Influence of dose reduction and iterative reconstruction on CT calcium scores: a multi-manufacturer dynamic phantom study
AbstractTo evaluate the influence of dose reduction in combination with iterative reconstruction (IR) on coronary calcium scores (CCS) in a dynamic phantom on state-of-the-art CT systems from different manufacturers. Calcified inserts in an anthropomorphic chest phantom were translated at 20  mm/s corresponding to heart rates between 60 and 75 bpm. The inserts were scanned five times with routinely used CCS protocols at reference dose and 40 and 80% dose reduction on four high-end CT systems. Filtered back projection (FBP) and increasing levels of IR were applied. Noise levels were de termined. CCS, quantified as...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 19, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prediction of left ventricular contractile recovery using tissue Doppler strain and strain rate measurements at rest in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention
Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the ability of tissue Doppler (TD) deformation analysis at rest to predict left ventricular contractile recovery in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This prospective cohort enrolled 67 patients with segmental wall motion abnormality. Assessment of each segment was performed at rest and during low dose Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) using a 4 point scoring system, TD peak systolic strain (PSS) and peak systolic strain rate (PSSR). The study followed up the patients for contractile improvement after 6  months of successful PCI by echocard...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 13, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of revascularization of coronary chronic total occlusion on left ventricular function and electrical stability: analysis by speckle tracking echocardiography and signal-averaged electrocardiogram
AbstractThe present study aimed to assess the mechanisms of effects of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) from two different aspects: left ventricular (LV) systolic function assessed by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) and electrical stability evaluated by late potential on signal-averaged electrocardiogram (SAECG). We conducted a prospective observational study with consecutive CTO-PCI patients. 2D-STE and SAECG were performed before PCI, and after 1-day and 3-months of procedure. 2D-STE computed global longitudinal strain (GLS) and regional longitudinal st...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 13, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

High wall shear stress and high-risk plaque: an emerging concept
AbstractIn recent years, there has been a significant effort to identify high-risk plaquesin vivo prior to acute events. While number of imaging modalities have been developed to identify morphologic characteristics of high-risk plaques, prospective natural-history observational studies suggest that vulnerability is not solely dependent on plaque morphology and likely involves additional contributing mechanisms. High wall shear stress (WSS) has recently been proposed as one possible causative factor, promoting the development of high-risk plaques. High WSS has been shown to induce specific changes in endothelial cell behav...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 10, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiac CT Angiography (CCTA) predicts left atrial appendage occluder device size and procedure outcome
ConclusionsCCTA LAA ostial perimeter predicted better the optimal occluder size as compared with the currently used LAA TEE diameter. Moreover, CCTA 3D data may help in predicting potential complications. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 9, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left ventricular filling pressure by septal and lateral E/e ′ equally predict cardiovascular events in the general population
Conclusions: Septal and lateral E/e ′ are equally useful in predicting cardiac events in the general population. Measuring both sites provides no further predictive value than measuring a single site. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 9, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus: not always a benign condition!
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Are biventricular systolic functions impaired in patient with coronoray slow flow? A prospective study with three dimensional speckle tracking
AbstractThe newly developed three dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) technology provides quick and comprehensive quantitative assessment of biventricular myocardial dynamics. The impact of coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) on biventricular functions has not been comprehensively evaluated using this new technology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CSFP on biventricular systolic functions using 3D-STE. Forty patients with CSFP and otherwise normal coronary arteries (NCAs) and 40 age- and sex-matched controls with normal coronary angiograms (CAGs) were prospectively enroll...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 6, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricular outflow tract after cardiac surgery
We present a case of false aneurysm caused by a chronic bacterial infection after mechanical aortic valve replacement in otherwise healthy and asymptomatic young man. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 4, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical utility of 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan vs. 99m Tc-HMPAO white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography in extra-cardiac work-up of infective endocarditis
The objectives of this study were to identify the numbers of positive findings detected by each imaging modality, to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings and to define the reproducibility for extra-cardiac foci in patients with definite IE. Each modality was evaluated for numbers and location of positive extra-cardiac foci in patients with definite IE. A team of 2  × 2 cardiologists evaluated each finding to determine clinical relevance. Clinical utility was determined by 4 criteria converted into an ordinal scale. Using the manifestation with highest clinical utility rating in each patient...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - January 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Visualizing polymeric bioresorbable scaffolds with three-dimensional image reconstruction using contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography
