Split-Brain: What We Know Now and Why This is Important for Understanding Consciousness
AbstractRecently, the discussion regarding the consequences of cutting the corpus callosum ( “split-brain”) has regained momentum (Corballis, Corballis, Berlucchi,& Marzi,Brain,141(6), e46,2018; Pinto et al.,Brain, 140(5), 1231 –1237,2017a; Pinto, Lamme,& de Haan,Brain, 140(11), e68,2017; Volz& Gazzaniga,Brain,140(7), 2051 –2060,2017; Volz, Hillyard, Miller,& Gazzaniga,Brain,141(3), e15,2018). This collective review paper aims to summarize the empirical common ground, to delineate the different interpretations, and to identify the remaining questions. In short, callosotomy leads to a...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - May 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms that Predict Cognitive Decline or Impairment in Cognitively Normal Middle-Aged or Older Adults: a Meta-Analysis
This study aimed to systematically review the literature and determine which behavioral and psychological symptoms are most predictive of future cognitive decline among individuals with no pre-existing cognitive impairments. The selected studies included middle-aged or older adults without cognitive impairments. The predictors were assessed using behavioral and psychological questionnaires, or diagnostic interviews, to identify non-cognitive symptoms or psychiatric clinical conditions. The follow-up period was at least one year, and the design of the selected studies was either retrospective or prospective. This study comp...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - May 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Depression and Cognitive Control across the Lifespan: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractDepression has been shown to negatively impact neurocognitive functions, particularly those governed by fronto-subcortical networks, such as executive functions. Converging evidence suggests that depression-related executive dysfunction is greater at older ages, however, this has not been previously confirmed by meta-analysis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis, using three-level models, on peer-reviewed studies that examined depression-related differences in cognitive control in healthy community-dwelling individuals of any age. We focused on studies of cognitive control as defined by the National ...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - May 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cognition-Oriented Treatments for Older Adults: a Systematic Overview of Systematic Reviews
AbstractCognition-oriented treatments – commonly categorized as cognitive training, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive stimulation – are promising approaches for the prevention of cognitive and functional decline in older adults. We conducted a systematic overview of meta-analyses investigating the efficacy of cognition-oriented treatments on cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes in older adults with or without cognitive impairment. Review quality was assessed by A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR). We identified 51 eligible reviews, 46 of which were included in the quantitative synthe...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - April 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychological Predictors of Outcome Following Stroke and Other Non-Traumatic Acquired Brain Injuries in Adults
AbstractA number of cognitive abilities have been reported to predict outcome following a non-traumatic acquired brain injury (ABI) in adults. However, the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, the unique and combined capacity of these cognitive abilities to predict ABI outcome has not been evaluated. Consequently, we employed meta-analysis and multiple regression to evaluate the capacity of various neuropsychological domains to predict two separate outcome variables in adults: (1) activities of daily living; and (2) quality of life. Based on the activities of daily living meta-analysis (N = 2384), we estima...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - March 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cerebellar Contributions to Proactive and Reactive Control in the Stop Signal Task: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies
AbstractThe cerebellum facilitates and modulates cognitive functions using forward and inverse internal models to predict and control behavior, respectively. Despite neuroimaging evidence that regions of the cerebellum are active during executive function (EF) tasks in general, little is known about the cerebellum ’s role in specific EFs and their underlying neural networks. Inhibitory control specifically may be facilitated by cerebellar internal models predicting responses during proactive control (withholding), and controlling responses during reactive control (inhibiting). The stop signal task (SST) is an inhibit...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - March 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: Bilingualism Is Associated with a Delayed Onset of Dementia but Not with a Lower Risk of Developing it: a Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses
The original version of this article unfortunately contained the following mistakes. (Source: Neuropsychology Review)
Source: Neuropsychology Review - March 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inhibitory Control Deficits in Individuals with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: a Meta-Analysis
AbstractAmnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a prodromal stage of Alzheimer ’s disease that is characterized by impairments in episodic memory. Recent evidence has shown that inhibitory control is also impaired in aMCI. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to quantify inhibitory control ability in individuals with aMCI by examining performance across a range of well-d efined inhibition paradigms that tapped into one of three inhibitory control subtypes (i) interference control (e.g., Stroop task), (ii) response inhibition (e.g., Go/Nogo task), or (iii) inhibition of cognitive sets (Wisconsin Card Sort Tas...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - March 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fuel for Thought? A Systematic Review of Neuroimaging Studies into Glucose Enhancement of Cognitive Performance
