Three-dimensional printed models in congenital heart disease
AbstractThe purpose of this article is to discuss technical considerations and current applications of three-dimensional (3D) printing in congenital heart disease (CHD). CHD represent an attractive field for the application of 3D printed models, with consistent progress made in the past decade. Current 3D models are able to reproduce complex cardiac and extra-cardiac anatomy including small details with very limited range of errors (
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 27, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ethnic differences in coronary plaque and epicardial fat volume quantified using computed tomography
AbstractEpidemiological studies observed a higher prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis in South Asians when compared to Caucasians, but quantitative computed tomography differences in aggregate plaque volume (APV) and epicardial fat volume (EFV) between South Asians, Southeast or East Asians (SEEAs) and Caucasians remain unknown. We aimed to compare APV and EFV quantified on computed-tomographic-coronary-angiography (CTCA) between South Asian, SEEA and Caucasian populations residing in Australia. Age, gender and body-mass-index matched subjects from three ethnic groups who underwent clinically indicated 320-detector CTCA...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left ventricular non-compaction and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: the significant diagnostic value of longitudinal strain
AbstractLeft ventricular non-compaction (LV NC) is characterized by abnormal trabeculations that are mainly at the LV apex. Distinction between LV NC and non-specific dilated cardiomyopathies (DCMs) remains often challenging. We sought to find additive tools comparing the longitudinal strain characteristics of LVNC versus idiopathic DCM in a cohort of patients. 48 cases of LVNC (derivation cohort) were compared with 45 cases of DCM. Global and regional multi-layer (sub-endocardial, mid-wall, and sub-epicardial) LV longitudinal strain analysis was performed. Results were compared to define the best tool for distinguishing L...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

T1 mapping in children and young adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
AbstractTo assess the global and segmental left ventricular (LV) native T1 and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) in children and young adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) compared to a control cohort. The study population included 21 HCM patients (mean 14.1  ± 4.6 years) and 21 controls (mean 15.7 ± 1.5 years). Native modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence was performed before and after contrast injection in 3 short axis planes. Global and segmental LV native T1 and ECV were quantified and compared between HCM patients and controls. Mean native T1 in HCM patie...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left ventricular torsion and circumferential strain responses to exercise in patients with ischemic coronary artery disease
AbstractLV torsion during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is not well known. Circumferential strain (CS) and left ventricular (LV) torsion (Tor) have not been evaluated during ischemia in these patients. We aimed to assess the effect of ischemia during exercise echocardiography (ExE) on CS and Tor. We studied a group of 73 patients with true positive ExE results (Ischemic group: ischemia plus an abnormal coronary angiogram) and a matched control group of 66 patients with negative ExE and either normal coronary angiography or low post-test probability of CAD. Basal rotation (Rot) and apical rotation ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 19, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gestational changes in left ventricular myocardial contractile function: new insights from two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography
AbstractThe goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of pregnancy and labor on left ventricular (LV) myocardial mechanics using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Pregnancy is characterized by profound hormonal and hemodynamic alterations that directly or indirectly influence cardiac structure and function. However, the impact of these changes on left ventricular (LV) myocardial contractile function has not been fully elucidated. In this prospective, longitudinal study, 35 pregnant women underwent serial clinical and echocardiographic evaluation during each trimester and at labor. Two dimensional STE was perform...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 14, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Estimation of myocardial strain from non-rigid registration and highly accelerated cine CMR
AbstractSparsely sampled cardiac cine accelerated acquisitions show promise for faster evaluation of left-ventricular function. Myocardial strain estimation using image feature tracking methods is also becoming widespread. However, it is not known whether highly accelerated acquisitions also provide reliable feature tracking strain estimates. Twenty patients and twenty healthy volunteers were imaged with conventional 14-beat/slice cine acquisition (STD), 4 × accelerated 4-beat/slice acquisition with iterative reconstruction (R4), and a 9.2× accelerated 2-beat/slice real-time acquisition with sparse sampling and...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging for lipid core detection: an ex-vivo validation study
