Gastrodin Regulates the Notch Signaling Pathway and Sirt3 in Activated Microglia in Cerebral Hypoxic-Ischemia Neonatal Rats and in Activated BV-2 Microglia
This study is designed to determine whether gastrodin would regulate the Notch signaling pathway and Sirtuin3 (Sirt3), which are implicated in regulating microglia activation. The present results showed that gastrodin markedly suppressed the expression of members of Notch signaling pathway (Notch-1, NICD, RBP-JK and Hes-1) in activated microglia both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, Sirt3 expression was enhanced. In BV-2 microglia treated with a γ-secretase inhibitor of Notch pathway- DAPT, the expression of RBP-JK, Hes-1, and NICD was suppressed in activated microglia. Treatment with DAPT and gastrodin further decr...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Galuteolin Inhibited Autophagy for Neuroprotection Against Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats
In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of galuteolin against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We administered galuteolin or galuteolin and rapamycin to rats which had middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R). A series of characterizations were carried out to monitor the outcomes of galuteolin in I/R rats regarding the infarct volumes, neurological deficits, and brain water, as well as its effect on neuroprotection and autophagy. It was found that galuteolin significantly reduced the infarct volume, brain water content, and the neurological deficits in a dose-dependent mann...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Role of lncRNA TUG1 in the Parkinson Disease and Its Effect on Microglial Inflammatory Response
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease in the middle-aged and elderly populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical value of lncRNA TUG1 in PD and its effect on the microglial inflammatory response. A total of 181 subjects were recruited for the study, inclu ding 97 patients with PD (male/female 50/47) and 84 healthy individuals (male/female 41/43). There was no significant difference for gender and age distribution between the groups. The expression of serum TUG1 was determined by qRT-PCR. The receiver operating curve (ROC) was applied for diagnostic v alue a...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and Cytoprotective Effect of Clinacanthus nutans Leaf But Not Stem Extracts on 7-Ketocholesterol Induced Brain Endothelial Cell Injury
AbstractClinacanthus nutans (Lindau) (C. nutans) has diverse uses in traditional herbal medicine for treating skin rashes, insect and snake bites, lesions caused by herpes simplex virus, diabetes mellitus and gout in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and China. We previously showed thatC. nutans has the ability to modulate the induction of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) expression in SH-SY5Y cells through the inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs). In the current study, we elucidated the effect ofC. nutans on the hCMEC/D3 human brain endothelial cell line. Endothelial cells are exposed to high levels of the ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bile Acids: A Communication Channel in the Gut-Brain Axis
AbstractBile acids are signalling hormones involved in the regulation of several metabolic pathways. The ability of bile acids to bind and signal through their receptors is modulated by the gut microbiome, since the microbiome contributes to the regulation and synthesis of bile acids as well to their physiochemical properties. From the gut, bacteria have been shown to send signals to the central nervous system via their metabolites, thus affecting the behaviour and brain function of the host organism. In the last years it has become increasingly evident that bile acids affect brain function, during normal physiological and...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

CD137 Ligand-CD137 Interaction is Required For Inflammasome-Associated Brain Injury Following Ischemic Stroke
In conclusion, our data provide evidence for the first time that the CD137L-CD137 axis contributes to brain injury and neurological deficits by activating the inflammasome signaling pathway following ischemic stroke. (Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine)
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Microarray Profiling Reveals Distinct Circulating miRNAs in Aged Male and Female Mice Subjected to Post-stroke Social Isolation
AbstractSocial isolation (SI) increases ischemic injury and significantly delays recovery after experimental stroke. Changes in circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including stroke. However, potential biomarkers to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the detrimental effects of post-stroke isolation are unknown. Aged C57BL/6 male and female mice (18 –20 months) were subjected to a 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion and were assigned to either isolation (SI) or continued pair housing (PH) immediately after stroke. On day 15, mice we...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effect of Ergothioneine on 7-Ketocholesterol-Induced Endothelial Injury
