Arbidol combined with LPV/r versus LPV/r alone against Corona Virus Disease 2019: A retrospective cohort study
Since it was first described in December 2019, more than seventy thousand cases of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been confirmed, beyond two thousand patients of which were fatal.1 –4 So far, the infection keeps spreading, and more and more exported cases were confirmed in other provinces in China, and other countries. Indicating that the disease is a serious threat to global health.5,6 The management of patients with COVID-19 consists of a combination of supportive measures , antimicrobial therapy for any associated bacterial or viral infections, and strict implementation of appropriate infection control ...
Source: Journal of Infection - March 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lisi Deng, Chunna Li, Qi Zeng, Xi Liu, Xinghua Li, Haitang Zhang, Zhongsi Hong, Jinyu Xia Tags: Review Source Type: research

Arbidol combined with LPV/r versus LPV/r alone against Corona Virus Disease 2019:a retrospective cohort study
Since it was first described in December 2019, more than seventy thousand cases of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been confirmed, beyond two thousand patients of which were fatal.1 –4 So far, the infection keeps spreading, and more and more exported cases were confirmed in other provinces in China, and other countries. Indicating that the disease is a serious threat to global health.5,6 The management of patients with COVID-19 consists of a combination of supportive measures , antimicrobial therapy for any associated bacterial or viral infections, and strict implementation of appropriate infection control ...
Source: Journal of Infection - March 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lisi Deng, Chunna Li, Qi Zeng, Xi Liu, Xinghua Li, Haitang Zhang, Zhongsi Hong, Jinyu Xia Tags: Review Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reactivation
A novel human coronavirus which is a new strain of RNA viruses was recognized in Wuhan, China, in Dec. 2019. The novel coronavirus is now officially named SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2) by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been recently identified as COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). COVID-19 spread quickly across Hubei Province and other regions of China,1,2 also the global alert for COVID-19 has been issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guangming Ye, Zhenyu Pan, Yunbao Pan, Qiaoling Deng, Liangjun Chen, Jin Li, Yirong Li, Xinghuan Wang Source Type: research

Ibrutinib Suppresses Intracellular Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Growth by Inducing Macrophage Autophagy
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. According to the latest Global Tuberculosis Report from World Health Organization (WHO) in 2018, there were more than 10 million new cases and 1.57 million deaths of TB in 2017.1 What's more, an estimated 2 billion people have latent TB infection (LTBI) and are at risk of re-activation of the disease.2,3 Although anti-TB treatment regimen is effective on drug-sensitive TB, problems with drug toxicity and increasing multidrug resistance (MDR) urge the discovery of new drugs and therapeutic strategies. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yunlong Hu, Zhihua Wen, Song Liu, Yi Cai, Jiubiao Guo, Yuzhong Xu, Dachuan Lin, Jialou Zhu, Dechang Li, Xinchun Chen Source Type: research

Clinical feature of COVID-19 in elderly patients: a comparison with young and middle-aged patients
Due to the general susceptibility of new coronaviruses, the clinical characteristics and outcomes of elderly and young patients may be different. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kai Liu, Ying Chen, Ruzheng Lin, Kunyuan Han Tags: Review Source Type: research

Clinical and CT Imaging Features of the COVID-19 Pneumonia: Focus on Pregnant Women and Children
Atypical clinical findings of pregnant women with COVID-19 could increase the difficulty in initial identification. Consolidation was more common in the pregnant groups. The clinically-diagnosed cases were vulnerable to more pulmonary involvement. CT was the modality of choice for early detection, severity assessment, and timely therapeutic effects evaluation for the cases with epidemic and clinical features of COVID-19 with or without laboratory confirmation. The exposure history and clinical symptoms were more helpful for screening in children versus chest CT. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Huanhuan Liu, Fang Liu, Jinning Li, Tingting Zhang, Dengbin Wang, Weishun Lan Source Type: research

