The association between physical activity and cardiac performance is dependent on age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that regular physical activity is associated with improved cardiac function measured by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in the general population. Within a large prospective community-based population study, cardiac function was assessed in 2221 persons by TDI. Longitudinal displacement (LD), early diastolic velocity (e ’), and myocardial performance index (MPI) was obtained by TDI. Linear univariable and multivariable regression analyses were performed in relation to age groups ( 65  years) and self-reported level of physical activity: I (inactivity), II (light activity), II...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Myocardial adaptation after surgical therapy differs for aortic valve stenosis and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
AbstractSurgical therapies in aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) aim to relief intraventricular pressure overload and improve clinical outcome. It is currently unknown to what extent myocardial adaptation concurs with restoration of intraventricular pressures, and whether this is similar in both patient groups. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in myocardial adaptation after surgical therapies for AVS and HOCM. Ten AVS and ten HOCM patients were enrolled and underwent cardiac magnetic resonance cine imaging and myocardial tagging prior to, and 4  months after ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Editor ’s note February 2019
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - March 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

VASIM: an automated tool for the quantification of carotid atherosclerosis by computed tomography angiography
AbstractThe diagnostic imaging techniques currently used to evaluate the arterial atherosclerosis hinge on the manual marking and calculation of the stenosis degree. However, the manual assessment is highly dependent on the operator and characterized by low replicability. The study aimed to develop a fully-automated tool for the segmentation and analysis of atherosclerosis in the extracranial carotid arteries. The dataset consisted of 59 randomly-chosen individuals who had undergone head-and-neck computed tomography angiography (CTA), at the Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. The analysis algorithm was mainly b...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Predictive value of exercise stress echocardiography in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic regurgitation and preserved left ventricular systolic function without LV dilatation
AbstractThe management of asymptomatic patients with severe aortic regurgitation (AR) and preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function remains controversial. We evaluated the predictive value of exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) in asymptomatic severe AR with preserved LV systolic function for identifying high risk patients who might benefit from early referral for surgery. Symptom-limited treadmill ESE was performed in 67 asymptomatic patients with severe AR (effective regurgitant orifice area>  30 mm2, regurgitant volume>  60 ml) and preserved LV systolic function without LV dilata...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic hemodialysis patients in the light of the current echocardiographic guidelines
AbstractThe prevalence of the left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is very high in end-stage renal disease treated by hemodialysis. Diastolic dysfunction is a frequent consequence and leads to the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. New American/European echocardiographic guidelines for the assessment of diastolic function simplified the evaluation and were published recently. The aim of this study was to reveal if the new guidelines stratify asymptomatic hemodialysis patients by the levels of brain-natriuretic peptide (BNP). A cohort of 46 patients hemodialyzed in one center with the lack of overt...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 27, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Interactive role of diastolic dysfunction and ventricular remodeling in asymptomatic subjects at increased risk of heart failure
AbstractDiastolic dysfunction (DD) and left ventricular remodeling (LVR) characterize patients at risk for heart failure (HF). To assess the prognostic impact of different diastolic function algorithms and a complex LVR classification (CRC) in asymptomatic subjects with preserved ejection fraction (EF) at risk for HF. We analyzed 1923 asymptomatic patients (male 43%; age 57, 33 –76 years) with at least one cardiovascular risk factor and preserved (>  50%) EF. We used three algorithms for LV diastolic function assessment (Paulus et al. in Eur Heart J 28(20):2539–2550, 2007; Nagueh et al. in J Am S...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 27, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of coronary flow velocity reserve with phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging in patients with heavy coronary calcification
AbstractCoronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) can be noninvasively measured by phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). Heavy coronary calcification degrades the diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary arterial stenosis on computed tomography (CT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of CFVR measurement with PC-MRI for detecting significant coronary stenoses in patients with heavy coronary calcification. Sixteen patients (71  ± 8 years) with coronary calcium score above 400 who had suspected moderate coronary stenosis (50–69% diameter stenosis) on CT ang...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 25, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Giant pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

In vivo comparison of key quantitative parameters measured with 3D peripheral angiography, 2D peripheral quantitative angiography and intravascular ultrasound
AbstractThe aim of this study was to compare the measures of luminal stenosis between the two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) Quantitative Vessel Analysis (QVA) generated by CAAS QVA software and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Invasive contrast angiography is considered gold standard for diagnostic imaging and intervention in both coronary and peripheral arterial disease. However, it is based on 2D images depicting complicated 3D arterial anatomy. To overcome these limitations, 3D QVA has been developed to bridge the gap between 2D QVA and endovascular imaging. Thirty porcine femoral angiograms (common, profu...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 22, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left atrial fibrosis correlates with extent of left ventricular myocardial delayed enhancement and left ventricular strain in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
AbstractHypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with increased left ventricular (LV) mass, decreased myocardial strain, and the presence of LV fibrosis and scar. The relationship between LV scar and fibrosis with left atrial (LA) fibrosis in the setting of HCM has not been examined. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a correlation between the degree of LA fibrosis and LV parameters in subjects with HCM. Twenty-eight subjects with HCM were imaged on a 1.5T MRI scanner with cine, LV and LA late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) sequences. LA LGE and LA measurements were correlated with LV measurements of volumes,...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 21, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Combined T1-mapping and tissue tracking analysis predicts severity of ischemic injury following acute STEMI —an Oxford Acute Myocardial Infarction (OxAMI) study
AbstractEarly risk stratification after ST-segment –elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is of major clinical importance. Strain quantifies myocardial deformation and can demonstrate abnormal global and segmental myocardial function in acute ischaemia. Native T1-mapping allows assessment of the severity of acute ischemic injury, however its cli nical applicability early post MI is limited by the complex dynamic changes happening in the myocardium post MI. We aimed to explore relationship between T1-mapping and feature tracking imaging, to establish whether combined analysis of these parameters could predict recove...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of smoking on cardiac magnetic resonance infarct characteristics and clinical outcome in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction
AbstractData derived from several studies suggest a better survival in smokers with acute myocardial infarction, a phenomenon referred to as the ‘smoker’s paradox’. We aimed to investigate the association of smoking with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging determined infarct severity and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as the occurrence of death, reinfarction, and congestive heart failure at 12 months in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) reperfused by early percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this multicenter, registry study 311 NSTEMI patients underwe...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Refractory radiation-induced coronary artery disease: mapping the path and guiding treatment with optical coherence tomography
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 13, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Incremental value of extracellular volume assessment by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in risk stratifying patients with suspected myocarditis
AbstractCardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has become a key investigative tool in patients with suspected myocarditis. However, the prognostic implications of T1 mapping, including extracellular volume (ECV) calculation, is less clear. Patients with suspected myocarditis who underwent CMR evaluation, including T1 mapping at our institution were included. CMR findings including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), native T1 mapping, and ECV calculation were associated with first major adverse cardiac events (MACE). MACE included a composite of all-cause death, heart fail...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 12, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Intravascular ultrasound guidance reduces cardiac death and coronary revascularization in patients undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation: results from a meta-analysis of 9 randomized trials and 4724 patients
AbstractIntravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance is not routinely performed in real-word clinical practice partly because the benefit of IVUS guidance is not well established. This updated meta-analysis aims to compare IVUS-guided and angiography-guided drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation, simultaneously stressing the value of an optimal IVUS-defined procedure. Medline, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry were searched for the randomized trials comparing IVUS-guided and angiography-guided DES implantation. Nine eligible randomized trials including 4,724 patients were identified. At a mean foll...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 12, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Value of 18 F-FDG PET/CT in differentiating malignancy of pulmonary artery from pulmonary thromboembolism: a cohort study and literature review
AbstractTo determine the value of18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in differentiating malignancy of pulmonary artery (PA) from pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) based on a larger number of cases by pooling our cases and those from the literature. Consecutive patients with a PA lesion who had undergone18F-FDG PET/CT in our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Moreover, PubMed, Embase, and Medline were searched for literature reporting individual maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) of the malignant PA lesion and/or PTE.18F-FDG activity was compared between PA malig...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 12, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Bileaflet mechanical aortic valves do not alter ascending aortic wall shear stress
We examined the effect of mAVR on WSS in the ascending aorta using time-resolved 4D flow MRI. Fifteen patients with mechanical aortic valve prostheses, 10 patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease and 10 healthy individuals underwent thoracic 4D flow MRI. Peak systolic hemodynamic parameters (velocity and WSS) and vessel diameters were assessed in the ascending aorta. In addition, three-dimensional per-voxel analysis was used to compare velocity and WSS between patient groups and healthy controls. Peak aortic diameters were significantly higher in mAVR and BAV patients compared to healthy controls (p  = 0.0...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Association between age and progression of carotid artery atherosclerosis: a serial high resolution magnetic resonance imaging study
This study aimed to investigate the association between age and progression of carotid atherosclerotic plaques using serial high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Symptomatic patients who had carotid atherosclerosis with 30 –70% stenosis were enrolled in this study. Carotid MRI was performed at baseline and follow-up time point (≥ 6 months after baseline), respectively. The characteristics of carotid plaque progression among different age groups (>  75 years old, 60–75 years old and  75 years old: 91.3%, 60–75 years old: 65.7% and  75&n...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Computed tomography-measured pulmonary artery to aorta ratio and EUTOS score for detecting dasatinib-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension
This study aimed to identify the predisposing factors of DASA-PAH to stratify high-risk patients for dasatinib-induced PAH (DASA-PAH).MethodsSixty consecutive adult patients who received dasatinib were enrolled in this case-control study. We defined DASA-PAH when at least one of the following four criteria was met: (1) recent electrocardiographic changes indicating right ventricular pressure overload, (2) estimated systolic pulmonary arterial pressure  >  40 mmHg measured by Doppler echocardiography; (3) computed tomography (CT)-measured pulmonary artery to aorta diameter (PaD/AoD) ratio > &...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of age and cardiac disease on regional left and right ventricular myocardial motion in healthy controls and patients with repaired tetralogy of fallot
AbstractThe assessment of both left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) motion is important to understand the impact of heart disease on cardiac function. The MRI technique of tissue phase mapping (TPM) allows for the quantification of regional biventricular three-directional myocardial velocities. The goal of this study was to establish normal LV and RV velocity parameters across a wide range of pediatric to adult ages and to investigate the feasibility of TPM for detecting impaired regional biventricular function in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Thirty-six healthy controls (age  = 1–75...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of artery calcification in atherosclerosis with dynamic 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging in elderly subjects
AbstractGlucose metabolism in atherosclerotic arteries has been shown to be an indicator of inflammation, which might be a precursor of plaque rupture. In this prospective study, we assessed the correlation between artery calcification and glucose metabolism by means of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging in elderly subjects. Nineteen elderly subjects, with age ranging from 65 to 85 years, underwent CT and dynamic 18F-FDG-PET imaging. The artery calcification was determined with a threshold of 130 Hounsfield units. Intensity of calcification and ratio of calcification area to total artery area were classified in four sequential classes...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - February 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prognostic value of left atrial function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