AbstractErgothioneine (ET) is a naturally occurring antioxidant that is synthesized by non-yeast fungi and certain bacteria. ET is not synthesized by animals, including humans, but is avidly taken up from the diet, especially from mushrooms. In the current study, we elucidated the effect of ET on the hCMEC/D3 human brain endothelial cell line. Endothelial cells are exposed to high levels of the cholesterol oxidation product, 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), in patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and this process is thought to mediate pathological inflammation. 7KC induces a dose-dependent loss of cell viability and ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinacanthus nutans Mitigates Neuronal Death and Reduces Ischemic Brain Injury: Role of NF- κB-driven IL-1β Transcription
AbstractNeuroinflammation has been shown to exacerbate ischemic brain injury, and is considered as a prime target for the development of stroke therapies.Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (C. nutans) is widely used in traditional medicine for treating insect bites, viral infection and cancer, due largely to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, we reported that an ethanol extract from the leaf ofC. nutans could protect the brain against ischemia-triggered neuronal death and infarction. In order to further understand the molecular mechanism(s) for its beneficial effects, two experimental paradigms, namely,...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Low Levels of LRRK2 Gene Expression are Associated with LRRK2 SNPs and Contribute to Parkinson ’s Disease Progression
In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of theLRRK2 gene, namely, rs11176013, rs10878371, rs11835105, and PD. Genotypes of 132 PD cases and 133 healthy individuals were determined by qRT-PCR. Haplotype analysis was performed. Additionally,LRRK2 mRNA expression levels were determined in 83 PD cases and 55 healthy subjects. The relationship betweenLRRK2 mRNA levels, the target SNPs, and clinical data was also investigated. Our results indicated that the “GG” genotype and “G” allele of rs11176013 and the “CC” genotype and “...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Preliminary Findings on Proline-Rich Protein 14 as a Diagnostic Biomarker for Parkinson ’s Disease
AbstractThe nuclear envelope component proline-rich protein 14 (PRR14) is involved in the nuclear morphological alteration and activation of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway, and has been repeatedly shown to be upregulated in patients with Parkinson ’s disease (PD). The aim of this study was to explore whether PRR14 can be used as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of PD. We compared PRR14 expression in PD patients and normal controls in gene expression omnibus (GEO) data. Quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used t o detect PRR14 expression in PD patients and age-...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - September 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation Alters Phospholipid Species and Lipid Peroxidation Products in Adult Mouse Brain, Heart, and Plasma
In this study, adult mice were administered a control or DHA-enriched diet for 3  weeks, and phospholipid species and peroxidation products were examined in brain, heart, and plasma. Results demonstrated that this dietary regimen increased (n-3) and decreased (n-6) species to different extent in all major phospholipid classes (PC, dPE, PE-pl, PI and PS) examined. Besides change s in phospholipid species, DHA-enriched diet also showed substantial increases in 4-HHE in brain, heart, and plasma. Among different brain regions, the hippocampus responded to the DHA-enriched diet showing significant increase in 4-HHE. Consid...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - September 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

5-N-ethyl Carboxamidoadenosine Stimulates Adenosine-2b Receptor-Mediated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway to Improve Brain Mitochondrial Function in Amyloid Beta-Induced Cognitive Deficit Mice
AbstractAlzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with loss in memory as one of the cardinal features. 5-N-ethyl carboxamidoadenosine (NECA), an agonist of adenosine-2b receptor, exerts neuroprotective activity against several experimental conditions. Further, NECA activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and also attenuates mitochondrial toxicity in mammalian tissues other than brain. Moreover, there is no report on the role of A2b/MAPK-mediated signaling pathway in A β-induced mitochondrial toxicity in the brain of the experimental animals. Therefore, the present study evaluated t...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - September 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Oxytocin Reduces Brain Injury and Maintains Blood –Brain Barrier Integrity After Ischemic Stroke in Mice