In this study, we investigated the ability of quantitative attenuation, derived from intravascular OCT, to detect plaque lipid. Lipid cores are associated with a high attenuation coefficient. We compared the index of plaque attenuation (IPA), a local quantitative measure of attenuation, to the manually measured lipid score (arc and length) on OCT images, and to the plaque characterization ex-vivo. We confirmed a correlation between the IPA and lipid scores (r2 >  0.7). Comparison to histology shows that high attenuation is associated with fibroatheroma, but also with macrophage presence. IPA is a robust, r...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of right atrial function by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in patients with right ventricular myocardial infarction
AbstractRight ventricular myocardial infarction (RVMI) damages the systolic and diastolic functions of the RV, so the right atrium interacts with the RV with an acutely altered function. The aim of our study was to compare right atrial function as evaluated by 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) between patients with inferior wall myocardial infarction (INFMI) and patients affected by both inferior myocardial infarction and right ventricular myocardial infarction (INFMI  + RVMI). Our study recruited 70 consecutive patients with INFMI (43 patients without RVMI and 27 patients with RVMI). Right atrial ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 8, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Very early tissue coverage after drug-eluting stent implantation: an optical coherence tomography study
AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate neointimal coverage in the very early phase after second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients who underwent staged percutaneous coronary intervention within 30  days after DES implantation were enrolled. OCT was performed to observe DES previously implanted. The median time interval from implantation to OCT examination was 21.5 days. A total of 10,625 struts of 54 stents (52 everolimus-eluting stents and 2 zotarolimus-eluting stents) in 42 lesions were a nalyzed. Strut tissue coverage was observed in 71.1&...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 6, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Double-contrast, single-phase computed tomography angiography for ruling out left atrial appendage thrombus prior to atrial fibrillation ablation
We present results from a double-contrast, single-phase CTA protocol used in our daily clinical practice. In patients who underwent AF ablation between 2011 and 2015, double-contrast, single-phase CTA was performed prior to ablation. Two contrast boluses (30 and 70  ml) with 25-s interbolus delay were administered followed by prospectively triggered cardiac CTA. Only patients with left atrial (LA) or LAA filling defects underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to rule out thrombus. Prior to ablation, 605 CTA-scans were performed (median radiation dose : 3.1 mSv). In 579 CTA-scans (95.7 %), the LA a...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - September 6, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hold off on that shot of Java: more evidence that caffeine intake leads to false negative adenosine stress myocardial perfusion
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 31, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A novel approach to diagnosing coronary artery disease: acoustic detection of coronary turbulence
AbstractAtherosclerotic disease within coronary arteries causes disruption of normal, laminar flow and generates flow turbulence. The characteristic acoustic waves generated by coronary turbulence serve as a novel diagnostic target. The frequency range and timing of microbruits associated with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) have been characterized. Technological advancements in sensor, data filtering and analytic capabilities may allow use of intracoronary turbulence for diagnostic and risk stratification purposes. Acoustic detection (AD) systems are based on the premise that the faint auditory signature of obst...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 31, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Severe in-stent restenosis missed by coronary CT angiography and accurately detected with FFR CT
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 31, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A new method to estimate pulmonary vascular resistance using diastolic pulmonary artery-right ventricular pressure gradients derived from continuous-wave Doppler velocity measurements of pulmonary regurgitation
AbstractPulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is an important hemodynamic parameter in patients with heart failure, especially when the pulmonary arterial pressure is lower due to reduced stroke volume. Several echocardiographic methods to estimate PVR have been proposed, but their applications in patients with organic left-sided heart diseases have been limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the usefulness of our new method to estimate PVR (PVRPR) based on the continuous-wave Doppler velocity measurements of pulmonary regurgitation in these patients. In 43 patients who underwent right heart catheterization, PV...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 30, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cardiac magnetic resonance and galectin-3 level as predictors of prognostic outcomes for non-ischemic cardiomyopathy patients
This study was aimed at determining whether late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in conjunction with Galectin-3 (Gal-3) level offered more precise prognosis of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) in comparison to LGE alone. Results of LGE and Gal-3 expression in 192 patients with NICM, including 85 subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 107 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), were examined. As suggested by the characteristics of LGE and Gal-3 levels, patients were divided into four groups: LGE positive  + low Gal-3 (n = 10 for DCM, n = 15 for HCM), LGE positive +&thi...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic and prognostic value of right ventricular strain in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and relatively preserved functional capacity studied with echocardiography and magnetic resonance