Clinical progression of patients with COVID-19 in Shanghai, China
In December 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown origins occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.1 Thanks to the high-throughput sequencing technology, the pathogen that caused this series of pneumonia was soon identified.2,3 This novel beta coronavirus is now named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).4 The disease is also named 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-2019).4 (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jun Chen, Tangkai Qi, Li Liu, Yun Ling, Zhiping Qian, Tao Li, Feng Li, Qingnian Xu, Yuyi Zhang, Shuibao Xu, Zhigang Song, Yigang Zeng, Yinzhong Shen, Yuxin Shi, Tongyu Zhu, Hongzhou Lu Source Type: research

COVID-19 Spike-host cell receptor GRP78 binding site prediction
Understanding the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) mode of host cell recognition may help to fight the disease and save lives. The spike protein of coronaviruses is the main driving force for host cell recognition. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ibrahim M. Ibrahim, Doaa H. Abdelmalek, Mohammed E. Elshahat, Abdo A. Elfiky Source Type: research

Pyomyositis in the United States 2002 –2014
Primary or tropical pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of skeletal muscle that arises from hematogenous seeding rather than from contiguous infection of an adjacent site. It can lead to abscess formation, sepsis, and other infectious complications if not adequately treated [1]. Pyomyositis was first recognized in tropical regions of the world in otherwise healthy young men following physical exertion or non-penetrating trauma [2 –4]. Primary pyomyositis must be suspected clinically based on history and physical examination suggesting muscle inflammation and symptoms of infection. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rheanne Maravelas, Thomas A Melgar, Duncan Vos, Neiberg Lima, Sapna Sadarangani Source Type: research

Pyomyositis in the United States 2002-2014
Primary or tropical pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of skeletal muscle that arises from hematogenous seeding rather than from contiguous infection of an adjacent site. It can lead to abscess formation, sepsis, and other infectious complications if not adequately treated1. Pyomyositis was first recognized in tropical regions of the world in otherwise healthy young men following physical exertion or non-penetrating trauma2 –4. Primary pyomyositis must be suspected clinically based on history and physical examination suggesting muscle inflammation and symptoms of infection. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rheanne Maravelas, Thomas A Melgar, Duncan Vos, Neiberg Lima, Sapna Sadarangani Source Type: research

Quantifying risk of disease due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in patients who are colonized at ICU admission
Since the beginning of the century, the prevalence of infection with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) has been steadily growing.1,2 The number of ESBL-PE carriers has also dramatically increased worldwide and spread to the community.3–5 ESBL-PE infections are associated with prolonged hospital stay and high healthcare costs, albeit their effect o n mortality remains controversial.1,6–8 Such outcomes are attributed, at least in part, to improper treatment. Carbapenems are the empirical drugs of choice for sepsis in patients with suspected ESBL-PE infections. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Keyvan Razazi, J érémy Rosman, Anh-Dao Phan, Guillaume Carteaux, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Paul Louis Woerther, Nicolas de Prost, Christian Brun-Buisson, Armand Mekontso Dessap Source Type: research

Identification of the hyper-variable genomic hotspot for the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2
A recent study in this journal studied the genomes of the novel SARS-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in China and suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 had undergone genetic recombination with SARS-related CoV1. By February 14, 2020, a total of 66,576 confirmed cases of COVID-19, people infected with SARS-CoV-2, were reported in China, leading to 1,524 deaths, per the Chinese CDC (http://2019ncov.chinacdc.cn/2019-nCoV/). Several full genomic sequences of this virus have been released for the study of its evolutionary origin and molecular characteristics2-4. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Feng Wen, Hai Yu, Jinyue Guo, Yong Li, Kaijian Luo, Shujian Huang Source Type: research