AbstractLeft atrium (LA) size has an important role in determining prognosis and risk stratification in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT) is a novel technique for the quantification of LA function. Our aim was first to evaluate LA function by CMR-FT and volumetric analysis in patients with HCM; and secondly we sought to determine the association of LA-longitudinal strain (LA-LS) with major cardiovascular outcomes, particularly all cause mortality and heart failure. 75 patients with HCM and 75 control subjects underwent a conventional CMR study includin...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 31, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Adjustment of vascular 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro- d -glucose uptake values over time through a modeling approach
AbstractTo develop and test a model predicting 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose ([18F]FDG) standardized uptake value (SUV) changes over time in the aorta and the superior vena cava (SVC). Maximum aortic SUV and mean SVC SUV were determined at two time points (T1 and T2) in the ascending (ASC), descending  (DSC), abdominal (ABD) aorta, aortic arch (ARC) and SVC of patients who have undergone [18F]FDG PET/CT for clinical purposes. For SUV prediction at T2, linear and non-linear models of SUV difference for a given time change were developed in a derivation group. The results were tested in an independent validation group...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 31, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of aortic valve tract dynamics using automatic tracking of 3D transesophageal echocardiographic images
AbstractThe assessment of aortic valve (AV) morphology is paramount for planning transcatheter AV implantation (TAVI). Nowadays, pre-TAVI sizing is routinely performed at one cardiac phase only, usually at mid-systole. Nonetheless, the AV is a dynamic structure that undergoes changes in size and shape throughout the cardiac cycle, which may be relevant for prosthesis selection. Thus, the aim of this study was to present and evaluate a novel software tool enabling the automatic sizing of the AV dynamically in three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) images. Forty-two patients who underwent preoperative ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Normal values of the pulmonary artery acceleration time (PAAT) and the right ventricular ejection time (RVET) in children and adolescents and the impact of the PAAT/RVET-index in the assessment of pulmonary hypertension
AbstractNew echocardiographic modalities including pulmonary artery acceleration time (PAAT) and right ventricular ejection time (RVET) are evolving to facilitate an early non-invasive diagnosis for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in adults. In children, PAAT depends on age, body surface area (BSA) and heart rate (HR) and is used to predict PH. Normal values of RVET and their role to predict PH in children are still missing. PAAT/RVET-index correlates negatively with PH. We hypothesized that this index is a good predictor for PH in children and adolescents independent of age, BSA and HR and RVET is significantly reduced in PH....
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Validation of a novel stand-alone software tool for image guided cardiac catheter therapy
AbstractComparison of the targeting accuracy of a new software method for MRI-fluoroscopy guided endomyocardial interventions with a clinically available 3D endocardial electromechanical mapping system. The new CARTBox2 software enables therapy target selection based on infarction transmurality and local myocardial wall thickness deduced from preoperative MRI scans. The selected targets are stored in standard DICOM datasets. Fusion of these datasets with live fluoroscopy enables real-time visualization of MRI defined targets during fluoroscopy guided interventions without the need for external hardware. In ten pigs (60 &nd...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Image quality and radiation dose of ECG-triggered High-Pitch Dual-Source cardiac computed tomography angiography in children for the evaluation of central vascular stents
AbstractAssess image quality and radiation dose of ECG-triggered High-Pitch Dual-Source CTA for the evaluation central vascular stents in children. We included all children  ≤ 21 years old with one or more central vascular stents and available prospective ECG-triggered High-Pitch Dual-Source CTA performed at our institution between January 2015 and August 2017. Demographic and scanner information was retrieved. Two board-certified pediatric radiologists blinded to the clinical data, independently reviewed and scored each case using a four-point quality score. Scores 1, 2 and 3 were considered of diagn...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 25, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Anthracycline induced inconsistent left ventricular segmental systolic function variation in patients with lymphoma detected by three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging
This study evaluated the deterioration of left ventricular segmental systolic function in patients with lymphoma received anthracycline chemotherapy detected by echocardiographic three dimensional speckle tracking imaging (3D-STI). Sixty patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who received R-CHOP chemotherapy were enrolled. Three dimensional left ventricular global longitudinal strain (3D-GLS), three dimensional left ventricular global circumferential strain (3D-GCS) and three dimensional left ventricular longitudinal strain of different left ventricular segments (3D-LS) were measured by 3D-STI at basel...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 25, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Right ventricular basal inflow and outflow tract diameters overestimate right ventricular size in subjects with sigmoid-shaped interventricular septum: a study using three-dimensional echocardiography
AbstractSigmoid-shaped ventricular septum (SS), a frequently encountered minor abnormality in echocardiographic examinations of the elderly, may have some influence on RV shape. We aimed to determine the influence of SS on the accuracy of the 6 RV linear diameter measurements in the light of three-dimensional echocardiographic (3DE) RV volume. The aorto-septal angle (ASA) was measured in the parasternal long-axis view using two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) as an index of SS in 70 patients without major cardiac abnormalities who were subdivided into 35 with SS (ASA  ≤ 120°) and 35 without SS (NSS)...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 25, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The prognostic value of ultra low-dose thallium myocardial perfusion protocol using CZT SPECT
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic value of ultra-low dose thallium myocardial perfusion imaging. Three hundred and sixty-six patients (245 men) underwent ultra-low dose stress-redistribution imaging on CZT SPECT camera GE Discovery NM 530c. The stress test was performed by bicycle ergometry or regadenoson injection. The activity of 0.5  MBq (0.014 mCi) Tl-201 chloride per kilogram of body weight was administered. The stress images were acquired immediately and redistribution images were taken after 3 h. Patient follow-up was focused on combined end-point (death, myocardial infarc...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 24, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular filling pressures in patients with pulmonary hypertension
AbstractEchocardiographic assessment of diastolic dysfunction depends on surrogate parameters. In recent years, guideline committees attempted to combine these parameters to diagnostic flowcharts allowing for correct classification of left ventricular filling pressures (LVFP). The value of these diagnostic tools is limited if the applied surrogate parameters are elevated due to other reasons as is the case with maximal tricuspid regurgitation velocity. We aimed to compare the accuracy of the 2009 and the 2016 guideline recommendations in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). We included 101 consecutive patients who un...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 21, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prosthesis-patient mismatch after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: prevalence and medium term prognostic impact
AbstractProsthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) occurs when the effective orifice area of the prosthesis is too small in relation to the patient's body surface area. There are few data available on the frequency and prognostic impact of PPM after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Our aim was to determine the prevalence of PPM and to investigate its association with medium-term clinical course of patients undergoing TAVI. We included 185 patients undergoing TAVI (79 ± 5 years, 49% male, 98% CoreValve) between April-2008 and December-2014. The effective orifice area (EOA) was determined by transthoracic echoca...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Value of early rest myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT in patients with chest pain and non-diagnostic ECG in emergency department
AbstractEvaluation of atypical presentation of angina chest pain in emergency department is difficult. Hospitalization of this patient may impose additional costs and waste the time, early discharge may lead to miss the patients. The aim of this study was to determine volubility of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in management of patients admitted to emergency department with atypical manifestations of angina pain, un-diagnostic Electrocardiogram (ECG) and negative enzyme. Half of 100 patients admitted to emergency department with atypical chest pain and un-diagnostic ECG who were candidate for admission...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Image quality and radiation dose of two prospective ECG-triggered protocols using 128-slice dual-source CT angiography in infants with congenital heart disease
This study aims to investigate the image quality and radiation dose of prospective ECG-triggered 128-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) angiography in the delineation of coronary arteries in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). Sixty-three infants with CHD were randomly assigned into two groups: prospective ECG-triggered sequential protocol (group 1) and high-pitch spiral protocol (group 2). Patients were selected to the protocols randomly. A five-point scoring system was applied to study the capability of detecting coronary arteries. A score of
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 17, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Decreased biventricular mechanics and functional reserve in nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients: implications for exercise capacity