This study aimed to explore the feasibility of detecting polymeric BRS with 3-dimensional reconstruction of BRS images by contrast-enhanced mCT and to determine the optimal imaging settings. BRSs, made of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), were implanted in coronary bifurcation models. Five treatments were conducted to examine an optimal condition for imaging BRSs: Baseline treatment, samples were filled with normal saline and scanned with mCT immediately; Treatment-1, -2, -3 and -4, samples were filled with contrast medium and scanned with mCT immediately and 1, 2 and 3  h thereafter, corresponding to soaking time of contras...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 30, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantified coronary frequency domain optical coherence tomography signal analysis for the evaluation of erythrocyte-rich thrombus: ex-vivo validation study
AbstractPrevious study has demonstrated that erythrocyte-rich thrombi contain more inflammatory cells and reflect high thrombus burden, leading to impaired myocardial reperfusion in myocardial infarction. The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of quantified frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) signal analysis in evaluating the erythrocyte-rich thrombus with ex-vivo materials. We evaluated 54 specimens of coronary artery thrombus obtained by thrombectomy catheter from 8 patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The thrombi were immersed in saline immediately after thro...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left atrial mechanics strongly predict functional capacity assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing in subjects without structural heart disease
AbstractLeft atrium function is essential for cardiovascular performance and is evaluable by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE). Our aim was to determine how echocardiographic parameters interrelate with exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency in subjects with no structural heart disease. Asymptomatic volunteers, in sinus rhythm and with normal biventricular size and function, were recruited from a community-based population. Individuals with moderate-to-severe valvular disease, pulmonary hypertension, and history of cardiac disease were excluded. We performed a transthoracic echocardiogram and...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left ventricular reverse remodeling in dilated cardiomyopathy- maintained subclinical myocardial systolic and diastolic dysfunction
AbstractIn idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), myocardial deformational parameters and their relationships remain incompletely characterized. We measured those parameters in patients with DCM, during left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR). Prospective study of 50 DCM patients (in sinus rhythm), with left ventricular ejection fraction (EF)II/IV. LVRR occurred in 34% of patients within 17.6  ± 15.6 months and was associated with a reduced rate of death or heart failure hospitalization (5.9% vs. 33.3; p = 0.03). Patients with LVRR had a final EF of 48.9 ± 7.9% (...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comparative assessment of “plaque/media” change on three modalities of IVUS immediately after implantation of either everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold or everolimus-eluting metallic stent in Absorb II study
AbstractThe purpose of the study to assess the comparability of immediate changes in plaque/media volume (PV) on three modalities of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) after implantation of either bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) or everolimus-eluting metallic stent (EES) in Absorb II Study. The two devices have different device volume and ultrasound backscattering that may interfere with the “plaque/media” assessed by three modalities on IVUS: grayscale, backscattering of radiofrequency and brightness function. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial, 501 patients with stable or unstable angina underwen...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of the left atrial appendage structure and morphology: comparison of real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography
In this study, the left atrial appendage (LAA) structure and morphology were assessed using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT3D-TEE) and enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT) scanning, and the two measurements obtained using these different techniques were compared. Two hundred nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients who were prepared to undergo radiofrequency ablation were enrolled, and 62 controls were enrolled prospectively. RT3D-TEE and CT were performed, and the following parameters were measured: LAA orifice diameter, area, depth, maximum volume, and emptying velocity. The d...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of surgical pulmonary valve replacement on ventricular mechanics in children with repaired tetralogy of Fallot
The objective was to assess the impact of surgical PVR on ventricular mechanics in pediatric patients after rTOF. Speckle-tracking analysis was performed in 50 rTOF children, aged 12.6  ± 3.3 years, pre-operatively and 14.5 ± 2.2 months post-PVR. Early post-operative studies 2.2 ± 0.6 months post-PVR were performed in 28 patients. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) pre- and post-PVR was collected. Mid-term post-PVR right ventricular (RV) longitudinal strain increas ed above pre-operative strain (−19.2 ± 2.7 to −22.0...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Exuberant mitral annular calcification
