Tetramethylpyrazine Nitrone Reduces Oxidative Stress to Alleviate Cerebral Vasospasm in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Models
In conclusion, TBN ameliorated SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm and neuronal damage. These effects of TBN may be attributed to its anti-oxidative stress effect and up-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1. (Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine)
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - May 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Blockade of Acid-Sensing Ion Channels Attenuates Recurrent Hypoglycemia-Induced Potentiation of Ischemic Brain Damage in Treated Diabetic Rats
AbstractDiabetes is a chronic metabolic disease and cerebral ischemia is a serious complication of diabetes. Anti-diabetic therapy mitigates this complication but increases the risk of exposure to recurrent hypoglycemia (RH). We showed previously that RH exposure increases ischemic brain damage in insulin-treated diabetic (ITD) rats. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that increased intra-ischemic acidosis in RH-exposed ITD rats leads to pronounced post-ischemic hypoperfusion via activation of acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channels (ASICs). Streptozotocin-diabetic rats treated with insulin were considered ITD rat...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - May 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

High-Mobility Group Box-1-Induced Angiogenesis After Indirect Bypass Surgery in a Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Model
AbstractHigh-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that promotes inflammation during the acute phase post-stroke, and enhances angiogenesis during the delayed phase. Here, we evaluated whether indirect revascularization surgery with HMGB1 accelerates brain angiogenesis in a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model. Seven days after hypoperfusion induction, encephalo-myo-synangiosis (EMS) was performed with or without HMGB1 treatment into the temporal muscle. We detected significant increments in cortical vasculature (p 
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - May 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Long Noncoding RNAs in the Pathophysiology of Ischemic Stroke
AbstractIschemic stroke is an acute brain injury with high mortality and disability rates worldwide. The pathophysiological effects of ischemic stroke are driven by a multitude of complex molecular and cellular interactions that ultimately result in brain damage and neurological dysfunction. The Human Genome Project revealed that the vast majority of the human genome (and mammalian genome in general) is transcribed into noncoding RNAs. These RNAs have several important roles in the molecular biology of the cell. Of these, the long noncoding RNAs are gaining particular importance in stroke biology. High-throughput analysis ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Influence of DRD1 and DRD3 Polymorphisms in the Occurrence of Motor Effects in Patients with Sporadic Parkinson ’s Disease
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is a multisystem disorder that affects 2–3% of the population ≥ 65 years of age. The main pharmacologic agent use in the treatment of clinical symptoms of PD is levodopa (L-DOPA). However, the chronic use of L-DOPA might result in the emergence of motor complications such as motor fluctuation and dyskinesia. Previous studies have shown that the inter-individual variability and pharmacogenetic profile of PD patients seem to influence the occurrence of motor complications. For these reasons, the purpose of this study was to evaluate a possible relationship betweenD...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gut Microbiota Disorder, Gut Epithelial and Blood –Brain Barrier Dysfunctions in Etiopathogenesis of Dementia: Molecular Mechanisms and Signaling Pathways
AbstractEmerging evidences indicate a critical role of the gut microbiota in etiopathogenesis of dementia, a debilitating multifactorial disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of cognition and behavior that interferes with the social and professional functions of the sufferer. Available data suggest that gut microbiota disorder that triggers development of dementia is characterized by substantial reduction in specific species belonging to theFirmicutes andBacteroidetes phyla and presence of pathogenic species, predominantly, pro-inflammatory bacteria of theProteobacteria phylum. These changes in gut microbiota...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - May 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Role of Complement C3a Receptor in Stroke
AbstractThe complement system is a key regulator of the innate immune response against diseased tissue that functions across multiple organ systems. Dysregulation of complement contributes to the pathogenesis of a number of neurological diseases including stroke. The C3a anaphylatoxin, via its cognate C3a receptor (C3aR), mediates inflammation by promoting breakdown of the blood –brain barrier and the massive infiltration of leukocytes into ischemic brain in experimental stroke models. Studies utilizing complement deficient mice as well as pharmacologic C3aR antagonists have shown a reduction in tissue injury and mor...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - May 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chronic Mild Gut Inflammation Accelerates Brain Neuropathology and Motor Dysfunction in α-Synuclein Mutant Mice