Clinical manifestations and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy
We described epidemiological, clinical characteristics, pregnancy and perinatal outcomes of all hospitalized pregnant patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in China. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yangli Liu, Haihong Chen, Kejing Tang, Yubiao Guo Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Lymphopenic community acquired pneumonia as signature of severe COVID-19 infection
As recently commented by Tang and colleagues in this Journal, the novel Coronavirus emerged at the end of 2019 from Wuhan has already spread beyond China,1 which led WHO to declare a public health emergency of international concern by Jan 30, 2020. Infection caused by this virus (COVID-19) courses with severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a minority of the cases, but given its transmission characteristics, this is a further cause of alarm. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jes ús F Bermejo-Martin, Raquel Almansa, Rosario Menéndez, Raúl Mendez, David J Kelvin, Antoni Torres Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Public health might be endangered by possible prolonged discharge of SARS-CoV-2 in stool
According to a recent report, since December 8 2019, a novel identified coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2(previously named as 2019-nCOV) is causing outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, China and become the major concern throughout the world.1 The World Health Organization has recently announced this disease to constitute a public health emergency of international concern and then named this disease as Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19). By the 28 Feb, 2020, more than 80,000 confirmed cases including over 2500 death cases were officially announced. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yu He, Zhengli Wang, Fang Li, Yuan Shi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Wild Bird-Origin H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus is Transmissible in Guinea Pigs
Recent research in this journal, has reported that several substations associated with cross-species transmission from avian to humans were observed in H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), increasing the potential ability of human infections with H5N6 AIVs, although there is no evidence of human-to-human transmission of H5N6 AIV.1 Since the first human case of H5N6 AIV was confirmed in Sichuan province, China in 2014, a total of 23 human cases have been reported with 7 of those being fatal. As the natural reservoirs for AIVs, wild birds have a crucial role in viral dissemination. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bin Xiang, Libin Chen, Peng Xie, Qiuyan Lin, Ming Liao, Tao Ren Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Clinical and CT imaging features of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
Tang JW, et al. and colleagues have written to this Journal describing the emergence of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19).1 We have had an opportunity to examine in detail the chest computed tomography (CT) findings in cases with microbiologically confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, to familiarize radiologists and clinicians with the imaging manifestations of this new outbreak. Meanwhile, we also studied the clinical characteristics of the cases, combined with CT manifestations, to provide more clues for the correct diagnosis of the disease. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ying Zhu, Yang-Li Liu, Zi-Ping Li, Jian-Yi Kuang, Xiang-Min Li, You-You Yang, Shi-Ting Feng Source Type: research

