Optic Nerve Assessment Using 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Conclusions: Our case demonstrates the potential to document the existence of optic nerve invasion in the presence of an intraocular tumor, a feature that has a major bearing on decision making, particularly for consideration of enucleation.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:178-180 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - January 27, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Investigation of Somatic GNAQ, GNA11, BAP1 and SF3B1 Mutations in Ophthalmic Melanocytomas
Conclusions: The presence of GNAQ mutation in some iridociliary and optic-nerve melanocytomas suggests a possible relationship between ophthalmic melanocytoma and other ophthalmic melanocytic neoplasms. BAP1 mutation may accompany the transformation of ophthalmic melanocytoma to melanoma.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:171-177 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - January 27, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Unilateral Eye Findings: A Rare Herald of Acute Leukemia
Conclusions: These two cases illustrate the fundus findings consistent with leukemic choroidal infiltration that can represent the first sign of relapsed leukemia. The successful treatment of these patients hinges on collaboration between ophthalmologists and oncologists to optimize patient outcomes, highlighting the need for both groups to be aware of this rare ophthalmic presentation.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:166-170 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - January 12, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Reduction of Nodular Growth Pattern of Metastatic Uveal Melanoma after Radioembolization of Hepatic Metastases
Conclusions: Distinct angiographic and histopathologic growth patterns of metastatic uveal melanoma differ in their amenability to radioembolization. Sinusoidal infiltration may lead to hyperbilirubinemia in the absence of overt obstruction or liver failure.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:160-165 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - December 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Eyelid Metastatic Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma
Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of thyroid papillary carcinoma metastasizing to the eyelid as the presenting feature of the disease. A review of the literature of metastatic thyroid carcinoma to the eyelids is presented, to place the findings of this case report in context.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:156-159 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - December 18, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Society News AAOOP
Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:122 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - December 2, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Amelanotic Irido-Ciliary Ring Melanoma: A Clinicopathological Correlation
Conclusions: Amelanotic irido-ciliary ring melanoma with growth along the trabecular meshwork is a rare form of uveal melanoma that could present as an inconspicuous amelanotic iris mass.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:153-155 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - December 2, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Detection and Intraretinal Localization of an ‘Invisible' Retinoblastoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography
Conclusion: HHSD OCT can aid the ocular oncologist in the identification of very small retinoblastomas before they are visible to the eye, which allows for earlier and potentially vision-sparing treatment of these lesions. Additionally, the ability to identify these very small tumors and to localize them anatomically within the retinal layers may aid in our understanding of retinoblastoma tumorigenesis.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:148-152 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - November 26, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Orbital Extension of an Unsuspected Choroidal Melanoma Presumably through an Aqueous Tube Shunt
Conclusions: Ahmed valve implantation in an eye with unsuspected macular choroidal melanoma may ultimately be associated with extraocular extension and orbital tumor formation.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:144-147 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - November 25, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Lipomatous Change in Uveal Melanoma: Histopathological, Immunohistochemical and Cytogenetic Analysis
Conclusions: Lipomatous change can be added to the many histopathologic faces of uveal melanoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of lipomatous change in uveal melanoma performed with cytogenetic investigations.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:133-135 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - November 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Uveal Melanoma Mimicking Advanced Coats' Disease in a Young Patient
Conclusion: Careful consideration is needed in approaching any patient with a blind, painful eye and opaque media, even in younger populations.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:140-143 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - November 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Progressive Scleral Necrosis following I-125 Plaque Radiotherapy for Ciliochoroidal Melanoma with Protruding Extraocular Mass
Conclusions: Scleral necrosis after plaque radiotherapy can clinically simulate tumor recurrence with extraocular extension. The management of uveal melanoma requires a careful clinical follow-up, weighing the implications of treatment morbidity and mortality.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:136-139 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - November 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Clinical Presentation and Genetic Paradigm of Diffuse Infiltrating Retinoblastoma: A Review
Retinoblastoma is the most common childhood cancer. Thanks to modern technology and good medical access, mortality in Europe has decreased to about 5%. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma is a very rare subtype of this neoplasm and is characterized by its atypical growth pattern. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may mimic other more innocuous diseases and may therefore be misdiagnosed. The purpose of this paper was to provide a short review of the main symptoms of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma presenting to the ophthalmologist and give a comparison to typical retinoblastoma. The second purpose was to set up a disc...