AbstractRight ventricular (RV) dysfunction harbingers adverse prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although conventional two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) is limited for RV systolic function quantitation, RV strain can be a useful tool. The diagnostic and prognostic impact of 2DE speckle-tracking RV longitudinal strain was evaluated, including other 2DE systolic indexes, in a group of PAH patients without severe impairment of functional capacity, chronic pulmonary thromboembolism or left ventricular dysfunction. Sixty-six group I PAH patients, 67  % NYHA functional class I or II (none in IV) were...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Bioresorbable vascular scaffold fracture in the overlapping zone as cause of accelerated neoatherosclerosis and in-scaffold very-late thrombosis
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Improved border sharpness of post-infarct scar by a novel self-navigated free-breathing high-resolution 3D whole-heart inversion recovery magnetic resonance approach
This study evaluates the performance of a novel high-resolution 3D self-navigated free-breathing inversion recovery magnetic resonance pulse sequence (3D-SN-LGE) vs. conventional 2D breath-hold LGE (2D-LGE) with regard to sharpness of borders (SBorder) of post-infarction scar. Patients with post-infarction scar underwent two magnetic resonance examinations for conventional 2D-LGE and high-resolution 3D-SN-LGE acquisitions (both 15  min after 0.2 mmol/kg Gadobutrol IV) at 1.5T. In the prototype 3D-SN-LGE sequence, each ECG-triggered radial steady-state-free-precession read-out segment is preceded by a non-slice-se...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Regression equations of Z score and echocardiographic nomograms for coronary sinus in healthy children
We report new, reliable echocardiographic Z scores for the CS diameter derived from a large population of healthy Chinese children. The Z scores can be us ed in echocardiographic examinations. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Optimisation of coronary vascular territorial 3D echocardiographic strain imaging using computed tomography: a feasibility study using image fusion
AbstractCurrent echocardiographic assessments of coronary vascular territories use the 17-segment model and are based on general assumptions of coronary vascular distribution. Fusion of 3D echocardiography (3DE) with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) derived coronary anatomy may provide a more accurate assessment of left ventricular (LV) territorial function. We aimed to test the feasibility of MDCT and 3DE fusion and to compare territorial longitudinal strain (LS) using the 17-segment model and a MDCT-guided vascular model. 28 patients underwent 320-slice MDCT and transthoracic 3DE on the same day followed by invas...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Off-resonance magnetic resonance angiography improves visualization of in-stent lumen in peripheral nitinol stents compared to conventional T1-weighted acquisitions: an in vitro comparison study
AbstractTo compare the value of inversion recovery with on-resonant water suppression (IRON) to conventional T1-weighted (T1w) MRA and computed tomography angiography (CTA) for visualization of peripheral nitinol stents. We visualized 14 different peripheral nitinol stents in vitro both using Gadolinium (Gd) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles (USPIOs) for conventional T1w and IRON-MRA using clinical grade 1.5T MR scanner and iodinated contrast material for CTA using a 256-slice CT scanner. Parameter assessment included signal- and contrast-to-noise ratio (S/CNR), relative in-stent signal and artificial lum...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

In-vivo validation of a new clinical tool to quantify three-dimensional myocardial strain using ultrasound
AbstractThree-dimensional (3D) strain analysis based on real-time 3-D echocardiography (RT3DE) has emerged as a novel technique to quantify regional myocardial function. The goal of this study was to evaluate accuracy of a novel model-based 3D tracking tool (eSie Volume Mechanics, Siemens Ultrasound, Mountain View, CA, USA) using sonomicrometry as an independent measure of cardiac deformation. Thirteen sheep were instrumented with microcrystals sutured to the epi- and endocardium of the inferolateral left ventricular wall to trace myocardial deformation along its three directional axes of motion. Paired acquisitions of RT3...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Two-dimensional and three-dimensional left ventricular deformation analysis: a study in competitive athletes
AbstractTwo-dimensional (2D) speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) has clarified functional adaptations accompanying the morphological features of ‘athlete’s heart’. However, 2D STE has some limitations, potentially overcome by three-dimensional (3D) STE. Unfortunately, discrepancies between 2D- and 3D STE have been described. We therefore sought to evaluate whether dimensional and functional differences exist between athletes and contro ls and whether 2D and 3D left ventricular (LV) strains differ in athletes. One hundred sixty-one individuals (91 athletes, 70 controls) were analysed. Athletes were mem...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multilayer longitudinal strain at rest may help to predict significant stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery in patients with suspected non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome
AbstractTwo-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) multilayer analysis of myocardial deformation is a non-invasive method that enables discrimination of transmural differences owing to myocardial ischemia or necrosis. We wished to ascertain if multilayer longitudinal strains at rest are associated with significant ( ≥70 %) stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) in patients with suspected non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Our cohort comprised 113 consecutive patients with suspected NSTE-ACS and preserved ejection fraction (EF). Using coronary angiography, ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dynamic change of high-risk plaque detected by coronary computed tomographic angiography in patients with subclinical coronary artery disease
AbstractWe studied the dynamic change of high-risk plaque detected by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in patients with subclinical coronary artery disease. We analyzed paired CCTA findings in 103 patients. The follow-up period was 1.37  ± 0.49 years. We studied the prevalence and change of high-risk plaque (HRP) defined as positive remodeling, low attenuation plaque, spotty calcification, or napkin-ring sign. Of 413 plaques detected by CCTA, thirty-seven patients had 47 HRP at baseline. At follow-up, eight patients showed di sappearance of HRP. Sixty-six patients had no HRP at bas...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imparied retrobulbar blood flow and increased carotid IMT in patients with Crohn ’s disease
AbstractCrohn ’s Disease [CD] is one of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases that are chronic relapsing inflammatory diseases. Despite the major affected organ is intestine in CD, extra intestinal organs and tissues including cardiovascular system are also affected. Several studies have demonstrated that CD patients may have a higher risk of advancing atherosclerosis. The microvascular endothelial dysfunction plays an essential role for developing coronary atherosclerosis. Microvascular structural abnormalities in the retinal circulation may predict macrovascular events such as stroke and coronary heart diseas e. In order...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Coronary bifurcation stent morphology in dual-source CT: validation with micro-CT
AbstractThe aim of this study is to  analyze post-bifurcation coronary stent morphology in vitro using dual-source CT and validate those findings using micro-CT. Nine silicon coronary artery phantoms simulating main branch (MB) and side branch (SB) were prepared using a 3-D printer. After bifurcation stenting using Crush, Culotte, an d T-stenting technique, in vitro CT imaging was conducted using both dual-source CT and micro-CT. Morphological change of the bifurcation stent including crushed segment and floating stent strut were evaluated. Dual-source CT was able to demonstrate morphologic changes of bifurcation sten...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 9, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Early gadolinium enhancement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a potential premature marker of myocardial damage
AbstractEarly gadolinium enhancement (EGE), one CMR diagnostic criteria in acute myocarditis, has been related with hyperemia and capillary leakage. The value of EGE in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remains unknown. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of EGE in patients with HCM, and its relation with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). The association of EGE with morphological and clinical parameters was also evaluated. Sixty consecutive patients with HCM and CMR from our center were included. All the clinical and complementary test information was collected prospectively in our HCM clinic. Left ventricular (LV) me...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 9, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fluoroless catheter ablation of various right and left sided supra-ventricular tachycardias in children and adolescents
AbstractElectrophysiology study (EPS) and catheter ablation (CA) in children and adolescents carries a potentially harmful effect of radiation exposure when performed with the use of fluoroscopy. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of fluoroless EPS and CA of various supra-ventricular tachycardias (SVTs) with the use of the 3D mapping system and intracardiac echocardiography (ICE). Forty-three consecutive children and adolescents (age 13  ± 3 years) underwent fluoroless EPS and CA for various supra-ventricular tachycardias. A three-dimensional (3D) mapping system NavX...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 4, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dilatation of the ascending aorta is associated with presence of aortic regurgitation in patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot
AbstractTo evaluate the association between aortic morphology and elasticity with aortic regurgitation in surgically corrected of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients. We retrospectively identified 72 consecutive patients with surgically corrected TOF and 27 healthy controls who underwent cardiac MRI evaluation. Velocity-encoded cine MRI was used to quantify degree of aortic regurgitation (AR) in TOF patients. Ascending aorta diameters were measured at standard levels on MRA images. Aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV) was quantified with MRI. Morphological and functional MRI variables were compared between groups of TOF patient...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - August 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Caffeine intake inverts the effect of adenosine on myocardial perfusion during stress as measured by T1 mapping