AbstractEmerging findings suggest that Parkinson ’s disease (PD) pathology (α-synuclein accumulation) and neuronal dysfunction may occur first in peripheral neurons of the autonomic nervous system including the enteric branches of the vagus nerve. The risk of PD increases greatly in people over the age of 65, a period of life in which chronic i nflammation is common in many organ systems including the gut. Here we report that chronic mild focal intestinal inflammation accelerates the age of disease onset in α-synuclein mutant PD mice. Wild-type and PD mice treated with 0.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - May 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Exosomes Secreted by the Cocultures of Normal and Oxygen –Glucose-Deprived Stem Cells Improve Post-stroke Outcome
AbstractEmerging stroke literature suggests that treatment of experimentally induced stroke with stem cells offered post-stroke neuroprotection via exosomes produced by these cells. Treatment with exosomes has great potential to overcome the limitations associated with cell-based therapies. However, in our preliminary studies, we noticed that the exosomes released from human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under standard culture conditions did not improve the post-stroke neurological outcome. Because of this apparent discrepancy, we hypothesized that exosome characteristics vary with the conditio...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - May 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intracranial Aneurysms: Pathology, Genetics, and Molecular Mechanisms
AbstractIntracranial aneurysms (IA) are local dilatations in cerebral arteries that predominantly affect the circle of Willis. Occurring in approximately 2 –5% of adults, these weakened areas are susceptible to rupture, leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a type of hemorrhagic stroke. Due to its early age of onset and poor prognosis, SAH accounts for >  25% of years lost for all stroke victims under the age of 65. In this review, we describe the cerebrovascular pathology associated with intracranial aneurysms. To understand IA genetics, we summarize syndromes with elevated incidence, genome-wid...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - May 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Antidepressant and Neuroprotective Effects of Naringenin via Sonic Hedgehog-GLI1 Cell Signaling Pathway in a Rat Model of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress
AbstractDepression is one of the most prevalent and crucial public health problem connected to significant mortality and co-morbidity. Recently, numerous studies suggested that dietary flavanones exhibit neuroprotective and antidepressant effects against various psycho-physiological conditions including depression. The present study is focused on the antidepressant and neuroprotective effects of naringenin (NAR) and the involvement of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: CON group (saline s.c....
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - April 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Formaldehyde-Induced Senescence in HT-22 Cells via Upregulation of Leptin Signaling
AbstractIt has been previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) prevents formaldehyde (FA)-induced neurotoxicity. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this protection remain to be fully elucidated. Neuronal senescence is involved in FA-induced neurotoxicity. Leptin signaling has anti-aging function. The present work was to investigate the protection of H2S against FA-induced neuronal senescence and the mediatory role of leptin signaling. FA-exposed HT-22 cells were used as the vitro model of FA-induced neuronal senescence. The senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) positive cell was detected...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - April 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

MiR-34 and MiR-200: Regulator of Cell Fate Plasticity and Neural Development
AbstractStudies from last two decades have established microRNAs (miRNAs) as the most influential regulator of gene expression, especially at the post-transcriptional stage. The family of small RNA molecules including miRNAs is highly conserved and expressed throughout the multicellular organism. MiRNAs regulate gene expression by binding to 3 ′ UTR of protein-coding mRNAs and initiating either decay or movement of mRNAs to stress granules. Tissues or cells, which go through cell fate transformation like stem cells, brain cells, iPSCs, or cancer cells show very dynamic expression profile of miRNAs. Inability to pass ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - April 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Novel Variant (Asn177Asp) in SPTLC2 Causing Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy Type 1C
This study describes the clinical and neurophysiological phenotype of a German family with a novel SPTCL2 mutation (c.529A  >  G; N177D) associated with HSAN1 and the biochemical characterization of this mutation.) The mutaion was identified in five family members that segregated with the diesease. Patients were characterized genetically and clinically for neurophysiological function. Their plasma sphingolipid profiles were analyzed by LC–MS. The biochemical properties of the mutation were characterized in a cell-based activity assay. Affected family members showed elevated 1-deoxysphingoli...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - April 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Short Bout of Exercise Prior to Stroke Improves Functional Outcomes by Enhancing Angiogenesis