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - November 13, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Clinicopathological Features of Ophthalmic Neoplasms Arising in the Setting of Xeroderma Pigmentosum
Conclusions: Our study outlines our early experience with the pathology of ocular neoplasms in XP patients. These findings deserve further exploration with genetic studies and additional patients.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:112-121 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - November 11, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Primary Acquired Melanosis: Clinical, Histopathologic and Optical Coherence Tomographic Correlation
Conclusions: The characteristic basal epithelial hyperreflective band with normal overlying epithelium in the absence of cysts observed in all cases by anterior segment OCT correlated with clinical and histopathologic features of conjunctival and corneal PAM. Anterior segment OCT may be helpful as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for PAM. Improvement in resolution is necessary to detect melanocytic hyperplasia and aytpia suggestive of malignant potential.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:123-127 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - November 11, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Long-Term Outcomes of Group B Eyes in Patients with Retinoblastoma Treated with Short-Course Chemoreduction: Experience from Children's Hospital Los Angeles/University of Southern California
Conclusion: The initial recurrence rate was higher for the 3-cycle group (p = 0.03). However, eyes failing short-course chemoreduction were rescued with 3 additional cycles and achieved a similar overall event-free survival rate (p = 0.16). In our cohort, this short-course approach spared 63% (29/46) of patients with group B retinoblastoma the extra 3 cycles of systemic chemotherapy.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:105-111 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - November 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

SIRT2 Expression Is Higher in Uveal Melanoma than In Ocular Melanocytes
Purpose: Sirtuins (SIRTs) are the family of proteins associated with the cell cycle and that correlate with cancer development and progression. SIRTs have never been studied in uveal melanocytes. The aim of this study is to characterize the expression of SIRT2 in uveal melanoma (UM) cases and compare it with the expression of SIRT2 in melanocytes of the uveal tract of normal human eyes (NHE). Methods: Twenty-one formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human UM cases were immunostained for SIRT2, along with 15 NHE obtained from the Eye Bank of Canada. Results: SIRT2 expression was higher in melanomas than in normal melanocytes of...
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - October 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Bilateral Diffuse Uveal Melanocytic Proliferation: Molecular Genetic Analysis of a Case and Review of the Literature
Conclusions: Although BDUMP is considered to be a benign proliferative disease, copy number alterations of unknown significance may occur in these lesions.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:94-99 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - October 2, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Core Endoresection as Neoadjuvant Treatment of Uveal Melanoma
Conclusions: Core endoresection of a ciliochoroidal melanoma may reduce tumour thickness enough to allow subsequent ruthenium plaque radiotherapy.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:91-93 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - September 25, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Sirtuin1 Expression and Correlation with Histopathological Features in Retinoblastoma
Conclusions: Sirt1 was expressed in most of the retinoblastoma samples. However, the degree of Sirt1 expression was not associated with any high-risk histopathological feature or survival.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:86-90 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - September 25, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Features of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma Metastatic to the Retina and Vitreous
Conclusion: Cutaneous malignant melanoma metastatic to the eye has a relatively greater preference for the retina and frequently presents with uveitis and glaucoma. Neovascular glaucoma in these cases may likely be attributable to unusually increased vascular endothelial growth factor production by the intraocular melanoma tumor cells.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:80-85 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - September 22, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Orbital Recurrence following Aggressive Laser Treatment for Recurrent Retinoblastoma
Conclusion: This is an unusual orbital recurrence after successful treatment of intraocular disease with aggressive laser therapy. Clinicians should be aware of the rare possibility of orbital recurrence following chemoreduction with local consolidation even when fundus examinations are normal.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:76-79 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - September 18, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Expression of p16 and p53 in Intraepithelial Periocular Sebaceous Carcinoma
Conclusions: Intraepithelial sebaceous carcinomas stained for p53 and p16 demonstrated moderate to strong immunoreactivity in 100% of cases for at least one of these proteins, suggesting that together they are useful markers for determining the extent of tumor spread. Of the two, p16 was immunoreactive in more cases than p53.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:71-75 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - September 18, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Errata
Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:59 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - September 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Society News AAOOP
Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:60 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - September 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Case of Primary Intraocular Lymphoma with Extraocular Extension