AbstractThe present study was designed to determine the effect of different doses of oxytocin (OXT) on neuronal injury, spatial memory, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and to explore possible underlying molecular mechanisms in the early stage of stroke in mice. Stroke model was generated by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 60  min and 24 h reperfusion in mice. OXT at doses of 1, 2, 4 and 8 IU/per mouse was administrated intranasally at the beginning of brain ischemia. Brain injury, BBB integrity, and spatial memory were evaluated by standard methods. Changes in the expression of nuclear f...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - September 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptors in Cerebral Ischemia
AbstractSphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is an important lipid biomolecule that exerts pleiotropic cellular actions as it binds to and activates its five G-protein-coupled receptors, S1P1 –5. Through these receptors, S1P can mediate diverse biological activities in both healthy and diseased conditions. S1P is produced by S1P-producing enzymes, sphingosine kinases (SphK1 and SphK2), and is abundantly present in different organs, including the brain. The medically important roles of receptor-mediated S1P signaling are well characterized in multiple sclerosis because FTY720 (Gilenya ™, Novartis), a non-selective S1P ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - September 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

HLA in Alzheimer ’s Disease: Genetic Association and Possible Pathogenic Roles
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is commonly considered as the most prominent dementing disorder globally and is characterized by the deposition of misfolded amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and the aggregation of neurofibrillary tangles. Immunological disturbances and neuroinflammation, which result from abnormal immunol ogical reactivations, are believed to be the primary stimulating factors triggering AD-like neuropathy. It has been suggested by multiple previous studies that a bunch of AD key influencing factors might be attributed to genes encoding human leukocyte antigen (HLA), whose variety is an essential pa...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - September 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Galectin-9 Promotes Neuronal Restoration via Binding TLR-4 in a Rat Intracerebral Hemorrhage Model
AbstractIntracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Galactose lectin-9 (Gal-9) belongs to the family of β-galactoside-binding lectins, which has been shown to play a vital role in immune tolerance and inflammation. However, the function of Gal-9 in ICH has not been fully studied in details. Several experiments were carried out to explore the role of Gal-9 in the late period of ICH. Primarily, ICH mod els were established in male adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Next, the relative protein levels of Gal-9 at different time points after ICH were examined and the resu...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - August 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Transcriptomic Heterogeneity of Alzheimer ’s Disease Associated with Lipid Genetic Risk
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease that affects more than 5 million Americans. Multiple pathways might be involved in the AD pathogenesis. The implication of lipid genetic susceptibility on brain gene expression is yet to be investigated. The current study included 192 brain samples from AD patients who were enrolled in the ROSMAP study. The samples were genotyped and imputed to the HRC Reference Panel. Lipid polygenetic risk score was constructed from the weighted sum of genetic variants associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The gene expression was pro...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - August 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cell-Free Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Human Bone Marrow Endothelial Progenitor Cells as Potential Therapeutics for Microvascular Endothelium Restoration in ALS
AbstractRepairing the damaged blood-CNS-barrier in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is necessary to prevent entry of detrimental blood-borne factors contributing to motor neuron dysfunction. Recently, we showed benefits of human bone marrow endothelial progenitor cell (hBM-EPC) transplantation into symptomatic ALS mice on barrier restoration by replacing damaged endothelial cells (ECs). Additionally, transplanted cells may endogenously repair ECs by secreting angiogenic factors as our subsequent in vitro study demonstrated. Based on these study results, hBM-EPCs may secrete extracellular vesicles, which may contain and ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - August 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Quercetin Ameliorates CFA-Induced Chronic Inflammatory Hyperalgesia via Modulation of ROS-Mediated ERK1/2 Signaling and Inhibition of Spinal Glial Activation In Vivo