Abstract Caffeine intake before adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging may cause false negative findings. We hypothesized that the antagonistic effect of caffeine can be measured by T1 relaxation times in rest and adenosine stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), as T1 mapping techniques are sensitive to changes in myocardial blood volume. We prospectively analyzed 105 consecutive patients with adenosine stress perfusion CMR on a 1.5-T MRI system. Rest and stress T1 mapping was performed using Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery. T1 reactivity was defined as difference in T1 rest and T1 stress ( ∆T...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 29, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Structure or entropy in reporting cardiac CT findings
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 28, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Population based ultrasonographic screening of abdominal aortic aneurysms
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 27, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A granular approach to improve reproducibility of the echocardiographic assessment of paravalvular regurgitation after TAVI
Abstract Paravalvular leak (PVL) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is challenging to quantitate. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the main tool used for the assessment of PVL but is modestly reproducible. We sought to develop a reproducible echocardiographic approach to assess PVL in the post-TAVI setting. Four observers independently analyzed eleven parameters of PVL severity in 50 pre-discharge TTE studies performed after TAVI. The parameters included color-Doppler parameters [jet circumferential extent (CE) and planimetered vena contracta area in the short-axis view and jet breadth and qualita...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 27, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Speckle tracking determination of mitral tissue annular displacement: comparison with strain and ejection fraction, and association with outcomes in haemodialysis patients
This study aims to compare TMAD with GLS and LVEF and its association with outcomes in haemodialysis patients. 198 haemodialysis patients (median age 64.2  years, 69 % men) had 2D echocardiography, with STE determined GLS and TMAD. Bland–Altman analysis and linear regression assessed relationship between GLS, LVEF and TMAD. Cox regression analysis investigated association of TMAD with mortality and cardiac events. TMAD had low inter- and intra-ob server variability with small biases and narrow limits of agreement (LOA) (bias of −0.01 ± 1.32 (95 % LOA was −2.60 to 2....
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 27, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prognostic value of T1-mapping in TAVR patients: extra-cellular volume as a possible predictor for peri- and post-TAVR adverse events
In this study, elevated myocardial ECV is a predictor of CHF by trend; CMR may be helpful in identifying patients with a high risk for post-TAVR cardiac decom pensation benefitting from an intensified post-interventional surveillance. Patients with post-TAVR conductions abnormalities have a significantly decreased ECV. Nevertheless, it remains unclear which precise molecular tissue alteration is the protective factor or risk factor in this case. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The assessment of non culprit coronary artery lesions in patients with ST segment elevated myocardial infarction and multivessel disease by control angiography with quantitative coronary angiography
In this study, multivessel disease STEMI patients whom underwent primary PCI between January 2010 and March 2011 were included. Critical stenosis degree was accepted as ≥70 % in the non culprit artery. All patients were evaluated with control CAG 1 month after primary PCI. Assessment with CAG was performed by two blinded cardiologists. QCA program was used to evaluate reference artery diameter (RAD), minimum luminal diameter (MLD) and degree of stenosis. With regard to the degree of stenosis, significant reduction was accepted as ≥15 % while % 5–15 decrease was accepted as moderate. Of the 81...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 22, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Associations between elevated resting heart rate and subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic Korean adults undergoing coronary artery calcium scoring
Abstract Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) and the presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) are closely related with inflammatory activity and cardiovascular disease outcomes. To date, however, the relationship between a high RHR and CAC has not been well studied, especially in non-western populations. We therefore aimed to examine the cross-sectional relationship between high RHR and the burden of subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by CAC score in a large sample of Korean adults. A total 26,018 subjects were enrolled and underwent CAC screening as part of a broader general health examination. RHR was categorized in...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 21, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Myocardial tissue remodeling after orthotopic heart transplantation: a pilot cardiac magnetic resonance study
Abstract After orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT), the allograft undergoes characteristic alterations in myocardial structure, including hypertrophy, increased ventricular stiffness, ischemia, and inflammation, all of which may decrease overall graft survival. Methods to quantify these phenotypes may clarify the pathophysiology of progressive graft dysfunction post-OHT. We performed cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with T1 mapping in 26 OHT recipients (mean age 47 ± 7 years, 30 % female, median follow-up post-OHT 6 months) and 30 age-matched healthy volunteers (mean age 50...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 20, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

OCT-measured plaque free wall angle is indicative for plaque burden: overcoming the main limitation of OCT?