Corona Virus Disease 2019, a growing threat to children?
Since the first case of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China on December 28, 2019, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly to nationwide and 25 other countries1. By February 17, 2020, 72,436 cases and 1,868 deaths have been confirmed on the Chinese mainland, with a fatality rate of 2.57%. Hubei had reported 59,989 cases of confirmed infections (including 42,752 in Wuhan) and 1,789 deaths (including 1,381 in Wuhan), with fatality rate of 2.98% in Hubei and 3.23% in Wuhan, respectively2. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pu Yang, Pin Liu, Dan Li, Dongchi Zhao Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Insights into the cross-species evolution of 2019 novel coronavirus
Recent study reported in this journal that the threats of continuous evolution and dissemination of 2019 human coronaviruses.1 Since its emergence in December 2019, a “seventh” member of the family of 2019 human coronavirus named “SARS-CoV-2” was responsible for an outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China.2 As of February 23, 2020, China had reported more than 77,042 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2, with 2,445 fatalities and counting (http ://www.nhc.gov.cn). Strikingly, SARS-CoV-2 had been transmitted rapidly in more than 29 countries to date (https://www.who.int), including Asia, E...
Source: Journal of Infection - March 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jiahao Zhang, Weixin Jia, Junhai Zhu, Bo Li, Jinchao Xing, Ming Liao, Wenbao Qi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Disinfection Effect of Short-wave Ultraviolet Radiation(UV-C) on ASFV in Water
Recently, several reports in the Journal of Infection have highlighted the problem of African swine fever (ASF).1 –3 ASF caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease, affecting domestic pigs and wild boar, with a high morbidity and mortality.4 In Asia, with the exception of Russia, China was the first country to experience ASF and reported its first outbreak in Au gust 2018.5 Within a year, ASF quickly spread into all of the provinces in Mainland China. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Runda Xu, Lang Gong, Heng Wang, Guihong Zhang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Decontamination of ASFV in Water using Ultraviolet-c Irradiation
Recently, several reports in the Journal of Infection have highlighted the problem of African swine fever (ASF)1,2,3. ASF caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease, affecting domestic pigs and wild boar, with a high morbidity and mortality4. In Asia, with the exception of Russia, China was the first country to experience ASF and reported its first outbreak in August 20185. Within a year, ASF quickly spread into all of the provinces in Mainland China. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - March 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Runda Xu, Lang Gong, Heng Wang, Guihong Zhang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19): the first two patients in the UK with person to person transmission
Tang and colleagues reported in this journal their experience with COVID-19 disease1, the outbreak of which began in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China2,3 with spread to 33 additional countries4-8 as of the 21st February 2020. Here we report the clinical features and outcome of the first two cases of disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection in the United Kingdom (UK) - the first imported and the second associated with probable person-to-person transmission within the UK. Public health management will be reported separately. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Patrick J Lillie, Anda Samson, Ang Li, Kate Adams, Richard Capstick, Gavin D Barlow, Nicholas Easom, Eve Hamilton, Peter J Moss, Adam Evans, Monica Ivan, PHE Incident Team, Yusri Taha, Christopher J A Duncan, Matthias L Schmid, the Airborne HCID Network Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Trend and forecasting of the COVID-19 outbreak in China
Dear editors, (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Qiang Li, Wei Feng, Ying-Hui Quan Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Characteristics of COVID-19 infection in Beijing
: On the basis of this study, we provided the ratio of the COVID-19 infection on the severe cases to the mild, asymptomatic and non-pneumonia cases in Beijing. Population was generally susceptible, and with a relatively low fatality rate. The measures to prevent transmission was very successful at early stage, the next steps on the COVID-19 infection should be focused on early isolation of patients and quarantine for close contacts in families and communities in Beijing. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sijia Tian, Nan Hu, Jing Lou, Kun Chen, Xuqin Kang, Zhenjun Xiang, Hui Chen, Dali Wang, Ning Liu, Dong Liu, Gang Chen, Yongliang Zhang, Dou Li, Jianren Li, Huixin Lian, Shengmei Niu, Luxi Zhang, Jinjun Zhang Source Type: research

Nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus is a risk factor for ventricular assist device infection in the first year after implantation: a prospective, single-centre, cohort study
The prevalence of heart failure is rising1, 2 thus constantly widening the gap between donor hearts and patients listed for transplantation3. For an increasing number of patients with advanced heart failure, durable ventricular assist devices (VAD) prolong survival and improve quality of life4 by serving as bridge to transplant, or, for those not eligible for heart transplantation, as destination therapy, i.e. as a life-long support4, 5. Their long-term use, however, is hampered by stroke, bleeding, and infection. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dennis Nurjadi, Katharina Last, Sabrina Klein, S ébastien Boutin, Bastian Schmack, Florian Mueller, Klaus Heeg, Arjang Ruhparwar, Alexandra Heininger, Philipp Zanger Source Type: research