AbstractA transient improvement in cognitive performance can be observed following the ingestion of a glucose drink, a phenomenon known as the ‘glucose facilitation effect’. The effect has been studied thoroughly in the last three decades, but its neural underpinnings remain a matter of speculation. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the current evidence from studies applying neuroimaging or neurophysiological methods to inv estigate the glucose enhancement effect. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria of using neuroimaging in conjunction with cognitive outcomes. Six studies employed electroencep...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - March 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How Perceptions Impact Recovery from Concussion in Childhood and Adolescence: a Systematic Review
AbstractPerceptions about the causes and consequences of concussion, and individual representations and interpretations of these factors, can influence the post-concussive recovery process. The goal of this project was to synthesize evidence on perceptions related to concussions as experienced by children, adolescents, and parents, and to evaluate how these perceptions impact post-concussive recovery in physical, behavioural, cognitive, and psychological domains. We undertook a systematic review based on the Cochrane Handbook, conducting a comprehensive search of six databases and Google Scholar. Duplicate, independent scr...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - March 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Computerized Cognitive Training Programs (CCTP) with Game-like Features in Children with or without Neuropsychological Disorders: a Meta-Analytic Investigation
AbstractComputerized cognitive training programs (CCTP) are based on the assumption that cognitive abilities may be boosted by repetitively performing challenging tasks. The integration of game-like features in these programs, associated with the goal of amusing or rewarding participants, may contribute to generate cognitive benefits. Indeed, reinforcement contingencies have been reported to produce positive effects on performance and motivation, especially in children. This meta-analysis was aimed at providing a quantitative summary of the effectiveness of CCTP with game-like features in school-aged children with typical ...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - February 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bilingualism Is Associated with a Delayed Onset of Dementia but Not with a Lower Risk of Developing it: a Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses
AbstractSome studies have linked bilingualism with a later onset of dementia, Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Not all studies have observed such relationships, however. Differences in study outcomes may be due to methodological limitations and the presence of confounding factors within studies such as immigration status and level of education. We condu cted the first systematic review with meta-analysis combining cross-sectional studies to explore if bilingualism might delay symptom onset and diagnosis of dementia, AD, and MCI. Primary outcomes included the age of symptom onset, the ag...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - February 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Factor Structure of Cognitive Functioning in Cognitively Healthy Participants: a Meta-Analysis and Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data
AbstractMany neuropsychologists are of the opinion that the multitude of cognitive tests may be grouped into a much smaller number of cognitive domains. However, there is little consensus on how many domains exist, what these domains are, nor on which cognitive tests belong to which domain. This incertitude can be solved by factor analysis, provided that the analysis includes a broad range of cognitive tests that have been administered to a very large number of people. In this article, two such factor analyses were performed, each combining multiple studies. However, because it was not possible to obtain complete multivari...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Lifespan Model of Interference Resolution and Inhibitory Control: Risk for Depression and Changes with Illness Progression
We describe the development of these two processes across the lifespan, noting factors that influence this development (e.g., environment, adversity and stress) as well as inherent difficulties in assessing IC/IR prior to adulthood (e.g., cross-informant reports). We use mood disorders as an illustrative example of how this multidimensional construct can be informative to state, trait, vulnerability and neuroprogression of disease. We present aggregated data across numerous studies and methodologies to examine the lifelong development and degradation of this subconstruct of executive function, particularly in mood disorder...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - January 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy for the Pseudobulbar Affect in Individuals Who Have Sustained a Traumatic Brain Injury: a Systematic Review
AbstractPseudobulbar affect is a debilitating condition that significantly reduces quality of life for many individuals following traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is characterized by embarrassing and often uncontrollable episodes of crying or laughter. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy as compared to all other comparators for the management of pseudobulbar affect in adults who have sustained TBI. Six databases were searched, with additional hand searching of journals, clinical trials registries and international drug regulators to identify published and unpublished studi...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - January 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: Towards a Better Understanding of Cognitive Deficits in Absence Epilepsy: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Due to an error during the editorial phase, a correction regarding Fig.  2 is added to the original article: “Towards a Better Understanding of Cognitive Deficits in Absence Epilepsy: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”. Please see below correct Fig. 2. (Source: Neuropsychology Review)
Source: Neuropsychology Review - December 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Studies Reporting Data-Driven Cognitive Subtypes across the Psychosis Spectrum