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the plaque free wall (PFW) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the plaque burden (PB) measured by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). We hypothesize that measurement of the PFW could help to estimate the PB, thereby overcoming the limited ability of OCT to visualize the external elastic membrane in the presence of plaque. This could enable selection of the optimal stent-landing zone by OCT, which is traditionally defined by IVUS as a region with a PB 
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 20, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multimodality cardiac imaging and hypereosinophilic cardiomyopathy
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 20, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comparison of 4D flow and 2D velocity-encoded phase contrast MRI sequences for the evaluation of aortic hemodynamics
Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare aortic flow and velocity quantification using 4D flow MRI and 2D CINE phase-contrast (PC)-MRI with either one-directional (2D-1dir) or three-directional (2D-3dir) velocity encoding. 15 healthy volunteers (51 ± 19 years) underwent MRI including (1) breath-holding 2D-1dir and (2) free breathing 2D-3dir PC-MRI in planes orthogonal to the ascending (AA) and descending (DA) aorta, as well as (3) free breathing 4D flow MRI with full thoracic aorta coverage. Flow quantification included the co-registration of the 2D PC acquisition planes with 4D ...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 19, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Relationship between glycemic control and coronary artery disease severity, prevalence and plaque characteristics by computed tomography coronary angiography in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients
Abstract Evaluate whether glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (DM2) asymptomatic for coronary artery disease (CAD) affects not only the presence and magnitude of CAD but also the characteristics of plaque vulnerability using multidetector row computed coronary tomography (MDCT). Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is frequently observed in asymptomatic DM2 patients. Positive vessel remodeling (PR) and low-attenuation plaques (LAP) identified by MDCT have been demonstrated to be characteristics of subsequent culprit lesions of ACS. However, little is known regarding plaque characteristics in asymptomatic diabetic patient...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of optical coherence tomography- and coronary angioscopy-assessed neointimal tissue characteristics on occurrence of periprocedural myonecrosis in patients with in-stent restenosis
Abstract Several characteristics of neointimal tissues, including neoatherosclerotic progression, have been reported in lesions with in-stent restenosis (ISR). However, the effects of these characteristics on outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ISR lesions remain unclear. We assessed the relationships between neointimal tissue characteristics and the occurrence of periprocedural myonecrosis (PMN) after PCI in ISR lesions. We investigated 72 ISR lesions in 72 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who underwent pre- and post-revascularization optical coherence tomography (OCT) and corona...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Characterization of an intra-cardiac melanoma metastasis by magnetic resonance T1 and T2 mapping
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 15, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy using Europium complexes improves atherosclerotic plaques discrimination
The objective of this study is to characterize arterial tissue with and without atherosclerosis by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using Europium Chlortetracycline complex (EuCTc) as fluorescent marker. For this study, twelve rabbits were randomly divided into a control group (CG) and an experimental group (EG), where they were fed a normal and hypercholesterolemic diet, respectively, and were treated for 60 days. Cryosections of the aortic arch specimens were cut in a vertical plane, mounted on glass slides, and stained with Europium (Eu), Chlortetracycline (CTc), Europium Chlortetracycline (EuCTc), a...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Incidence of persistent renal dysfunction after contrast enhanced coronary CT angiography in patients with suspected coronary artery disease
Abstract Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a potentially serious complication of contrast agents used in computed tomography angiography (CTA). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether persistent renal dysfunction occurs in patients undergoing coronary CTA for suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD). From a cohort of 957 patients undergone coronary CTA, we identified 402 patients with plasma creatinine levels collected before and within 6 months after CTA. According to the definition of CIN, patients with a ≥25 % increase in plasma creatinine after CTA were evaluated. The post-CTA me...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Patient specific 3D print of left atrial appendage for closure device
(Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Asymmetric pulsation of rat carotid artery bifurcation in three-dimension observed by ultrasound imaging
In this study, the 3-D data set of CAB from rats was acquired using a high spatio-temporal resolution ultrasound imaging system with a 40 MHz probe using mechanical sector scanning. A total of 31 slices of cross-section images were stored and a spoke scan algorithm was implemented to radially scan the lumen area in polar coordinates based on a pre-tracked seed point. The boundary of the arterial lumen was segmented using intensity-threshold-based boundary detection and fitted by polynomial regression. Two operators, who were trained with the same protocol to minimize inter- and intra-operator variability, manually seg...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - July 4, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research