Simulating and Forecasting the Cumulative Confirmed Cases of SARS-CoV-2 in China by Boltzmann Function-based Regression Analyses
As reported in this Journal1 and elsewhere,2 an outbreak of atypical pneumonia caused by the zoonotic 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is on-going in China and has spread to the world. As of Feb 16, 2020 (24:00, GMT+8), there have been 70548 confirmed patients and more than 1700 deaths from SARS-CoV-2 infection in China, and 58182 confirmed patients and 1696 deaths in the most affected province, Hubei Province. Much research progress has been made in dissecting the evolution and origin of SARS-CoV-2 and characterizing its clinical features. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xinmiao Fu, Qi Ying, Tieyong Zeng, Tao Long, Yan Wang Tags: Letter to Editor Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and imaging manifestations of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19):A multi-center study in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang, China
Most patients presented with a mild infection in our study. The imaging pattern of multifocal peripheral ground glass or mixed opacity with predominance in the lower lung is highly suspicious of COVID-19 in the first week of disease onset. Nevetheless, some patients can present with a normal chest finding despite testing positive for COVID-19. Funding: We did not receive any fundings. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wenjie Yang, Qiqi Cao, Le Qin, Xiaoyang Wang, Zenghui Cheng, Ashan Pan, Jianyi Dai, Qingfeng Sun, Fengquan Zhao, Jieming Qu, Fuhua Yan Source Type: research

Coronavirus 2019-nCoV: A brief perspective from the front line
A novel coronavirus, designated as 2019-nCoV, hit the central Chinese city of Wuhan in late December 2019, and subsequently spread rapidly to all provinces of China and multiple countries. As of 0:00 am February 9, 2020, a total of 37,287 cases have been confirmed infection of 2019-nCoV in China mainland, and 302 cases have also been cumulatively reported from 24 countries. According to the latest data, a total of 813 deaths occurred in China mainland, with the mortality reaching approximately 2.2%. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Qingmei Han, Qingqing Lin, Shenhe Jin, Liangshun You Tags: Review Source Type: research

Recent insights into 2019-nCoV: a brief but comprehensive review
A novel coronavirus designated as 2019-nCoV hit the central Chinese city of Wuhan in late December 2019, and subsequently spread rapidly to all provinces of China and multiple countries. Up to 0:00 am February 9, 2020, a total of 37,287 cases have been confirmed infection of 2019-nCoV in China mainland, and 302 cases have also been cumulatively reported from 24 countries. According to the latest data, a total of 813 deaths occurred in China mainland, with the mortality reaching approximately 2.2%. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Qingmei Han, Qingqing Lin, Shenhe Jin, Liangshun You Source Type: research

Clinical and computed tomographic imaging features of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2
: To investigate the clinical and imaging characteristics of computed tomography (CT) in novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) caused by SARS-CoV-2. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yu-Huan Xu, Jing-Hui Dong, Wei-min An, Xiao-Yan Lv, Xiao-Ping Yin, Jian-Zeng Zhang, Li Dong, Xi Ma, Hong-Jie Zhang, Bu-Lang Gao Source Type: research

Antenatal imaging and clinical outcome in congenital CMV infection: a field-wide systematic review and meta-analysis
Congenital Cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common intrauterine infection, with a worldwide prevalence of 0.2% to 2.5%.1 Diagnosis of congenital CMV infection can be performed either prenatally or postnatally. During pregnancy clinical suspicion of acute CMV infection is rarely ever raised since symptomatic disease in adults is rare. Thus, prenatal diagnosis is made either because of maternal primary CMV infection detection in areas where prenatal serologic testing is performed or due to fetal abnormalities compatible with fetal cytomegalovirus infection found on ultrasound. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aikaterini Kyriakopoulou, Stylianos Serghiou, Dimitra Dimopoulou, Ioli Arista, Theodora Psaltopoulou, Argyrios Dinopoulos, Vassiliki Papaevangelou Source Type: research

Mother-to-child transmission of oncogenic polyomaviruses BKPyV, JCPyV and SV40
BKPyV, JCPyV and SV40 are small DNA tumour viruses. Polyomavirus (PyV) primary infections occur during childhood. Subsequently, these PyVs remain latent, establishing life-long infections in the kidneys and B- and T lymphocytes of the host.1 The onset of polyomavirus-related diseases may occur under certain patient conditions, including different immune-dysfunctions.2-4 Previous studies indicated that the prevalence of IgG antibodies against BKPyV and JCPyV in serum samples of healthy subjects is up to 80%. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Elisa Mazzoni, Elena Pellegrinelli, Chiara Mazziotta, Carmen Lanzillotti, John Charles Rotondo, Ilaria Bononi, Maria Rosa Iaquinta, Marco Manfrini, Fortunato Vesce, Mauro Tognon, Fernanda Martini Source Type: research