AbstractThe delineation of cognitive subtypes of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may offer a means of determining shared genetic markers and neuropathology among individuals with these conditions. We systematically reviewed the evidence from published studies reporting the use of data-driven (i.e., unsupervised) clustering methods to delineate cognitive subtypes among adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We reviewed 24 studies in total, contributing data to 13 analyses of schizophrenia spectrum patients, 8 analyses of bipolar disorder, and 5 analyses of mixed samples of sch...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - December 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Towards a Better Understanding of Cognitive Deficits in Absence Epilepsy: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
In conclusion, in contrast to common beliefs, lower than average neurocognitive performance was noted in multiple cognitive domains, which may influence academic and psychosocial development. (Source: Neuropsychology Review)
Source: Neuropsychology Review - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of Cortico-Thalamo-Cortical Circuits in Language: Recurrent Circuits Revisited
AbstractBased on a review of recent literature, a recurrent circuit model describes how cortico-thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical circuitry supports word retrieval, auditory-verbal comprehension, and other language functions. Supporting data include cellular and layer-specific cortico-thalamic, thalamo-cortical, and cortico-cortical neuroanatomy and electrophysiology. The model posits that during word retrieval, higher order cortico-thalamo-cortical relays maintain stable representations of semantic information in feedforward processes at the semantic-lexical interface. These stable semantic representations are compare...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Caregiver- and Clinician-Reported Adaptive Functioning in Rett Syndrome: a Systematic Review and Evaluation of Measurement Strategies
AbstractRett syndrome is the second most common cause of intellectual disability in females worldwide. The severity of many individuals ’ impairment limits the effectiveness of traditional assessment. However, clinician and parent reports of adaptive functioning may provide insight into these patients’ abilities. This review aims to synthesize the current literature assessing adaptive functioning in Rett syndrome and evaluate ex isting measurement tools in this population. A search was conducted on PubMed using the search term “Rett syndrome.” Studies that quantitatively assessed adaptive functionin...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - November 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Visuospatial Neglect - a Theory-Informed Overview of Current and Emerging Strategies and a Systematic Review on the Therapeutic Use of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation
AbstractVisuospatial neglect constitutes a supramodal cognitive deficit characterized by reduction or loss of spatial awareness for the contralesional space. It occurs in over 40% of right- and 20% of left-brain-lesioned stroke patients with lesions located mostly in parietal, frontal and subcortical brain areas. Visuospatial neglect is a multifaceted syndrome - symptoms can be divided into sensory, motor and representational neglect - and therefore requires an individually adapted diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Several models try to explain the origins of visuospatial neglect, of which the “interhemispheric ri...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - November 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

To Watch is to Work: a Review of NeuroImaging Data on Tool Use Observation Network
AbstractSince the discovery of mirror neurons in the 1990s, many neuroimaging studies have tackled the issue of action observation with the aim of unravelling a putative homolog human system. However, these studies do not distinguish between non-tool-use versus tool-use actions, implying that a common brain network is systematically involved in the observation of any action. Here we provide evidence for a brain network dedicated to tool-use action observation, called the tool-use observation network, mostly situated in the left hemisphere, and distinct from the non-tool-use action observation network. Areas specific for to...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - October 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurobiological and Cognitive Profile of Young Binge Drinkers: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractThis review provides the first systematic and quantitative synthesis of the literature examining the relationship between binge drinking, cognition, brain structure and function in youth aged 10 to 24  years. PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, PsychINFO and ProQuest were searched for neuroimaging, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological studies. A total of 58 studies (21 neuroimaging, 16 neurophysiological, 21 neuropsychological) met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Overall, ab normal or delayed development of key frontal executive-control regions may predispose youth to binge drink. These ab...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - September 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Neurocognitive Functioning in Beh çet’s Disease
The objective of this review was to determine whether neurocognitive dysfunction is observed in BD, in which neurocognitive domains, and whether there are differences in rates of dysfunction observed between BD and NBD groups. Studies of any methodology were included that reported results from standardized neurocognitive assessment measures in participants with BD or NBD. Twelve group comparison studies met the criteria for incl usion in the review (totalling 284 BD and 157 NBD participants), as well as 17 case study/series papers (11 BD, 35 NBD). Issues with blinding, incomplete data reporting and selective reporting bias...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - September 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Guide to Conducting a Meta-Analysis with Non-Independent Effect Sizes
AbstractConventional meta-analytic procedures assume that effect sizes are independent. When effect sizes are not independent, conclusions based on these conventional procedures can be misleading or even wrong. Traditional approaches, such as averaging the effect sizes and selecting one effect size per study, are usually used to avoid the dependence of the effect sizes. These ad-hoc approaches, however, may lead to missed opportunities to utilize all available data to address the relevant research questions. Both multivariate meta-analysis and three-level meta-analysis have been proposed to handle non-independent effect si...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - August 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders
This study aims to systematically review the evidence on the accuracy of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test for diagnosing HIV –associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and to outline the quality and quantity of research evidence available about the accuracy of MoCA in populations infected with HIV. We conducted a systematic literature review, searching five databases from inception until January 2019. We extracted dich otomized positive and negative test results at various thresholds and calculated the sensitivity and specificity of MoCA. Quality assessment was performed according to the Quality Assessm...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - August 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Cerebellum in Frontotemporal Dementia: a Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies
AbstractFrontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder primarily affecting the frontal and/or temporal lobes. Three main subtypes have been recognized: behavioural-variant FTD (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), each of which has a distinct clinical and cognitive profile. Although the role of the cerebellum in cognition is increasingly accepted, knowledge of cerebellar changes across neuroimaging modalities and their contribution to behavioural and cognitive changes in FTD syndromes is currently scant. We conducted an anatomical/activation likelihood estimation (A...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - August 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Effects of Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury on Episodic Memory: a Meta-Analysis
AbstractMemory impairment following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is among its most pronounced effects. The present meta-analysis focused only on studies of episodic memory (n = 73) conducted with adult patients with moderate-to-severe TBI. The results indicate that verbal Memory, and more specifically Verbal Recall, is most sensitive to the effects of moderate-to-severe TBI. Furthermore, verbal more than visual memory and recall more than recognition are sensitive t o the effects of TBI. These effects are more pronounced in delayed than in immediate testing. Several moderating factors were found: age at testi...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - August 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

(Neuro)Psychological Interventions for Non-Motor Symptoms in the Treatment of Patients with Parkinson ’s Disease: a Systematic Umbrella Review
This article reviews the evidence on therapeutic or educative interventions based on psychological principles for patients with Parkinson ’s disease. The electronic bibliographic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, and CINAHL were systematically searched for meta-analyses on psychological interventions for patients with Parkinson’s disease, published from January 2000 to June 2018. We extracted psychological interventions, non-m otor outcomes, effect sizes, confidence intervals, and I2 heterogeneity statistics. In addition, we rated the level of evidence on an intervention ’s effectiveness regarding a s...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - June 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Comparison of Virtual Reality Classroom Continuous Performance Tests to Traditional Continuous Performance Tests in Delineating ADHD: a Meta-Analysis
The objective of the present systematic PRISMA review was to address this empirical void and compare three-dimensional (3D) virtual classroom CPTs to traditional two-dimensional (2D) CPTs. The peer-reviewed literature on comparisons of virtual classroom performance between children with ADHD and typically developing children was explored in six databases (e.g., Medline). Published studies using a virtual classroom to compare attentional performance between children with ADHD and typically developing children were included. Given the high heterogeneity with modality comparisons (i.e., computerized CPTs vs. virtual classroom...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - June 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional Neural Correlates of Anosognosia in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer ’s Disease: a Systematic Review
AbstractFunctional neuroimaging techniques (i.e. single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to assess the neural correlates of anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). A systematic review of this literature was performed, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses statement, on PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases. Twenty-five articles met all inclusion criteria. Specifically, four brain connectivity and 2 1 brain perfusion, metabolism, and activation ar...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - June 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Quantitative Meta-analysis of Olfactory Dysfunction in Epilepsy
AbstractOlfactory dysfunction in epilepsy is well-documented in several olfactory domains. However, the clinical specificity of these deficits remains unknown. The aim of this systematic meta-analysis was to determine which domains of olfactory ability were most impaired in individuals with epilepsy, and to assess moderating factors affecting olfactory ability. Extant peer-reviewed literature on olfaction in epilepsy were identified via a computerized literature search using PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and Google Scholar databases. Twenty-one articles met inclusion criteria. These studies included a total of 912 patients wi...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corticosteroids and Cognition: A Meta-Analysis
AbstractA thorough understanding of the cognitive effects of corticosteroids is essential given their frequency of use. This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of corticosteroids on the various domains of cognitive functioning, grouped by duration of use. An electronic search of PsycInfo, Medline and Google Scholar was conducted for all journal articles published between January 1990 and May 2018. Twenty six studies were included enabling calculation of standardised mean difference (SMD) using a random effects model for the cognitive domains of divided attention, executive function, expressive language,...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - May 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cognitive Assessment of Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis in the Arab World: a Systematic Review