AbstractMitral annular calcification (MAC) is a chronic, progressive process characterized by calcium deposition on the mitral valve annulus. There is no current grading system to relay the severity of MAC. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the extreme end of the severity spectrum in order to describe “exuberant mitral annular calcification”, and a retrospective chart review of all patients with exuberant mitral annulus calcification evaluated at Mayo Clinic Rochester between January 1996 and December 2014 was performed. This is the first study to define criteria of “exuberant mitral an...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Sealing of calcified plaques after bioresorbable scaffold implantations: a five-year follow up
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Stress perfusion magnetic resonance imaging to detect coronary artery lesions in children
ConclusionStress-perfusion CMR, in combination with LGE and wall motion-analysis is a feasible and an accurate method of diagnosing CAD in children. In difficult cases, it also helps guide clinical intervention by complementing conventional CAG with functional information. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 20, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pre-procedural renal resistive index accurately predicts contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients with preserved renal function submitted to coronary angiography
AbstractThe study aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of ultrasonographic intra-renal blood flow parameters, together with the wide range of different risk factors, for the prediction of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with preserved renal function, referred for coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary interventions (CA/PCI). This prospective study covered 95 consecutive patients (69.5% men; median age 65 years) subject to elective or urgent CA/PCI. Data regarding 128 peri-procedural variables were collected. Ultrasonographic intra-renal blood flow parameters, including renal resistive ind...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 19, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Lipid-lowering therapy stabilizes the complexity of non-culprit plaques in human coronary artery: a quantitative assessment using OCT bright spot algorithm
AbstractTo quantitatively evaluate the change of plaque complexity with cholesterol lowering therapy. A total of 44 non-culprit plaques from 30 patients who had serial image acquisition at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months by both optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) were included. Patients were treated with atorvastatin 60  mg (AT60, n = 16) or 20 mg (AT20, n = 14). We applied an OCT bright spot algorithm, which identifies a variety of plaque components including macrophages. The density of bright spot was measured within the superficial 250 &mic...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Longitudinal function and ventricular dyssynchrony are restored in children with pulmonary stenosis after percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty
AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty on longitudinal ventricular dysfunction and cardiac dyssynchrony in children with congenital moderately severe pulmonary stenosis (PS). Forty-eight children with congenital moderately severe valvular pulmonary stenosis and 36 age-matched normal children were included. Successful percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty was performed for children with PS. Longitudinal Cardiac function and myocardial synchrony was assessed by echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Mitral annular plane excursion (MAPSE), tricuspid annu...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 10, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance evaluation of cardiac thrombi and masses by T1 and T2 mapping: an observational study
AbstractThe purpose of this work was to evaluate CMR T1 and T2 mapping sequences in patients with intracardiac thrombi and masses in order to assess T1 and T2 relaxometry usefulness and to allow better etiological diagnosis. This observational study of patients scheduled for routine CMR was performed from September 2014 to August 2015. All patients referred to our department for a 1.5  T CMR were screened to participate. T1 mapping were acquired before and after Gadolinium injection; T2 mapping images were obtained before injection. 41 patients were included. 22 presented with cardiac thrombi and 19 with cardiac masse...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - December 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography for bioresorbable scaffold luminal investigation: a comparison with optical coherence tomography
AbstractTo establish the accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) for in-scaffold quantitative evaluation with optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a reference. The translucent backbone of the bioresorbable scaffold allow us to evaluate non-invasively the coronary lumen with coronary CTA. In the ABSORB first-in-man studies, coronary CTA was shown to be feasible for quantitative luminal assessment. Nevertheless, a comparison with an intravascular modality with higher resolution has never been performed. In the ABSORB Cohort B trial, 101 patient with non-complex lesions were treated with the fully biodegra...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 28, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Unravelling cardiovascular disease using four dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance
AbstractKnowledge of normal and abnormal flow patterns in the human cardiovascular system increases our understanding of normal physiology and may help unravel the complex pathophysiological mechanisms leading to cardiovascular disease. Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as a suitable technique that enables visualization of in vivo blood flow patterns and quantification of parameters that could potentially be of prognostic value in the disease process. In this review, current image processing tools that are used for comprehensive visualization and quantification of blood flow and...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comparison of arterial stiffness/compliance in the ascending aorta and common carotid artery in healthy subjects and its impact on left ventricular structure and function
