe valvular pulmonary stenosis and 36 age-matched normal children were included. Successful percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty was performed for children with PS. Longitudinal Cardiac function and myocardial synchrony was assessed by echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Mitral annular plane excursion (MAPSE), tricuspid annu...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 10, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance evaluation of cardiac thrombi and masses by T1 and T2 mapping: an observational study
AbstractThe purpose of this work was to evaluate CMR T1 and T2 mapping sequences in patients with intracardiac thrombi and masses in order to assess T1 and T2 relaxometry usefulness and to allow better etiological diagnosis. This observational study of patients scheduled for routine CMR was performed from September 2014 to August 2015. All patients referred to our department for a 1.5  T CMR were screened to participate. T1 mapping were acquired before and after Gadolinium injection; T2 mapping images were obtained before injection. 41 patients were included. 22 presented with cardiac thrombi and 19 with cardiac masse...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research