AbstractThe prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is on the rise globally, and recent epidemiological studies have observed increased rates in the Arab world (i.e., countries of North Africa and the Middle East where Arabic is the primary language). However, assessment of cognitive impairment and its relevant covariates (e.g., fatigue and depressive symptomatology) in the Arab world has not been rigorously reviewed. Thus, the objective of the present study was to systematically review the current use of cognitive assessment measures in observational and interventional studies of individuals with MS in the Arab world. A sys...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue on the Utility of Transdiagnostic Approaches for Developing Novel Interventions for Substance and Behavioural Addictions
(Source: Neuropsychology Review)
Source: Neuropsychology Review - April 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Defining Compulsive Behavior
This article aims to help progress the definition of what constitutes compulsive behavior, cross-diagnostically, by analyzing different definitions in the psychiatric literature. We searched PubMed for articles in human psychiatric research with ‘compulsive behavior’ or ‘compulsivit y’ in the title that focused on the broader concept of compulsivity—returning 28 articles with nine original definitions. Within the definitions, we separated three types of descriptive elements: phenomenological, observational and explanatory. The elements most applicable, cross-diagnostically, resulted in this de...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - April 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Systematic Meta-Review of Impulsivity and Compulsivity in Addictive Behaviors
AbstractIt is well established that poor inhibitory control confers both a vulnerability to, and maintenance of, addictive behaviors across the substance and behavioral spectrums. By comparison, the role of compulsivity in addictive behaviors has received less research focus. The neurocognitive literature to date is vast, and it is unclear whether there are any convincing lines of systematic evidence delineating whether and how aspects of impulsivity and compulsivity are shared and unique across different substance and behavioral addictive disorders. Such information has significant implications for our understanding of un...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - March 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genetic Modulation of Neurocognitive Development in Cancer Patients throughout the Lifespan: a Systematic Review
AbstractThe rise in cancer survival rates has raised concerns about the long-term adverse effects of cancer treatment, including neurocognitive impairment. Neurocognitive deficits such as attention and processing speed are frequently observed and can have a profound, lifelong impact in daily life of cancer patients. Interestingly, large interpatient variability exists in cognitive outcomes. Emerging evidence indicates that such differences may be related to genetic variation. The aim of our review was to systematically summarize the current literature on the modulatory effects of germline genetic polymorphisms on cancer tr...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - March 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Roles of the Amygdala and Basal Forebrain in Defense: a Reply to Luyck Et al. and Implications for Defensive Action
AbstractThe commentary by Luyck and colleagues on our paper provides many stimulating viewpoints and interpretations of our original study on dissociable responses in the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in threat processing. Here, we reply to some of the points raised and while agreeing with most of the comments also provide some alternative viewpoints. We end by putting forward a research agenda for how to further investigate the roles of these regions in threat processing, with an emphasis on studying their roles in defensive action. (Source: Neuropsychology Review)
Source: Neuropsychology Review - March 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Roles of the Amygdala and Basal Forebrain in Defense: a Reply to Lucyk Et al. and Implications for Defensive Action
AbstractThe commentary by Luyck and colleagues on our paper provides many stimulating viewpoints and interpretations of our original study on dissociable responses in the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in threat processing. Here, we reply to some of the points raised and while agreeing with most of the comments also provide some alternative viewpoints. We end by putting forward a research agenda for how to further investigate the roles of these regions in threat processing, with an emphasis on studying their roles in defensive action. (Source: Neuropsychology Review)
Source: Neuropsychology Review - March 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of the Amygdala and the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Emotional Regulation: Implications for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
AbstractThe importance of the amygdala as a salience detector and in emotional learning is now well accepted. The mechanisms that regulate and inhibit the amygdala, however, are less well understood. This review provides evidence from imaging and lesion studies to support the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) as a moderator and inhibitor of the amygdala. Thedual inhibition model centres on the broadly defined ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the distinct role of two of its subcomponents, the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. Thedual inhibition model posits that these two...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - March 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Efficacy of Pharmacological Interventions in Targeting Decision-Making Impairments across Substance and Behavioral Addictions
AbstractDecision-making impairments reflect tendencies towards risky or unwise choices as manifested by presence of psychiatric symptoms or cognitive impairment (e.g. representation of value, inhibitory control-response selection, learning). Such impairments are suggested by the hallmark symptoms of substance and behavioral addictions, which include escalation over time (of substance intake or a given behavior), lack of control, neglect of other domains of life, and cognitive distortions (such as ‘chasing losses’ in gambling disorder). Amongst the putative behavioral addictions, most epidemiological data exist ...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - March 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Decision-Making in Offender Populations with Mental Disorder