AbstractStroke remains a significant unmet clinical need with limited therapeutic options. The peculiar feature of ischemic stroke is the interruption in brain circulation, resulting in a cascade of detrimental cerebrovasculature alterations. Treatment strategies designed to maintain potency of the cerebrovasculature may protect against stroke. The present study assessed the effects of short bouts of exercise prior to stroke induction and characterized cerebral blood flow and motor functions in vivo. Adult Sprague –Dawley rats were exposed to a single short bout of exercise (30-min or 60-min forced running wheel) the...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - April 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses-Linked Loss of Function CLN5 and CLN8 Variants Disrupt Normal Lysosomal Function
AbstractNeuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of neurodegenerative disorders caused by mutations in fourteen distinct ceroid lipofuscinoses, neuronal (CLN) genes described with various severe symptoms such as seizures, visual failure, motor decline, and progressive cognitive deterioration. The current research represents novel CLN5 (c.741G  >  A) and CLN8 (c.565delT) mutations in two different Iranian families with late-infantile NCL (LINCL) and their relatives by using whole-exome sequencing (WES). The first family had a 10-year-old male with consanguineous parents and severe NCL symptoms, inc...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - March 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reoxygenation-Induced Barrier Disruption at the Human Blood –Brain Barrier is Partially Mediated Through the HIF-1 Pathway
In this study, we investigated the cellular response of two iPSC-derived brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) monolayers to respond to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) stress, using two induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) lines. iPSC-derived BMECs responded to prolonged (24  h) and acute (6 h) OGD by showing a decrease in the barrier function and a decrease in tight junction complexes. Such iPSC-derived BMECs responded to OGD stress via a partial activation of the HIF-1 pathway, whereas treatment with anti-angiogenic pharmacological inhibitors (sorafenib, sunitinib) du ring reoxygenation worsened the bar...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - March 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pre-treatment with microRNA-181a Antagomir Prevents Loss of Parvalbumin Expression and Preserves Novel Object Recognition Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
AbstractMild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can result in permanent impairment in memory and learning and may be a precursor to other neurological sequelae. Clinical treatments to ameliorate the effects of mTBI are lacking. Inhibition of microRNA-181a (miR-181a) is protective in several models of cerebral injury, but its role in mTBI has not been investigated. In the present study, miR-181a-5p antagomir was injected intracerebroventricularly 24  h prior to closed-skull cortical impact in young adult male mice. Paw withdrawal, open field, zero maze, Y maze, object location and novel object recognition tests were perform...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - March 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

C9orf72 Intermediate Alleles in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, and Rheumatoid Arthritis
AbstractThe commonest genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a large hexanucleotide expansion within the non-coding region of theC9orf72 gene. The pathogenic mechanisms of the mutation seem toxic gain of functions, while haploinsufficiency alone appears insufficient to cause neurodegeneration.C9orf72−/− mice rather develop features of autoimmunity. Immune-mediated dysfunctions are involved in the pathogenesis of ALS and FTD and high prevalence of autoimmune disease has recently been observed inC9orf72 expansion-positive patients. Since intermediate repeat expan...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - March 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Blood Biomarkers for Stroke Diagnosis and Management
AbstractBiomarkers are objective indicators used to assess normal or pathological processes, evaluate responses to treatment and predict outcomes. Many blood biomarkers already guide decision-making in clinical practice. In stroke, the number of candidate biomarkers is constantly increasing. These biomarkers include proteins, ribonucleic acids, lipids or metabolites. Although biomarkers have the potential to improve the diagnosis and the management of patients with stroke, there is currently no marker that has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity, specificity, rapidity, precision, and cost-effectiveness to be used in the ro...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Network Analysis of Depression-Related Transcriptomic Profiles
AbstractMajor depressive disorder is a common debilitating disorder that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular mechanism underlying depression remains largely unknown. The current study investigated the association of depression with blood gene expression using data from the Alzheimer ’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Depression was measured by the geriatric depression scale, and the blood gene expression was measured by the Affymetrix Human Genome U219 Array. Linear regression was used to test the association between gene expression and depression, and the model was a ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - March 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Optogenetic  Stimulation of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Ameliorates Autistic-Like Behaviors in Rats Induced by Neonatal Isolation, Caudate Putamen as a Site for Alteration