AbstractImpact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in development of hyperalgesia has recently motivated scientists to focus on ROS as novel target of anti-hyperalgesic interventions. Studies have indicated the usefulness of ROS scavengers and exogenous antioxidants as anti-nociceptive agents in animal models of neuropathic and inflammatory hyperalgesia. In present study, we suggest the anti-hyperalgesic potential of the dietary antioxidant quercetin on chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Complete Freund ’s Adjuvant (CFA). Three doses of quercetin (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight) for consecutive 7&nb...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - August 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

MiR-874 Inhibits Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Glioma Cells and Correlates with Prognosis of Glioma Patients
This study aimed to investigate its expression, clinical significance, and cellular function in glioma. A total of 105 glioma patients were enrolled in the present study. The RT-qPCR analysis was used to detect the expression of miR-874 in glioma tissues and cells. Theχ2 test was used to analyze the association between miR-874 expression and clinical characteristics of patients. Kaplan –Meier method and multivariate Cox regression assays were used to analyze the prognostic value of miR-874 in glioma. Cell counting kit-8 and Transwell assays were used to explore the alterations in a series of cancer-related phenot...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - August 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Blockage of miR-485-5p on Cortical Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation/Reoxygenation Through Inactivating MAPK Pathway
This study is designed to explore the role of miR-485-5p in hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced neuronal injury in primary rat cortical neurons. Hypoxia/reoxygenation model was established through oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R). RN-c cells were transfected with miR-485-5p mimics, miR-485-5p inhibitors, si-SOX6, pCNDA3.1-SOX6 or miR-485-5p  + pCDNA3.1-SOX6, in which cell viability, apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release rate were assessed. Western blot detected the protein expressions of apoptotic-related proteins (caspase3, Bcl-2, Bax) and the phosphorylated level of ERK1/2. The potent...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - July 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Experimentally Induced Sepsis Causes Extensive Hypomyelination in the Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus in Neonatal Rats
This study aimed to explore if systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection would induce hypomyelination in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in developing septic neonatal rats. Sprague –Dawley rats (1-day old) were injected with LPS (1 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. By electron microscopy, axonal hypomyelination was evident in the subcortical white matter and hippocampus. The expression of myelin proteins including CNPase, MBP, PLP and MAG was downregulated in both areas of the brai n at 7, 14 and 28 days after LPS injection. The frequency of MBP and PLP-positive oligodendrocyte was significantly reduced using in...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - July 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Tellurium-Based Small Immunomodulatory Molecule Ameliorates Depression-Like Behavior in Two Distinct Rat Models
AbstractMajor depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of morbidity, and the fourth leading cause of disease burden worldwide. While MDD is a treatable condition for many individuals, others suffer from treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Here, we suggest the immunomodulatory compound AS101 as novel therapeutic alternative. We previously showed in animal models that AS101 reduces anxiety-like behavior and elevates levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that has a key role in the pathophysiology of depression. To explore the potential antidepressant properties of AS101, we used the extensive...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - July 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Application of Next-Generation Sequencing in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Opportunities and Challenges
AbstractGenetic factors (gene mutations) lead to various rare and prevalent neurological diseases. Identification of underlying mutations in neurodegenerative diseases is of paramount importance due to the heterogeneous nature of the genome and different clinical manifestations. An early and accurate molecular diagnosis are cardinal for neurodegenerative patients to undergo proper therapeutic regimens. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) method examines up to millions of sequences at a time. As a result, the rare molecular diagnoses, previously presented with “unknown causes”, are now possible in a short time....