Evaluation of cytokine levels using QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus in patients with active tuberculosis
Today, interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are essential tools for detecting infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), including for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). IGRAs, including both QuantiFERON (QFT) and T-SPOT.TB, enable direct observation of the response of a patient's blood cells to specific antigens derived from M. tuberculosis.1,2 On the other hand, IGRAs were not useful for accurately discriminating between active tuberculosis (active TB) and LTBI. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maho Suzukawa, Keita Takeda, Shunsuke Akashi, Isao Asari, Masahiro Kawashima, Nobuharu Ohshima, Eri Inoue, Ryota Sato, Masahiro Shimada, Junko Suzuki, Akira Yamane, Atsuhisa Tamura, Ken Ohta, Shigeto Toma, Katsuji Teruya, Hideaki Nagai Source Type: research

Effect of HIV-infection on QuantiFERON-Plus accuracy in patients with active tuberculosis and latent infection
It is estimated that one fourth of world population is infected with M. tuberculosis (Mtb) 1-5 and that only the 5-10 % of Mtb-infected individuals will progress to tuberculosis (TB) disease during life time.2,5 In 2017, 1 million (9%) of the worldwide TB cases were related to HIV-infected persons leading to 300,000 deaths.5 HIV-infection is responsible of an increased risk of progression to active disease, representing one of the main cause for active-TB disease, even in the absence of a deep CD4 T-cell impairment and even if under antiretroviral therapy (ART). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Elisa Petruccioli, Teresa Chiacchio, Assunta Navarra, Valentina Vanini, Gilda Cuzzi, Claudia Cimaglia, Luigi Ruffo Codecasa, Carmela Pinnetti, Niccol ò Riccardi, Fabrizio Palmieri, Andrea Antinori, Delia Goletti Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Clinical Features of Atypical 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia with an initially Negative RT-PCR Assay
Since end of December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown origin was reported from Wuhan, Hubei province, China. They shared a connection with the Huanan South China Seafood Market in Wuhan, and now it has been confirmed that the disease is caused by a novel coronavirus (provisionally named 2019-nCoV). As of today (February 14, 2020), 63935 cases have been confirmed in China. Currently, clinicians have found some atypical cases with positive chest CT findings may present with negative results of RT-PCR for 2019-nCoV. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wendong Hao Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Chinese medical personnel against the 2019-nCoV
We appreciate the work Tang et al have report emergence of a novel coronavirus in China.1 The 2019-nCoV broke out in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019, and has attracted worldwide attention.2 –4 Although the Chinese government has taken active measures to control this epidemic, the virus is very infectious. According to the real-time data of the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China up until February 5, 2020, within a short period of half a month, the number of c onfirmed cases and the number of deaths were 24443 and 493, respectively. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhan-hui Feng, Yong-ran Cheng, Juan Chen, Lan Ye, Meng-Yun Zhou, Ming-Wei Wang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The continuous evolution and dissemination of 2019 novel human coronavirus
Recently, Wang and colleagues reported in this journal the new threat of novel SARS-like coronavirus in China.1 During the last several decades, humans have been affected by six human coronaviruses (HCoV) —HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)—the last two of which caused severe respiratory symptoms and human death on a globe scale.2 On December 2019, a human case in Wuhan, China infected with novel human coronavirus (HCoV) was first reported, who exhibited fever, difficulty with breathing...
Source: Journal of Infection - February 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jiahao Zhang, Kaixiong Ma, Huanan Li, Ming Liao, Wenbao Qi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) cases in Hong Kong and implications for further spread
Since Tang and colleagues commented on the current Wuhan novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak four weeks ago,1 the situation has worsened dramatically. As of today (1 February 2020), there have been an estimated 14,599 infected cases with a total of 305 deaths and 345 recovered involving 27 countries.2 Online estimate of the case fatality rate is about 2% with a R0 (basic reproductive number) value of 3-4, indicating that every positive case may give rise to further 3-4 new cases. Nearly all confirmed cases (14,422, 98.8%) are in the mainland China, with most of the remaining cases in nearby countries or cities in East A...