AbstractThe present study investigated the changes of biventricular mechanics at rest and during exercise and examined the association between exercise capacity and biventricular mechanics and functional reserve in nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (NHCM) patients. A total of 50 NHCM patients and 25 controls were consecutively recruited for this study. Using echocardiography and two-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging, an experienced echocardiographer determined the following indices: RV free wall longitudinal strain (RVFWLS), LV global longitudinal strain (LVGLS), strain rate (SR), and functional reserve of stra...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 17, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Coronary artery calcium scoring with photon-counting CT: first in vivo human experience
AbstractTo evaluate the performance of photon-counting detector (PCD) computed tomography (CT) for coronary artery calcium (CAC) score imaging at standard and reduced radiation doses compared to conventional energy-integrating detector (EID) CT. A dedicated cardiac CT phantom, ten ex vivo human hearts, and ten asymptomatic volunteers underwent matched EID and PCD CT scans at different dose settings without ECG gating. CAC score, contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated in the cardiac CT phantom. CAC score accuracy and reproducibility was assessed in the ex vivo hearts. Standard radiation dose (120  ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left ventricular assessment in patients with systemic light chain amyloidosis: a 3-dimensional speckle tracking transthoracic echocardiographic study
AbstractCardiac involvement in systemic light chain (AL) amyloidosis carries a poor prognosis mainly through involvement of the left ventricular (LV) myocardium. Despite its limitations, two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE) remains the main tool used for the assessment of LV systolic function in AL patients. We hypothesize that 3D-TTE coupled with speckle tracking imaging allows earlier detection of LV systolic dysfunction than 2D-TTE in AL amyloidosis. We prospectively studied 71 subjects including 58 patients with confirmed AL amyloidosis (mean age 66  ± 10 years, 60% male) an...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Z-score reference ranges for pulsed-wave Doppler indices of the cardiac outflow tracts in normal fetuses
AbstractTo determine Z-score equations and reference ranges for Doppler flow velocity indices of cardiac outflow tracts in normal fetuses. A prospective cross-sectional echocardiographic study was performed in 506 normal singleton fetuses from 18 to 40  weeks. Twelve pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD) measurements were derived from fetal echocardiography. The regression analysis of the mean and the standard deviation (SD) for each parameter were performed against estimated fetal weight (EFW) and gestational age (GA), in order to construct Z-score models. The correlation between these variables and fetal heart rate were also in...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Association between beta-adrenoceptor antagonist-induced sympathicolysis and severity of coronary artery disease as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)
AbstractEnhanced sympathetic nervous system activity is associated with increased mortality in many cardiac conditions including heart failure and coronary artery disease (CAD). To ensure adequate image quality of coronary CT angiography (CCTA), pre-scan β-adrenergic blockers (BB) are routinely administered. It is currently unknown whether sensitivity to sympathicolytic compounds is associated with severity of CAD. A total of 2633 consecutive patients (1733 [65.8%] men and 900 [34.2%] women, mean age 56.7 ± 11.5 years) undergoing CCTA for exc lusion of significant CAD at our department betwee...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Speckle tracking echocardiography in healthy children: comparison between the QLAB by Philips and the EchoPAC by General Electric
AbstractSpeckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has become a useful tool in cardiology but remains scarcely developed in pediatrics. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of STE analyses in healthy children and compare reliability of STE for left and right ventricles (LV, RV) between the EchoPAC (GE Healthcare) and the QLAB (Philips Healthcare) software systems. Healthy children were screened for this prospective cross-sectional study. Analyses were performed upon five levels of variability: intra/inter-ultrasound system, intra/inter-sonographer and intra/inter-analyzer. The feasibility was measured, and the tracking qualit...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Echocardiography for prediction of 6-month and late response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: implementation of stress echocardiography and comparative assessment along with widely used dyssynchrony indices
AbstractNon-response cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remains an issue, despite the refinement of selection criteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of stress echocardiography along with dyssynchrony parameters for identification of CRT responders or late responders. 106 symptomatic heart failure patients were examined before, 6  months and 2–4 years after CRT implementation. Inotropic contractile reserve (ICR) and inferolateral (IL) wall viability were studied by stress echocardiography. Dyssynchrony was assessed by: (1) Septal to posterior wall motion delay (SPWMD) by m-mode....