AbstractArterial stiffness and compliance parameters from two adjacent elastic arteries [aorta and common carotid artery (CCA)] were compared and their relationship with left ventricular (LV) structure and function and clinical parameters was assessed. 584 healthy subjects were prospectively enrolled [mean age 47.8  ± 18.4 years, range 16–94; 318 (54.4%) men]. They underwent comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography; M-mode diameters were measured at the level of the ascending aorta in systole and diastole and by echo-tracking at the level of the left CCA. The β-stiffness, pressure-strain...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Descending aortic mechanics and atrial fibrillation: a two-dimensional speckle tracking transesophageal echocardiography study
AbstractVascular mechanics assessed with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) could be used as a new imaging surrogate of vascular stiffening. The CHA2DS2-VASc score is considered accurate as an estimate of stroke risk in non-valvular AF, although many potential stroke risk factors have not been included in this scoring method. The purpose of this research is to study the feasibility of evaluating vascular mechanics at the descending aorta in non-valvular AF patients using transesophageal 2D-STE and to analyze the association between descending aortic mechanics and stroke. We prospectively recruited a...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Prognostic value of right ventricular free wall strain in pulmonary hypertension patients with pseudo-normalized tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion values
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 24, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Differentiation of light-chain cardiac amyloidosis from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using myocardial mechanical parameters by velocity vector imaging echocardiography
AbstractWe aimed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of layered velocity vector imaging (VVI)-derived left ventricular (LV) mechanical parameters in the differential diagnosis of primary light-chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We recruited 35 subjects with histologically-diagnosed AL-CA, 35 subjects with HCM, and 30 age-matched healthy controls. We used conventional echocardiography and electrocardiogram to evaluate general heart function and electrophysiology properties. Furthermore, we applied two-dimensional VVI echocardiography to assess the layered mechanical parameters during sy...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Performance of native and contrast-enhanced T1 mapping to detect myocardial damage in patients with suspected myocarditis: a head-to-head comparison of different cardiovascular magnetic resonance techniques
AbstractMyocardial T1 mapping is a novel technique that has proven to be superior to standard imaging for differentiation between healthy individuals in acute myocarditis. Aim of this study was comparison of T1 mapping with a clinical biomarker. We retrospectively investigated 171 patients undergoing cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examination with suspected myocarditis by performing native and contrast enhanced T1-mapping. Additionally, T2w and T1w images and late gadolinium enhancement sequences (LGE) were utilized for myocardial evaluation; Lake Louise Criteria comprise T1w, T2w and LGE imaging in a score. Refer...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Mitral valve enhancement in a patient with active Rheumatic Fever: An uncommon phenomenon on the MRI examination with possible clinical significance
AbstractIntense enhancement of the mitral valve is documented in a MRI examination performed on a patient with rheumatic multi-valvular disease. Patient had the elevated inflammatory markers indicating active inflammatory process. Such hitherto undocumented phenomenon may have important clinical significance in disease evaluation, thus provide a feasible option to document and follow up, active valvular involvement in patients with active rheumatic fever. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic value of layer-specific global longitudinal strain during adenosine stress in patients suspected of coronary artery disease
AbstractSpeckle tracking global longitudinal strain (GLS) from dobutamine stress echocardiography (SE) predicts coronary artery disease (CAD). The diagnostic value of GLS from vasodilator SE and the additional value of layer-specific speckle tracking analysis are unclear. We explored the usefulness of layer-specific GLS and non-layer-specific strain (automated functional imaging, AFI) from adenosine SE. The included 132 patients (67% male, 62.6 (9.0)  years), of which 46 (35%) had CAD defined as ≥1 stenosis ≥70% (≥50% in the left main), underwent adenosine SE and invasive coronary angiography. Resting AFI and...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A comparison study between 3D T2-weighted SPACE and conventional 2D T2-weighted turbo spin echo in assessment of carotid plaque
AbstractThe aim of this study was to compare 3D T2-weighted sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions (T2w SPACE) with conventional 2D T2w turbo-spin echo (TSE) in plaque imaging of carotid artery. 45 patients underwent 3.0-T MRI for carotid arteries imaging. MR sequences included T2w SPACE, T2w TSE, Time of flight (TOF) and T1-weighted (T1w) TSE. The signal intensity of intra-plaque hemorrhage (IPH), lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC), and loose matrix (LM) were measured and their contrast ratios (CRs) against adjacent muscle were calculated. CRs from T2w SPACE and T2w TSE ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of myocardial delayed enhancement with cardiac computed tomography in cardiomyopathies: a prospective comparison with delayed enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
AbstractTo evaluate the feasibility of cardiac CT for the evaluation of myocardial delayed enhancement (MDE) in the assessment of patients with cardiomyopathy, compared to cardiac MRI. A total of 37 patients (mean age 54.9  ± 15.7 years, 24 men) who underwent cardiac MRI to evaluate cardiomyopathy were enrolled. Dual-energy ECG-gated cardiac CT was acquired 12 min after contrast injection. Two observers evaluated cardiac MRI and cardiac CT at different kV settings (100, 120 and 140 kV) independently for MDE pat tern-classification (patchy, transmural, subendocardial, epicardial and mesocardia...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiotherapy-induced global and regional differences in early-stage left-sided versus right-sided breast cancer patients: speckle tracking echocardiography study