Conclusion: The finding in our case indicates that early diagnosis and treatment are important for eyes with PIOL because the tumor can spread and penetrate the sclera and invade extraocular tissues.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:66-70 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - September 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Recurrent Immunodeficiency-Associated Burkitt Lymphoma Presenting as Severe Anterior Uveitis
Conclusion: The patient's initial presentation masqueraded as anterior uveitis, but her condition rapidly progressed with significant central nervous system involvement. Ocular involvement of immunodeficiency-associated BL is rare, with isolated anterior uveitis being even rarer. This must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis for any patient with immunodeficiency, especially with a history of previous BL.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:62-65 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - September 11, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Editorial
Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:61 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - September 7, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Bilateral Diffuse Uveal Melanocytic Proliferation Presenting as a Giant Unilateral Choroidal Nevus: A Case Report
Conclusion: BDUMP presentation can be markedly asymmetric and resemble a giant unilateral choroidal nevus. Response to chemotherapy was unique not only for the usual retinal detachment resolution, but also because of an evident regression of pigmentation.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:54-58 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - September 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Isolated Conjunctival Inflammation Suggestive of IgG4-Related Disease
Conclusions: Isolated conjunctival inflammation without orbital involvement can be considered within the spectrum of IgG4-related disease.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:51-53 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - August 26, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Unsuspected Ganglioneuroma of the Choroid Diagnosed after Enucleation
We report a case of an unsuspected ganglioneuroma of the choroid in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. A 5-year-old girl presented from an outside institution with right proptosis and glaucoma since birth. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained and showed a cavernous sinus mass extending into the right orbit and multiple orbital lesions. Additionally, increased signal in the posterior globe of the right eye was noted, but its etiology was unclear at the time. She was lost to follow-up for 3 years and later returned with a blind painful eye. Enucleation was performed, and histopathology was significant for diffuse ch...
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - August 25, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of the Orbit and Adnexa
Conclusions: ALHE can rarely involve the orbit and adnexa. There is no consensus on the best modality of management of this rare entity. ALHE and KD have often been considered variations of the same disease, but it is important to differentiate between the two entities for optimal patient management.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:40-47 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - July 15, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Orbital Paraganglioma and Succinate Dehydrogenase Staining for Genetic Testing Triage and Prognosis
Conclusion: The rarity of an orbital paraganglioma was followed by the clinical search for a possible occult extraorbital primary paraganglioma. SDHB staining helped in the triage for genetic testing and gave an idea about the prognosis for this tumour.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:36-39 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - July 14, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Outcomes of Proton Beam Radiotherapy for Large Non-Peripapillary Choroidal and Ciliary Body Melanoma at TRIUMF and the BC Cancer Agency
Background and Purpose: To report outcomes and toxicity after proton beam radiotherapy for non-peripapillary choroidal and ciliary body melanoma considered unsuitable for other eye-sparing therapies. Materials and Methods: An existing database of 77 patients with non-peripapillary tumors treated at TRIUMF, Canada, including patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, was updated with ocular complications and follow-up status from chart reviews. Results: Most of the patients had large tumors: 61% were T3/T4 tumors (AJCC classification), while 48% were large by the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study classification. The m...
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - July 9, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Choroid Diagnosed by Biopsy of an Extrascleral Nodule
Conclusions: This is the first detailed case report of a successful biopsy of the orbital extension of an essentially posterior intraocular tumor. Such a maneuver permits a much more generous tissue sample than a needle biopsy. In the current case, a large tissue sample provided the basis for complete immunohistochemical evaluation, leading to the diagnosis of an intraocular metastatic mucin-producing adenocarcinoma of lung origin.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:24-28 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - June 16, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Unilateral Pleomorphic Lipoma of the Eyebrow
Conclusions: This is the first reported case of a pleomorphic lipoma of the eyebrow subcutis. We discuss the clinical and histological differential diagnosis, especially related to histological conditions with which pleomorphic lipoma can be confused, such as well-differentiated liposarcoma.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:20-23 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - June 15, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Diagnostic and Management Challenges of Ciliary Body Tumor in an African-American Patient
Conclusions: The diagnosis of a ciliary body tumor, especially in an African-American patient, can be challenging despite advances in imaging systems, given the multitude of differential diagnoses. Uveal melanomas are extremely rare in African-Americans. On detailed questioning, our patient reported having mixed ancestry, with Caucasian ancestors on the mother's side and native Indian ancestors on the father's side. Information on true ethnicity should be specifically asked for as it alters the incidence rate. Biopsy provides the only option for a correct diagnosis and for developing a management plan. Fine-needle aspirati...