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prevalence, determinants, and prognostic significance of exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
In conclusion, EIPH was documented in about one-third of HCM patients. EIPH was a significant predictor of HCM-related morbidity in patients with HCM. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Myocardial segmental thickness variability on echocardiography is a highly sensitive and specific marker to distinguish ischemic and non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy in new onset heart failure
AbstractThe aim of this study was to determine non-invasive diagnostic markers by echocardiography that differentiate ischemic dilated (ICM) from non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NICM) in patients with new onset heart failure. We identified 100 consecutive new heart failure patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (valvular etiology excluded). Clinical risk factors, medication history, serum biomarkers, ECG and echocardiographic variables were compared between the ICM and NICM groups (as confirmed by coronary angiography). Mean age, left ventricular size and ejection fraction were 56 years, 6.1  cm and 26% respectivel...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comparison of the different imaging time points in delayed phase cardiac CT for myocardial scar assessment and extracellular volume fraction estimation in patients with old myocardial infarction
The objective of this study is to determine the optimal delay time for acquisition of delayed CT scans. Thirty-five patients with enhancement pattern typical of previous myocardial infarction on delayed CT and 17 control subjects comprised the study population. Delayed scans were acquired at 3, 5 and 7  min after contrast material injection. Image quality and estimated ECV were compared among the three time points. Delayed CT at 5 min showed the highest signal-to-noise ratio of 15.2 ± 1.0 [p 
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Association between late gadolinium enhancement and global longitudinal strain in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis
AbstractThe correlation between the extent of myocardial fibrosis and subclinical left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction in rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) has not been widely studied. We sought to evaluate the correlation between the extent of LV myocardial fibrosis quantified by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and global longitudinal strain (GLS) by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in patients with rheumatic MS. We prospectively evaluated 36 consecutive rheumatic MS patients who were planning to undergo mitral valve surgery. Then we evaluate the correlation between the ext...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A novel software tool for semi-automatic quantification of thoracic aorta dilatation on baseline and follow-up computed tomography angiography
AbstractA dedicated software package that could semi-automatically assess differences in aortic maximal cross-sectional diameters from consecutive CT scans would most likely reduce the post-processing time and effort by the physicians. The aim of this study was to present and assess the quality of a new tool for the semi-automatic quantification of thoracic aorta dilation dimensions. Twenty-nine patients with two CTA scans of the thoracic aorta for which the official clinical report indicated an increase in aortic diameters were included in the study. Aortic maximal cross-sectional diameters of baseline and follow-up studi...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Atherosclerotic plaque burden evaluated from neck to groin: effect of gender and cardiovascular risk factors
AbstractWe explored the impact of gender and cardiovascular risk factors (RF) in the distribution and burden of coronary and extra-coronary atherosclerotic plaques among patients undergoing ECG-gated thoracoabdominal computed tomography angiography (CTA) from the supra-aortic trunks to the femoral arteries. We included a consecutive cohort of patients who underwent ECG-gated thoracoabdominal aortic CTA from the supra-aortic trunks to the pubic symphysis. We evaluated the number of coronary segments with plaques [segment-involvement score (SIS)]; and the extra-coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden, comprising the aorta and...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Automatic coronary blood flow computation: validation in quantitative flow ratio from coronary angiography
AbstractTo assess a novel approach for automatic flow velocity computation in deriving quantitative flow ratio (QFR) from coronary angiography. QFR is a novel approach for assessment of functional significance of coronary artery stenosis without using pressure wire and induced hyperemia. Patient-specific coronary flow is estimated semi-automatically by frame count method, which is subjective and inconvenient in the workflow of QFR analysis. The vascular structures were automatically delineated from coronary angiogram. Subsequently, the centerline of the interrogated vessel was extracted from the delineated lumen on each im...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 8, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging and Surgical Treatment of Primary Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma
AbstractPrimary pulmonary artery sarcoma is a rare tumor originating from the pulmonary artery tree. Given the low incidence, few centers have reported on more than a handful of cases. Because of its rarity it is also commonly misdiagnosed as pulmonary embolism. Multi-modality diagnostic imaging and recognition of specific imaging characteristics along with a high index of suspicion is required to make the correct diagnosis and expedite treatment. The primary imaging modality for most cardiac tumors such as primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is now MRI. It provides superb spatial resolution as well as functional assessment o...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 8, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research