This study indicated the role of chronic increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) output on alteration of caudate putamen (CPu) as a main behavior regulator region of the brain in adult maternal deprived (MD) rats. For making an animal model, neonates were isolated from their mothers in postnatal days (PND 1 –10, 3 h/day). Subsequently, they bilaterally received pLenti-CaMKIIa-hChR2 (H134R)-mCherry-WPRE virus in ACC area via stereotaxic surgery in PND50. After 22 days, these regions were exposed to blue laser (473 nm) for six consecutive days (15 min/day). Then, behavioral deficits were tested and wer...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - February 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Promises and Challenges of Erythropoietin for Treatment of Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder in the world, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloid-beta protein deposits represent the major pathological hallmarks of the disease. Currently available treatments provide some symptomatic relief but fai l to modify primary pathological processes that underlie the disease. Erythropoietin (EPO), a hematopoietic growth factor, acts primarily to stimulate erythroid cell production, and is clinically used to treat anemia. EPO has evolved as a therapeutic agent for neurodegeneration and has improved neur ologic...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - January 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

ADGRL3 rs6551665 as a Common Vulnerability Factor Underlying Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder
AbstractNeurodevelopmental disorders are prevalent, frequently occur in comorbidity and share substantial genetic correlation. Previous evidence has suggested a role for theADGRL3 gene in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) susceptibility in several samples. Considering ADGRL3 functionality in central nervous system development and its previous association with neurodevelopmental disorders, we aimed to assessADGRL3 influence in early-onset ADHD (before 7  years of age) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The sample comprises 187 men diagnosed with early-onset ADHD, 135 boys diagnosed with ASD and 468 male ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - January 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Tinospora cordifolia Suppresses Neuroinflammation in Parkinsonian Mouse Model
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative central nervous system disorder, is characterised by progressive loss of nigrostriatal neurons in basal ganglia. Previous studies regarding PD have suggested the role of oxidative stress along with neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration. Accordingly, our study explore the anti-inflammatory activity ofTinospora cordifolia aqueous extract (TCAE) in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra hydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxicated Parkinsonian mouse model. MPTP-intoxicated mice showed significant behavioral and biochemical abnormalities which were effectively reversed by TCAE. It is ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - January 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Therapeutic Approaches to Alzheimer ’s Disease Through Modulation of NRF2
AbstractThe nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2/NRF2) is a master transcription factor that regulates oxidative stress-related genes containing the antioxidant response element (ARE) in their promoters. The damaged function and altered localization of NRF2 are found in most neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These neurodegenerative diseases developed from various risk factors such as accumulated oxidative stress and genetic and environmental elements. NRF2 activation protects our bodies from detrime...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - January 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Novel and Mosaic WDR45 Nonsense Variant Causes Beta-Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration Identified Through Whole Exome Sequencing and X chromosome Heterozygosity Analysis
AbstractBeta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) is an X-linked rare dominant disorder of autophagy. The role ofWDR45 has been implicated in BPAN almost exclusively in females possibly due to male lethality. Characterization of distinctive clinical manifestations and potentially the complex genetic determinants in rare male patients remain crucial for deciphering BPAN and other X-linked dominant diseases. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) followed by segregation analysis and identified a novel nonsense and mosaic variant inWDR45, namely NM_007075.3:c.873C>G; p.(Tyr291*) in an affected male at t...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - January 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hsc70 Interacts with β4GalT5 to Regulate the Growth of Gliomas