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - June 10, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Metastatic Small-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Simulating Circumscribed Choroidal Hemangioma
Conclusion: Small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma metastatic to the choroid is extremely rare; however, it is particularly aggressive and should be included in the differential diagnosis of isolated choroidal lesions, even in otherwise healthy patients.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:13-15 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - June 10, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

A Modified Dummy Plaque for the Accurate Placement of Ruthenium-106 Plaques in Brachytherapy of Intraocular Tumours
Conclusion: The described transillumination technique and modified dummy plaque facilitate the correct positioning of ruthenium plaques in brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:1-4 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - June 6, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Polyethylene Naphthalate Scintillator: A Novel Detector for the Dosimetry of Radioactive Ophthalmic Applicators
Background: Dosimetric measurements in small radiation fields with large gradients, such as eye plaque dosimetry with β or low-energy photon emitters, require dosimetrically almost water-equivalent detectors with volumes of (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - June 6, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 1, 2015
Ocul Oncol Pathol 2015;1:I-IV (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - June 3, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Conjunctival Intraepithelial Neoplasia with Mucoepidermoid Differentiation: A Case Report of a Subtle Lesion
Conclusion: MCC is an aggressive tumor that has a tendency to be invasive and recur after treatment. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment is critical. CIN with mucoepidermoid differentiation may represent the earliest stage of MCC. It can present subtly, with a clinical resemblance to benign and less aggressive ocular surface lesions. Imaging with UHR OCT may be helpful to detect early neoplasia. A high level of suspicion must be maintained when evaluating potential ocular surface tumors.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2015;1:278-282 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - May 20, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Canalicular Cyst
Conclusion: This case increases ophthalmologists' appreciation of the range of conditions that can affect the lacrimal drainage and canalicular system. The treatment for a diverticulum is marsupialization, whereas that for a canalicular cyst is complete excision.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2015;1:274-277 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - May 13, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Management of Conjunctival Melanoma: Critical Assessment of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
This study presents a critical assessment of the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in CoM and presents a simplified management algorithm based on high-risk clinical and pathological features.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2015;1:266-273 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - May 6, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Diagnosing Pathological Prognostic Factors in Retinoblastoma: Correlation between Traditional Microscopy and Digital Slides
Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using digital pathology (WSI) to evaluate prognostic factors in eyes containing retinoblastomas. Using WSI, the pathologist was able to detect high-risk morphological features in retinoblastoma. To date, WSI is an important tool, in particular for ophthalmic pathologists examining enucleation and exenteration specimens.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2015;1:259-265 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - May 6, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Intraocular Lymphoma Models
Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) is a subtype of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), a high-grade, extranodal, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, predominantly of B-cell origin. PVRL is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis. Human studies are not ideally suited for the study of intraocular lymphoma pathogenesis or treatment strategies due to the rare nature of the disease, its variable presentation, limited volume of available ocular fluids, and fragility of sampled lymphoma cells. Animal models have been critical in making progress in understanding intraocular lymphoma pathogenesis and investigating potential...
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - April 18, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Expression of Multidrug Resistance Transporter ABCB5 in a Murine Model of Human Conjunctival Melanoma
This study illustrates the potential of our newly established murine model.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2015;1:182-189 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - April 18, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Atypical Fibroxanthoma of the Conjunctiva in Xeroderma Pigmentosum
Conclusion: Patients with XP may present with unusual tumors, including nonepithelial soft-tissue tumors. AFX is a rapidly growing tumor which may rarely present on the ocular surface.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2015;1:254-258 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - April 14, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Adenoma of the Nonpigmented Ciliary Body and Iris Epithelium in Mexican Mestizo Patients
The adenoma of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium is a benign rare tumor, which may present with different clinical characteristics and requires resection along with histopathologic analysis and the identification of specific immunohistochemical markers for an accurate diagnosis. Here, we report a case series of 4 patients in a Mexican mestizo population with this diagnosis, their clinical features, the ultrasound imaging characteristics and the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings.Ocul Oncol Pathol 2015;1:248-253 (Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology)
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - April 14, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Transgenic Models in Retinoblastoma Research
Understanding the mechanism of retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor initiation, development, progression and metastasis in vivo mandates the use of animal models that mimic this intraocular tumor in its genetic, anatomic, histologic and ultrastructural features. An early setback for developing mouse Rb models was that Rb mutations did not cause tumorigenesis in murine retinas. Subsequently, the discovery that the p107 protein takes over the role of pRb in mice led to the development of several animal models that phenotypically and histologically resemble the human form. This paper summarizes the transgenic models that have been devel...
Source: Ocular Oncology and Pathology - April 7, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research