Source: Journal of Infection - February 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kin On Kwok, Valerie Wong, Vivian Wan In Wei, Samuel Yeung Shan Wong, Julian Wei-Tze Tang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Nanopore metagenomic sequencing to investigate nosocomial transmission of human metapneumovirus from a unique genetic group among haematology patients in the United Kingdom
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infection causes a spectrum of respiratory tract disease, and may be a significant pathogen in the context of immunocompromise. Here, we report direct-from-sample metagenomic sequencing of HMPV using Oxford Nanopore Technology. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yifei Xu, Kuiama Lewandowski, Katie Jeffery, Louise O. Downs, Dona Foster, Nicholas D. Sanderson, James Kavanagh, Ali Vaughan, Claudia Salvagno, Richard Vipond, Miles Carroll, Robert Danby, Timothy Peto, Derrick Crook, A. Sarah Walker, Philippa C. Matthew Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis from bilateral external ventricular drains in suspected nosocomial infection
We read with interest the recently published systematic review on mass spectrometry-based proteomic techniques to identify cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for diagnosing suspected central nervous system infections.1 In our letter, we want to report our findings on the variability of CSF characteristics between drains in patients with bilateral external ventricular drains (EVDs) resulting in challenges in diagnosing an external ventricular catheter-associated infection (ECAI). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kirsten R.I.S. Dorresteijn, Rolf J. Verheul, Gabri ëlle A.E. Ponjee, Rishi Nandoe Tewarie, Marcella C.A. Müller, Diederik van de Beek, Matthijs C. Brouwer, Korné Jellema Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Analysis of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) from different species sheds some light on cross-species receptor usage of a novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV
A novel coronavirus from Wuhan in central China, named 2019-nCoV, has recently caused an epidemic of pneumonia in humans and posed a huge threat to global public health.1,2 To the date 06/02/2020, 2019-nCoV has led to more than 31000 confirmed cases and 636 deaths in China according to National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China (http://en.nhc.gov.cn/index.html). Cases have also been documented in a growing number of other international locations, including the United States (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rui Li, Songlin Qiao, Gaiping Zhang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Breast milk microbiota: A review of the factors that influence composition
Breastfeeding is associated with considerable health benefits for infants. Aside from essential nutrients, immune cells and bioactive components, breast milk also contains a diverse range of microbes, which are important for maintaining mammary and infant health. In this review, we summarise studies that have investigated the composition of the breast milk microbiota and factors that might influence it.We identified 44 studies investigating 3105 breast milk samples from 2655 women. Several studies reported that the bacterial diversity is higher in breast milk than infant or maternal faeces. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis Tags: Review Source Type: research

Neisseria meningitidis carriage in indigenous peoples of Amazonas State, Brazil
We report the results of an investigation of Neisseria meningitidis carriage in indigenous communities with different contact patterns with non-indigenous in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. A feature of the nature of this bacterium is its transmission from person to person, which normally results in asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage, and progression to disease is an exception. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: K átia M.S. Lima, Andréia C.L. Fernandes, Filipe A. Carvalho-Costa, David E. Barroso Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Breast milk microbiota: A complex microbiome with multiple impacts and conditioning factors
Breastfeeding is associated with considerable health benefits for infants. Aside from essential nutrients, immune cells and bioactive components, breast milk also contains a diverse range of microbes, which are important for maintaining mammary and infant health. In this review, we summarise studies that have investigated the composition of the breast milk microbiota and factors that might influence it.We identified 44 studies investigating 3105 breast milk samples from 2655 women. Several studies reported that the bacterial diversity is higher in breast milk than infant or maternal faeces. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis Tags: Review Source Type: research