AbstractHeat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) is a key mediator for the maintenance of intracellular proteins and regulates cellular activities. And it is elevated in various tumor tissues including glioma, which is closely related to the malignancy and poor prognosis of the tumors. However, the effects of Hsc70 on gliomas and its regulatory mechanism have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we found that Hsc70 was overexpressed in glioma tissues and cultured glioma cells. Furthermore, Hsc70 expression exhibited positive correlation with the grades of gliomas. Knockdown of Hsc70 could effectively inhibit cell pr...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - January 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Emerging Roles of Ferroptosis in Huntington ’s Disease
AbstractHuntington ’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant and fatal neurodegenerative disorder, which is caused by an abnormal CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. Despite its well-defined genetic origin, the molecular mechanisms of neuronal death are unclear yet, thus there are no effective strategies to block or p ostpone the process of HD. Ferroptosis, a recently identified iron-dependent cell death, attracts considerable attention due to its putative involvement in neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulative data suggest that ferroptosis is very likely to participate in HD, and inhibition of the molecules and signal...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - January 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

BDNF rs6265 (Val66Met) Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Blepharospasm
AbstractA few genetic variants are implicated in the development of blepharospasm (BSP). The precise role of the rs6265 on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene on BSP remains controversial. The effect of rs6265 on BSP was evaluated. 206 patients with BSP and 206 healthy controls were recruited and genotyped for the rs6265. We also performed a meta-analysis, by pooling our results with those from previous studies. A significant effect of rs6265 on the risk of BSP was found in the dominant model of inheritance [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52 (1.01 –2.29),p = 0.044]. Mutati...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - December 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

AMP Kinase Activation is Selectively Disrupted in the Ventral Midbrain of Mice Deficient in Parkin or PINK1 Expression
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative movement disorder that is characterized pathologically by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of the midbrain. Despite intensive research, the etiology of PD remains poorly understood. Inter estingly, recent studies have implicated neuronal energy dysregulation as one of the key perpetrators of the disease. Supporting this, we have recently demonstrated that pharmacological or genetic activation of AMP kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, rescues the patholo gical ...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - November 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

CSF A β 1–42 , but not p-Tau 181 , Predicted Progression from Amnestic MCI to Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia
AbstractThe purpose of the study was to determine whether A β1 –42 and p-Tau181 cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) levels can predict progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer ’s disease dementia (ADD) in a 3-year follow-up study. All participants were evaluated blindly by a behavioral neurologist and a neuropsychologist, and classified according to the Petersen criteria for aMCI and according to the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. Individuals were also submitted to lumbar puncture at baseline. Levels of Aβ1 –42 and p-Tau181 were measured by immunoenzymatic assay. Va...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Toll Pathway in the Central Nervous System of Flies and Mammals
AbstractToll receptors, first identified to regulate embryogenesis and immune responses in the adult fly and subsequently defined as the principal sensors of infection in mammals, are increasingly appreciated for their impact on the homeostasis of the central as well as the peripheral nervous systems. Whereas in the context of immunity, the fly Toll and the mammalian TLR pathways have been researched in parallel, the expression pattern and functionality have largely been researched disparately. Herein, we provide data on the expression pattern of the Toll homologues, signaling components, and downstream effectors in ten di...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - October 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Contribution of the Wnt Pathway to Defining Biology of Glioblastoma
AbstractGlioblastoma (GBM), a highly lethal brain tumor, has been comprehensively characterized at the molecular level with the identification of several potential treatment targets. Data concerning the Wnt pathway are relatively sparse, but apparently very important in defining several aspects of tumor biology. The Wnt ligands are involved in numerous basic biological processes including regulation of embryogenic development, cell fate determination, and organogenesis, but growing amount of data also support the roles of Wnt pathways in the formation of many tumors, including gliomas. Two main Wnt pathways are distinguish...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - September 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Plasma β-Amyloids and Tau Proteins in Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment
AbstractIncreases in plasma of β-amyloids (Aβ) and tau proteins have been noted in patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). Our study investigated the associations of plasma Aβ and tau proteins with dementia in stroke patients. This cross-sectional study recruited 24 controls (mean age: 67.4 ± 7.5 years, 33.3% male), 27 stroke patients without dementia (mean age: 70.7 ± 6.9 years, 60.7% male), 34 stroke patients with dementia (mean age: 78.3 ± 5.3 years, 45.5% male, Clinical Dementia Ranking (CDR): 1.46 ± 0.63), and 21&...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - September 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Metabolism of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Induces Pyroptosis in BV-2 Microglial Cells
In this study, an immortalized murine microglia cell line (BV-2) was used to evaluate the effect of DHA on neuroinflammatory cells. Pretreatment of BV-2 cells with low concentrations of DHA (30  µM) attenuates lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cytokine gene expression, consistent with known anti-inflammatory effects. However, higher (but still physiologically relevant) concentrations of DHA (200 µM) induce profound cell swelling and a reduction of viability. This is accompanied by increases in the expressions of inflammatory cytokine and lipoxygenase genes, activation of caspase-1 activity, and...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - September 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The FOXP3 rs3761547 Gene Polymorphism in Multiple Sclerosis as a Male-Specific Risk Factor
AbstractThe FOXP3 gene encodes a transcription factor and is predominantly expressed in the CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells which plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. The defect of FOXP3 gene may provide a critical link between autoimmunity and immune deficiency. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the association of chosen polymorphisms of FOXP3 gene (rs3761549, rs3761548, rs3761547) with different clinical multiple sclerosis (MS) data of our relapsing-remitting groups of patients and in control group. The study was performed on a group consisting of 174 relapsing-remitting MS patients, diagnos...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - September 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Central Orexin A Affects Reproductive Axis by Modulation of Hypothalamic Kisspeptin/Neurokinin B/Dynorphin Secreting Neurons in the Male Wistar Rats
AbstractIt is an established fact that orexin plays an important role in regulating the reproductive axis and the secretions of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH). However, its precise cellular and molecular mechanisms are not fully recognized. Accordingly, the aim of the present study is to find out whether the central injection of orexin A (OXA) and its antagonists, SB-334867 (as orexin receptor antagonist 1; OX1RA) and JNJ-10397049 (as orexin receptor antagonist 2; OX2RA), either alone or in combination, can leave any impact on the reproductive axis (either hormonal or behavioral) in the male...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - September 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Overexpressed TTC3 Protein Tends to be Cleaved into Fragments and Form Aggregates in the Nucleus
In this study, we focus on the solubility and intracellular localization of TTC3 protein. Over-exp ressed TTC3 tends to form insoluble aggregates over time. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 treatment resulted in more TTC3 aggregates in a short period of time. We fused the fluorescent protein to either terminus of the TTC3 protein and found that the intracellular localization of fluorescent signals are different between the N-terminal tagged and C-terminal tagged proteins. Western blotting revealed that the TTC3 protein is cleaved into fragments of different sizes at multiple sites. The N-terminal sub-fragments of TTC3 are pr...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - September 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Aberrant miRNAs Regulate the Biological Hallmarks of Glioblastoma
AbstractGBM is the highest incidence in primary intracranial malignancy, and it remains poor prognosis even though the patient is gave standard treatment. Despite decades of intense research, the complex biology of GBM remains elusive. In view of eight hallmarks of cancer which were proposed in 2011, studies related to the eight biological capabilities in GBM have made great progress. From these studies, it can be inferred that miRs, as a mode of post-transcriptional regulation, are involved in regulating these malignant biological hallmarks of GBM. Herein, we discuss state-of-the-art research on how aberrant miRs modulate...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - September 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Variants of the OLIG2 Gene are Associated with Cerebral Palsy in Chinese Han Infants with Hypoxic –Ischemic Encephalopathy
In this study, we employed a Chinese Han cohort of 763 CP infants and 738 healthy controls to study the association ofOLIG2 gene polymorphisms with CP. We found marginal association of the SNP rs6517135 with CP (p = 0.044) at the genotype level, and the association was greatly strengthened when we focused on the subgroup of CP infants who suffered from hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) after birth, withp = 0.003 (OR = 0.558) at the allele level andp = 0.007 at the genotype level, indicating a risk-associated role of the T allele of the SNP rs6517135 under HI...
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - September 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research