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - May 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

miR-146a Mimics Ameliorates Traumatic Brain Injury Involving JNK and NF- κB Signaling Pathway
In conclusion, miR-146a mimics ameliorate TBI-related injuries via JNK and NF-κB signaling pathway. (Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine)
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - May 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Downregulation of Microrna-421 Relieves Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injuries: Involvement of Anti-apoptotic and Antioxidant Activities
AbstractReperfusion after cerebral ischemia causes additional ischemic injuries due to sudden recovery of blood supply. It usually produces excessive reactive species, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis. Our study is designed to examine the role of miR-421 antagomir in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injuries, as well as its underlying mechanisms. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was performed with male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats for the initiation of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injuries. Malondialdehyde (oxidative stress marker) and superoxide dismutase (antioxidant enzyme) were mea...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - May 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gnaq Protects PC12 Cells from Oxidative Damage by Activation of Nrf2 and Inhibition of NF-kB
In this study, we generated a Gnaq-overexpression cell using gene recombinant technique and lentivirus transfection technique in a neuron-like PC12 cell, and investigated whethe r Gnaq had antioxidant effects in PC12 cells treated with H2O2. The viability of cells, concentration of ROS, Nrf2 nuclear translocation, expression of antioxidant enzymes, activation of NF- κB and apoptosis were compared between Gnaq-PC12 cells and Vector-PC12 cells. Results showed that, compared with Vector-PC12 cells, the antioxidative ability of Gnaq-PC12 cells was significantly improved, while the ROS level in Gnaq-PC12 cells was signifi...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - April 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene Polymorphisms Contribute to Opioid Dependence and Addiction by Affecting Promoter Region Function
AbstractMounting evidence shows that drug dependence involves the complex interplay between  genetics and the environment. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine (DA) synthesis, which plays an essential role in the development of drug addiction. Noradrenergic dysfunction due to abnormalities TH expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of drug addicti on. We profiled thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one VNTR (TCAT repeat, UniSTS:240,639) in 512 cases and 600 healthy Chinese subjects to evaluate the relationship between common variants within th...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of CHRNA5 Gene Variants with Crack Cocaine Addiction
AbstractGenome-wide studies provide increasing evidence of association of genetic variants with different behaviors. However, there is a growing need for replication and subsequent characterization of specific findings. In this sense, theCHRNA5 gene has been associated with nicotine (with genome-wide significance), alcohol and cocaine addictions. So far, this gene has not been evaluated in smoked (crack) cocaine. We aimed to analyze the influence ofCHRNA5 variants in crack addiction susceptibility and severity. The sample includes 300 crack-addicted patients and 769 non-addicted individuals. TheCHRNA5 SNPs evaluated were r...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - March 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Alpinia oxyphylla –Schisandra chinensis Herb Pair Alleviates Amyloid-β Induced Cognitive Deficits via PI3K/Akt/Gsk-3β/CREB Pathway
This study aimed at exploring the effects of ASHP on improving the cognitive function and neurodegeneration, and revealing the possible mechanism. In this study, an amyloid- β (Aβ) induced AD model was established in mice via intracerebroventricular injection. The Y-maze test and Morris water maze test were carried out to observe the behavioral change of mice, which showed that ASHP significantly ameliorated cognitive impairment. In addition, ASHP reduced amyloid-β d eposition and downregulated the hyperphosphorylation of tau via immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis, respectively. Subsequently ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - March 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: High ‑Mobility Group Box‑1‑Induced Angiogenesis After Indirect Bypass Surgery in a Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Model
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Figure  5a, b were incorrect. The correct figures are given below. (Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine)
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - February 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Overexpression miR-486-3p Promoted by Allicin Enhances Temozolomide Sensitivity in Glioblastoma Via Targeting MGMT
AbstractGlioblastoma is the most common primary tumor of the central nervous system that develops chemotherapy resistance. Previous studies showed that Allicin could inhibit multiple cancer cells including glioblastoma, but the function of Allicin in glioblastoma is still unclear. Our work aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. The results showed that miR-486-3p levels were greatly increased in glioblastoma during Allicin treatment. Overexpression of miR-486-3p increased chemosensitivity to temozolomide (TMZ) in vitro and in vivo. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) was identified as a direct ta...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - February 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: Mild TBI Results in a Long-Term Decrease in Circulating Phospholipids in a Mouse Model of Injury
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Gary S. Laco should not be listed as an author in the author group. (Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine)