AbstractRadiotherapy (RT) to the thoracic region increases late cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The impact of breast cancer laterality on cardiac function is largely unknown. The aim of this prospective study was to compare RT-induced changes in left-sided and right-sided breast cancer patients using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Sixty eligible patients with left-sided breast cancer and 20 with right-sided breast cancer without chemotherapy were evaluated prospectively before and early after RT. A comprehensive echocardiographic examination included three dimensional measurements and STE of the left vent...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

High-risk carotid plaques identified by CT-angiogram can predict acute myocardial infarction
AbstractPrior studies identified the incremental value of non-invasive imaging by CT-angiogram (CTA) to detect high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Due to their superficial locations, larger calibers and motion-free imaging, the carotid arteries provide the best anatomic access for the non-invasive characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. We aim to assess the ability of predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) or acute myocardial infarction (MI) based on high-risk carotid plaque features identified by CTA. We retrospectively examined carotid CTAs of 492 patients that presented with acute stroke to ch...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 19, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of left atrial appendage function and thrombi in patients with atrial fibrillation: from transthoracic to real time 3D transesophageal echocardiography
AbstractThe detection of embolic sources in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is important to guide anticoagulant therapy. Two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the gold standard to study left atrial appendage (LAA) anatomy and morphology, despite some false-positive diagnosis. We hypothesized that real time 3D TEE (RT3DTEE) is superior to 2DTEE in detecting and/or excluding LAA thrombi. We studied 93 patients with non-valvular AF (60 males, age  = 67.1 ± 14.2 years) referred for electric cardioversion with transthoracic, 2DTEE and RT3DTEE. Before cardioversion, T...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The relationship between heart rate variability and left ventricular layer-specific deformation in uncomplicated diabetic patients
AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate heart rate variability (HRV) and left ventricular (LV) remodeling in uncomplicated diabetic patients. Furthermore, we sought to investigate the association between HRV indices and LV structural, functional and mechanical parameters. This cross-sectional study included 50 uncomplicated patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy controls without cardiovascular risk factors. All study subjects underwent 24-h Holter monitoring, laboratory analyses and complete two-dimensional echocardiography examination (2DE). LV structure and diastolic function were significantly deteriorate...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Characterizing the spectrum of right ventricular remodelling in response to chronic training
AbstractThe significance and spectrum of reduced right ventricular (RV) deformation, reported in endurance athletes, is unclear. To comprehensively analyze the cardiac performance at rest of athletes, especially focusing on integrating RV size and deformation to unravel the underlying triggers of this ventricular remodelling. Hundred professional male athletes and 50 sedentary healthy males of similar age were prospectively studied. Conventional echocardiographic parameters of all four chambers were obtained, as well as 2D echo-derived strain (2DSE) in the left (LV) and in the RV free wall with separate additional analysis...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 15, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Myocardial ischemia detection with single-phase CT perfusion in symptomatic patients using high-pitch helical image acquisition technique
AbstractCoronary CT angiography (CCTA) suffers from a reduced diagnostic accuracy in patients with heavily calcified coronary arteries or prior myocardial revascularisation due to artefacts caused by calcifications and stent material. CT myocardial perfusion  imaging (CTMPI) yields high potential for the detection of myocardial ischemia and might help to overcome the above mentioned limitations. We analysed CT single-phase perfusion using high-pitch helical image acquisition technique in patients with prior myocardial revascularisation. Thirty-six pati ents with an indication for invasive coronary angiography (28 with...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 15, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Normal values of regional left ventricular myocardial thickness, mass and distribution-assessed by 320-detector computed tomography angiography in the Copenhagen General Population Study
AbstractLeft ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is associated with cardiovascular complications and the geometry is important for prognosis. In some cardiovascular diseases, myocardial hypertrophy or dilation occurs regionally without modifying the global size of the heart. It is therefore relevant to determine regional normal reference values of the left ventricle. The aim of this study was to derive reference values of regional LV myocardial thickness (LVMT) and mass (LVMM) from a healthy study group of the general population using cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We wanted to introduce LV myocardial distributio...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 14, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantification of the focal progression of coronary atherosclerosis through automated co-registration of virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound imaging data