Leishmania infection in psoriasis
In this Journal Brunet and colleagues1 discussed reactivation of latent infections in the context of chronic disease, solid organ transplantation or long-term immunosuppressive treatment. We recently observed the reactivation of Leishmania infection in a 46-year-old patient receiving methotrexate for psoriasis, who was diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) showing a muco-cutaneous involvement. We analyzed the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of all cases of leishmaniasis in patients with psoriasis found through a review of the literature. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Claudia Colomba, Laura Saporito, Silvia Bonura, Giuseppina Campisi, Paola Di Carlo, Vera Panzarella, Valentina Caputo, Antonio Cascio Source Type: research

Emergence of new genetic lineage, ST-9316, of Neisseria meningitidis group W in Hauts-de-France region, France 2013-2018
We report the emergence of a novel sequence type (ST-9316) mostly associated with serogroup W, and exhibiting a lower virulence and a distinct age specific incidence profile than W/CC11 isolates. Surveillance requires powerful approaches combining WGS and pathophysiological analysis to adapt control measures. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ala-Eddine Deghmane, Sylvie Haeghebaert, Eva Hong, Am éliane Jousset, Anne-Sophie Barret, Muhamed-Kheir Taha Source Type: research

Soluble ST2 (sST2) as potential marker for hepatic cystic echinococcosis activity
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a severe zoonotic disease distributed worldwide [1]. It has been shown that, the average prevalence of echinococcosis in western China is 1.08%, threatening about 66 million people, and the direct economic loss caused each year is as high as 3 billion Yuan (RMB) [2]. CE is a chronic, complex, and easily neglected parasitic infectious disease in humans caused by the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus). Adult worms of E. granulosus are parasitic in definitive hosts such as carnivores and metacestodes are parasitic in intermediate hosts such as herbivores. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mengting An, Yuejie Zhu, Cheng Xu, Yujiao Li, Nannan Pang, Xiao Zhao, Zhiwei Li, Hongying Wang, Fengbo Zhang, Jianbing Ding Source Type: research

High heart rate at admission as a predictive factor of mortality in hospitalized patients with Lassa fever: An observational cohort study in Sierra Leone
Wauquier et al., in the Journal, shown that heart rate level greater than 110 bpm at hospital admission for Lassa Fever (LF) is an independent predictive factor associated with a 3.6-fold increased risk of mortality. An estimated 100,000 to 300,000 infections of Lassa fever occur annually, with approximately 5,000 deaths., mainly in West Africa.1,2 Despite this high annual mortality rate, LF has been largely underappreciated regarding its contribution to the overall burden of microbial infections, and particularly in Sierra Leone. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nadia Wauquier, Camille Couffignal, Pauline Manchon, Elisabeth Smith, Victor Lungay, Moinya Coomber, Lauren Weisenfluh, James Bangura, Sheik Humarr Khan, Amara Jambai, Aiah Gbakima, Nadezda Yun, Slobodan Paessler, Randal Schoepp, Stephen S. Morse, Jean-Pa Source Type: research

Comparative hepatitis C genotype 1 –3 viral load kinetics in response to directly-acting antiviral therapy
We present a recent retrospective HCV kinetics analysis of these patients ‘ changing viral loads in response to DAA therapy below. Such studies have been used previously to compare viral suppressive responses in different HCV genotypes and treatment regimens. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shoshanna May, Feza Kurmoo, Mariesa Iliffe, Joicy David, Ayushi Patel, Martin Wiselka, Iain Stephenson, Toby Delahooke, Florence Y Lai, Simon Dustan, Julian W Tang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research