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - February 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Safflower Yellow Improves Synaptic Plasticity in APP/PS1 Mice by Regulating Microglia Activation Phenotypes and BDNF/TrkB/ERK Signaling Pathway
In this study, we are going to study the mechanism of how SY treats AD in terms of synaptic plasticity. We found, via behavioral experiments, that SY treatment could improve the abilities of learning and memory in APP/PS1 mice. In addition, using Golgi staining and HE staini ng, we found that SY treatment could reduce the loss of dendritic spines in the pathological condition and could maintain the normal physiological state of the cells in cortex and in hippocampus. In addition, the results of immunofluorescence staining and western blotting showed that SY treatment co uld significantly increase the expression of synapse-...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - February 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impact of Maternal Separation on Dopamine System and its Association with Parkinson's Disease
AbstractAs a type of stress, maternal separation (MS) has been one of the most widely used models in neuropsychiatric research. An increasing number of studies has found that MS not only affects the function of the hypothalamic –pituitary–adrenal axis and hippocampal 5-hydroxytryptamine system, but also causes dysfunction of the central dopamine (DA) system and increases the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to pathogenic factors of Parkinson's disease (PD), for instance, 6-hydroxydopamine, thus impairing motor fu nction. We reviewed the impact of MS on the DA system and its correlation with PD and found t...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - January 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Review of Functional Electrical Stimulation Treatment in Spinal Cord Injury
AbstractFunctional electrical stimulation (FES) has been widely adopted to elicit muscle contraction in rehabilitation training after spinal cord injury (SCI). Conventional FES modalities include stimulations coupled with rowing, cycling, assisted walking and other derivatives. In this review, we studied thirteen clinical reports from the past 5 years and evaluated the effects of various FES aided rehabilitation plans on the functional recovery after SCI, highlighting upper and lower extremity strength, cardiopulmonary function, and balder control. We further explored potential mechanisms of FES using the Hebbian theory an...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - January 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Naringin Exhibits Neuroprotection Against Rotenone-Induced Neurotoxicity in Experimental Rodents
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is accompanied with the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta which subsequently leads to a reduction in the dopamine level in the striatum. The flavonoids are gaining critical attention in the management of PD due to the toxic effects of the synthetic drugs. Naringin, a potent flavonoid, exerts neuroprotective activity against experimental animal models of PD. It also exhibits protective activity against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in cell line studies. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate t he ther...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - January 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ultrastructural Characteristics of DHA-Induced Pyroptosis
This study used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the morphological characteristics of pyroptosis in BV-2 microglial cells following exposure to 200  µM DHA. Vehicle-treated cells are characterized by extended processes, spine-like projections or 0.4 to 5.2 µm in length, and numerous extracellular vesicles (EVs) tethered to the surface of the plasma membrane. In contrast to vehicle-treated cells, gross abnormalities are observed after treati ng cells with 200 µM DHA for 4 h. These include the appearance of numerous pits or pore...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - January 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Peripheral Blood as a Potential Non-invasive Biomarker for Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractThe impaired mitochondrial function has been implicated in the pathogenicity of multiple sclerosis  (MS), a chronic inflammatory, demyelinating, and neurodegenerative disease of the CNS. Circulating mtDNA copy number in body fluids has been proposed as an indicator for several neurodegenerative diseases, and the altered cerebrospinal fluid mtDNA has been shown as a promising marker for MS. Th e aim of this study was to determine changes and biomarker potential of circulating mtDNA in peripheral blood in MS. The mtDNA copy number was quantified by real-time PCR in blood samples from 60 patients w...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - January 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Harpagophytum procumbens Extract Ameliorates Allodynia and Modulates Oxidative and Antioxidant Stress Pathways in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Injury
AbstractSpinal cord injury (SCI) is  a deliberating disorder with impairments in locomotor deficits and incapacitating sensory abnormalities.Harpagophytum procumbens (Hp) is a botanical widely used for treating inflammation and pain related to various inflammatory and musculoskeletal conditions. Using a modified rodent contusion model of SCI, we explored the effects of this botanical on locomotor function and responses to mechanical stimuli, and examined possible neurochemical changes associated with SCI-induced allodynia. Following spinal cord contusion at T10 level, Hp (300  mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (water) was ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - January 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