We present a stable and validated algorithm to automatically circumferentially co-register serial VH-IVUS imaging data for the focal quantification of coronary atherosclero sis progression. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 14, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Association between bicuspid aortic valve morphotype and regional dilatation of the aortic root and trunk
AbstractThoracic aortic disease, including thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), is frequently seen in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). We hypothesized that BAV morphotype would be associated with aortic aneurysm phenotypes but that other patient variables would significantly modify this relationship. 829 patients between 18 and 90 years with BAV and available raw imaging of the aortic valve and the ascending aorta to its mid-portion prior to aortic valve and aortic surgery were examined. The sinuses of Valsalva and proximal ascending aorta were measured from 2-dimensional co-planar echocardiographic images. We observe...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Accurate quantification of vessel cross-sectional area using CT angiography: a simulation study
AbstractCoronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is a noninvasive method for visualizing coronary atherosclerosis. However, CT angiography is limited in assessment of stenosis severity by the partial volume effect and calcification. Therefore, a quantitative method for assessment of stenosis severity is needed. Polyenergetic fan beam CT simulations were performed to match the geometry of a 320-slice CT scanner. Contrast-enhanced vessel lumens were modeled as 8  mg/ml Iodine solution against a lipid background. Normal vessels were simulated by circles with diameters in the range of 0.1–3 mm. To simulate...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Disruption of bioresorbable vascular scaffold struts due to loss of radial integrity: insights from optical coherence tomography
AbstractStrut disruption of bioresorbable vascular scaffold is a known potential concern, although uncommon when adequate lesion preparation is achieved and nominal size of the scaffold is respected. It is usually difficult to detect with angiography and/or intravascular ultrasound. Three-dimensional reconstructions of optical coherence tomography facilitates understanding of complex luminal anatomy and configuration of stent struts, providing evaluation of stent integrity immediately after deployment and therefore optimization of the complex revascularization procedure. The present article reports a case where this image ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 10, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Temporal averaging for analysis of four-dimensional whole-heart computed tomography perfusion of the myocardium: proof-of-concept study
AbstractTo assess the feasibility of four-dimensional (4D) whole-heart computed tomography perfusion (CTP) of the myocardium and the added value of temporal averaging of consecutive 3D datasets from different heartbeats for analysis. We included 30 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent 320-row coronary CT angiography (CTA) and myocardial CTP. Out of these, 15 patients underwent magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging (MR MPI). All CTP examinations were initiated after 3  min of intravenous infusion of adenosine (140 µg/kg/min) and were performed dynamically cov...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 10, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Simulator training to minimize ionizing radiation exposure in the catheterization laboratory
AbstractTo learn about radiation and how to lower it. Patients and operators are routinely exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation during catheterization procedures. This increased exposure to ionizing radiation is partially due to a lack of awareness to the effects of ionizing radiation, and lack of knowledge on the distribution and behavior of scattered radiation. A simulator, which incorporates data on scattered ionizing radiation, was built based on multiple phantom measurements and used for teaching radiation safety. The validity of the simulator was confirmed in three catheterization laboratories and tested by 20...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 5, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with magnetic resonance conditional pacemaker systems at 1.5  T: influence of pacemaker related artifacts on image quality including first pass perfusion, aortic and mitral valve assessment, flow measurement, short tau inversion recovery and T1-weighted imaging
AbstractThere are only limited data on the impact of device-related artifacts on image quality in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with pacemakers (PM). Adenosine stress perfusion, T1-weighted imaging and flow measurement as well as valve characterization have not been evaluated previously concerning artifact burden. We aimed to assess image quality in all routinely used CMR sequences. We analyzed 2623 myocardial segments in CMR scans of 61 patients with MR conditional PM (mean age 72.1  ± 11.5 years), 23 (37.7%) with right sided, 38 (62.3%) with left-sided devices. Ther...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - November 4, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of endothelial shear stress in patients with mild or intermediate coronary stenoses using coronary computed tomography angiography: comparison with invasive coronary angiography
AbstractCharacterization of endothelial shear stress (ESS) may allow for prediction of the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this investigation was to develop a non-invasive approach for in vivo assessment of ESS by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and to compare it with ESS derived from invasive coronary angiography (ICA). A total of 41 patients with mild or intermediate coronary stenoses who underwent both CTA and ICA were included in the analysis. Two geometrical models of the interrogated vessels were reconstructed separately from CTA and ICA images. Subsequently, computational fluid dynamics wer...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - October 31, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research