AbstractDecision-making has many different definitions and is measured in varied ways using neuropsychological tasks. Offenders with mental disorder habitually make disadvantageous decisions, but no study has systematically appraised the literature. This review aimed to clarify the field by bringing together different neuropsychological measures of decision-making, and using meta-analysis and systematic review to explore the performance of offenders with mental disorders on neuropsychological tasks of decision-making. A structured search of PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Medline, Cinahl was conducted with additional hand search...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - February 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cognitive Bias Modification for Behavior Change in Alcohol and Smoking Addiction: Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data
In this study, we conducted a Bayesian meta-analysis of individual patient data from studies investigating the effects of CBM as a behavior change intervention for the treatment of alcohol and tobacco use disorders, in individuals aware of the behavior change goal of the studies. Main outcomes included reduction in the targeted cognitive biases after the intervention and in substance use or relapse rate at the short-to-long term follow-up. Additional moderators, both at the study-level (type of addiction and CBM training) and at the participant-level (amount of completed training trials, severity of substance use), were pr...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - January 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Patient-Tailored Evidence-Based Approach for Developing Early Neuropsychological Training Programs in Addiction Settings
AbstractSubstance use disorders (SUDs) are associated with impairments of cognitive functions, and cognitive training programs are thus rapidly developing in SUD treatment. However, neuropsychological impairments observed early after withdrawal (i.e., early impairments), that is, approximately in the first six months, may be widespread. Consequently, it might not be possible to train all the identified early impairments. In these situations, we propose that the priority of cognitive training should be given to the early impairments found to be associated with early dropout or relapse (i.e., relapse-related impairments). Ho...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - January 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evaluating Spelling in Glioma Patients Undergoing Awake Surgery: a Systematic Review
AbstractA main goal of awake surgery is to preserve language in order to facilitate return to work and maintain quality of life. Although spelling has become crucial in daily life, it has received little attention in awake surgery practice. We review assessments of spelling carried out in awake surgery studies, to inspect how current neurofunctional theories of spelling may guide pre-, intra- and post-operative neurosurgical practice. A systematic database search in Embase, Medline, PubMed and Web of Science identified studies reporting on spelling assessment in glioma patients undergoing awake surgery. Twenty-three studie...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - December 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: The Neural Substrate of Reward Anticipation in Health: A Meta-Analysis of fMRI Findings in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task
The members of MTAC were removed from the author group and full list are shown in the Acknowledgements section. Also, members “Roee, A” and “Van Amselvoort, T” should be “Admon, R" and “Van Amelsvoort, T”, respectively. The original article has been corrected. (Source: Neuropsychology Review)
Source: Neuropsychology Review - December 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The ‘Neglected’ Personal Neglect
AbstractA review of patients with brain injury showing personal neglect is presented. The aim is to shed light on this aspect of neglect often unresearched or only indirectly investigated, and to discuss recent findings concerning the methods used to assess personal neglect, its neural correlates and its association with the more often explored aspect of extrapersonal neglect. The review was performed using PubMed and PsychInfo databases to search for papers published in the last 123  years (until January 2018). We reviewed 81 papers describing either single or group studies for a total of 2247 patients. The results o...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - December 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and PTSD in People with Dementia: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
This study examined the link between depression/anxiety/PTSD and dementia by evaluating the prevalence of these disorders in people with dementia, relative to their healthy peers. Existing meta-analyses have examined the prevalence of clinically-significant depression and anxiety in Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), and depression in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but have not considered vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), PTSD, or anxiety in FTD. The current meta-analysis compared the prevalence of clinically-significant depression, anxiety and PTSD in the four most com mon types of dementia (AD, VaD,...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - December 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Efficacy of Invasive and Non-Invasive Brain Modulation Interventions for Addiction
AbstractIt is important to find new treatments for addiction due to high relapse rates despite current interventions and due to expansion of the field with non-substance related addictive behaviors. Neuromodulation may provide a new type of treatment for addiction since it can directly target abnormalities in neurocircuits. We review literature on five neuromodulation techniques investigated for efficacy in substance related and behavioral addictions: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), (repetitive) transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), EEG, fMRI neurofeedback and deep brain stimulation (DBS) and additional...
Source: Neuropsychology Review - December 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research