O-GlcNAcylation as a Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and the number of elderly patients suffering from AD has been steadily increasing. Despite worldwide efforts to cope with this disease, little progress has been achieved with regard to identification of effective therapeutics. Thus, active resea rch focusing on identification of new therapeutic targets of AD is ongoing. Among the new targets, post-translational modifications which modify the properties of mature proteins have gained attention. O-GlcNAcylation, a type of PTM that attaches O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to a protein,...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Transcriptomic Analysis of Neuropathic Pain in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Peripheral Nerve Injury
In this study, we screened the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the DRG from rats using RNA-seq technique. Moreover, the bioinformatics methods were used to figure out the signaling pathways and expression regulation pattern of the DEGs enriched in. In addition, quantitative real-time RT-PCR was carried out to further confirm the expression of DEGs. 414 genes were upregulated, while 184 genes were downregulated in the DRG of rats 7  days after partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL) surgery. Moreover, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis suggested that most of the altered genes were involved in inflammatory responses...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - December 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

ACE-Triggered Hypertension Incites Stroke: Genetic, Molecular, and Therapeutic Aspects
AbstractStroke is the second largest cause of death worldwide. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene has emerged as an important player in the pathogenesis of hypertension and consequently stroke. It encodes ACE enzyme that converts the inactive decapeptide angiotensin I to active octapeptide, angiotensin II (Ang II). Dysregulation in the expression of ACE gene, on account of genetic variants or regulation by miRNAs, alters the levels of ACE in the circulation. Variable expression of ACE affects the levels of Ang II. Ang II acts through different signal transduction pathways via various tyrosine kinases (receptor/non-re...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - December 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Scutellarin Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Activated Microglia/Brain Macrophage in Cerebral Ischemia and in Activated BV-2 Microglia Through Regulation of MAPKs Signaling Pathway
ConclusionsThe results suggest that scutellarin down-regulates the expression of proinflammatory mediators in AM/BM through suppressing the p-JNK and p-p38 MAPKs. Of note, the anti-inflammatory effect of p38 MAPK inhibitor and scutellarin is comparable. Besides, p38 MAPKs activator reverses the effect of scutellarin. Additionally, scutellarin increases p-ERK1/2 expression that may be neuroprotective. (Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine)
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - December 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Topiramate Reverses Physiological and Behavioral Alterations by Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Rat Model Through Inhibiting TNF Signaling Pathway
This study aimed to investigate the effects of topiramate (TPM) on rats with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and elucidate the underlying mechanism. Differentially expressed genes in propofol-treated group and vehicle control group were filtered out and visualized in heatmap based on R program. POCD rat models were established for validation of TPM ’s anti-inflammatory action and Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed for assessment of spatial learning and memory ability of rats. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was applied to detect the neurodegeneration, and the apoptosis status was detected using ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - November 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Stroke: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapies
(Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine)
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - November 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Disregulation of Autophagy in the Transgenerational Cc2d1a Mouse Model of Autism
This study could help explain a new pathway of autophagy in ASD mouse models. Future animal studies need to investigate sex differences in mouse modeling autism-relevant genes likeCC2D1A. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for more comprehensive autophagy studies in this mouse model of ASD. (Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine)
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - November 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Identification of PP2A and S6 Kinase as Modifiers of Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase-Induced Neurotoxicity
AbstractMutations inLRRK2 are currently recognized as the most common monogenetic cause of Parkinsonism. The elevation of kinase activity of LRRK2 that frequently accompanies its mutations is widely thought to contribute to its toxicity. Accordingly, many groups have developed LRRK2-specific kinase inhibitors as a potential therapeutic strategy. Given that protein phosphorylation is a reversible event, we sought to elucidate the phosphatase(s) that can reverse LRRK2-mediated phosphorylation, with the view that targeting this phosphatase(s) may similarly be beneficial. Using an unbiased RNAi phosphatase screen conducted in ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine Protects Against Oxygen –Glucose Deprivation-Induced Injury Through Inducing Astrocytes Autophagy via TSC2/mTOR Pathway
In conclusion, our study suggests that DEX exerts a neuroprotection against OGD-induced astrocytes injury via activation of astrocytes autophagy by regulating the TSC2/mTOR signaling pathway, which provides a new insight into the mechanisms of DEX treatment for acute ischemic injury. (Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine)
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research