Genomes of Escherichia coli bacteraemia isolates originating from urinary tract foci contain more virulence-associated genes than those from non-urinary foci and neutropaenic hosts.
Escherichia coli is the leading cause of bacteraemia. In an era of emerging multi-drug-resistant strains, development of effective preventative strategies will be informed by knowledge of strain diversity associated with specific infective syndromes/patient groups. We hypothesised that the number of virulence factor (VF) genes amongst bacteraemia isolates from neutropaenic patients would be lower than isolates from immunocompetent patients. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - November 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dr Adam P. Dale, Dr Anish K. Pandey, Dr Richard J. Hesp, Dr Konstantinos Belogiannis, Dr Jay R. Laver, Dr Clifford C. Shone, Professor Robert C. Read Source Type: research

First report of a novel HIV-1 recombinant form (CRF100_01C) comprising CRF01_AE and C among heterosexuals in Yunnan, China
Recent correspondence in this Journal has highlighted that HIV-1 genetic variability within individuals and populations plays a central role in the HIV pandemic.1,2 China has been seriously affected by HIV/AIDS; the prevalence of HIV infection is especially high in western Yunnan, which located in southwestern China, borders the opium-producing “Golden Triangle” regions composed of Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. Wide co-circulation of subtype B/B’, C, and CRF01_AE among high-risk individuals in Yunnan provide the opportunity for the generation of various novel circulating recombinant forms. (Source...
Source: Journal of Infection - October 30, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yue Feng, Chunyue Zhang, Mi Zhang, Li Gao, Jing Miao, Yuanyuan Jia, Xingqi Dong, Xueshan Xia Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Tolerance of MRSA ST239-TW to chlorhexidine-based decolonization: Evidence for keratinocyte invasion as a mechanism of biocide evasion
Over the past 20 years there have been two dominant pandemic healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) clones in the UK, EMRSA –15 (ST22) and EMRSA-16 (ST36), with lower prevalence of other clones (ST8, ST239, ST5 and ST247). HA-MRSA rates have decreased significantly since the mid-2000s1–4 following the introduction of a comprehensive UK-wide infection control program comprising re-enforcement of basic infection contro l practices and targeted measures of screening, contact precautions, patient isolation and decolonization. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Helene Marbach, Gema Vizcay-Barrena, Kaveh Memarzadeh, Jonathan A. Otter, Smriti Pathak, Robert P. Allaker, Richard D. Harvey, Jonathan D. Edgeworth Source Type: research

Tolerance of MRSA ST239-TW to chlorhexidine-based decolonization; evidence for keratinocyte invasion as a mechanism of biocide evasion
Over the past 20 years there have been two dominant pandemic healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) clones in the UK, EMRSA –15 (ST22) and EMRSA-16 (ST36), with lower prevalence of other clones (ST8, ST239, ST5 and ST247). HA-MRSA rates have decreased significantly since the mid-2000’s 1–4 following the introduction of a comprehensive UK-wide infection control program comprising re-enforcement of basic infection co ntrol practices and targeted measures of screening, contact precautions, patient isolation and decolonization. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Helene Marbach, Gema Vizcay-Barrena, Kaveh Memarzadeh, Jonathan A. Otter, Smriti Pathak, Robert P. Allaker, Richard D. Harvey, Jonathan D. Edgeworth Source Type: research

Rapid evolving H7N9 avian influenza A viruses pose new challenge
Recently, the hemagglutinin characteristics, pathogenicity, and antigenic variation of highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were reported in this journal.1 H7N9 AIVs have been endemic in chicken since their emergence in China in February 20132, and have triggered five epidemics of human infections.3, 4 At first, the 2013 H7N9 viruses were nonpathogenic in chickens. However, some H7N9 viruses transitioned from low to high pathogenicity for chicken during the 5th wave.5, 6 These H7N9 HPAIVs were not only destructive to poultry, but also lethal to humans. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhiqing Pu, Tingting Luo, Jinjin Yang, Xuejuan Shen, David M. Irwin, Ming Liao, Yongyi Shen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 21, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk factors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: A global systematic review and meta-analysis
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tuberculosis (TB) remains a global problem with an increasing trend of new cases of TB from 6.1 million in 2015 to 6.3 million in 2016. 1 This global health problem has further worsened in recent years due to the increase in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, M. tuberculosis resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid), with an estimated 490 000 new patients in 2016.1 From a health economics perspective, MDR-TB is a heavy burden on health care systems with treatment costs 20 times higher than the corresponding cost of drug-susceptible TB (DS-TB). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 16, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ivan Surya Pradipta, Lina Davies Forsman, Judith Bruchfeld, Eelko Hak, Jan-Willem Alffenaar Source Type: research

Gut dysbiosis and paediatric crohn's disease
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any section of the gastrointestinal tract in a non-contiguous pattern [1]. Global prevalence of the disease is greater in the Western world compared to developing countries, but a sharp increase in new CD cases has been observed in newly industrialized geographic areas in recent years [2]. The prevalence is approximately 0.3% in Europe and North America and approximately 20-40 per 100,000 in Asia and South America [3]. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Andrea Brusaferro, Elena Cavalli, Edoardo Farinelli, Rita Cozzali, Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito Tags: Review Source Type: research

Identification of Musculoskeletal Infection with Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium Using Metagenomic Sequencing
We read with interest the article by Guo et al.1, in this Journal, “The advantages of next-generation sequencing technology in the detection of different sources of abscess”. The paper stated that metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) could offer unbiased and rapid identification of causative pathogens from abscesses. A great diversity of pathogens can cause musculoskeletal infection and many of them cannot be cultured or identified by conventional methods. We hold the view that mNGS technology can also provide a sensitive diagnosis of musculoskeletal infection. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 9, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zida Huang, Chongjing Zhang, Xinyu Fang, Wenbo Li, Chao fan Zhang, Bin Yang, Wenming Zhang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Risk factors for mortality among carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae carriers with focus on immunosuppression
To identify risk factors for mortality in a cohort of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) carriers, focusing on immunosuppression and other risk factors known at the time of CRE carriage detection. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 9, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Haggai Bar-Yoseph, Nadav Cohen, Alexander Korytny, Elias R. Andrawus, Razi Even Dar, Yuval Geffen, Khetam Hussein, Mical Paul Source Type: research

Microbiological and Clinical Characteristics of Acinetobacter baumannii Bacteremia: Implications of Sequence type for Prognosis
Acinetobacter baumannii is a non-fermentative gram-negative aerobic coccobacillus. It is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly among immunocompromised patients 1,2 and those in intensive care units.3, 4 A. baumannii infections are complicated by prolonged hospital stays, high mortality rates 5,6 and increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents.7 The mortality rate of A. baumannii bloodstream infection (BSI) continues to be high even when treated with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yu-Chung Chuang, Aristine Cheng, Hsin-Yun Sun, Jann-Tay Wang, Yee-Chun Chen, Wang-Huei Sheng, Shan-Chwen Chang Source Type: research

Missed Hepatitis B Birth Dose Vaccine Is a Risk Factor for Incomplete Vaccination at 18 and 24 Months
Childhood vaccination is an effective public health measure that averts millions of cases of preventable infectious diseases.1 Unfortunately, rates of vaccination among children in the United States have stalled and fallen short of national goals in recent years, attributable in part to the growing movement of vaccine hesitancy.2 –4 Refusal of and delays in vaccination have been associated with disease outbreaks in the U.S.5,6 The first opportunity that parents have to accept or refuse a vaccine for their child occurs when the hepatitis B virus (HepB) vaccine is offered in the newborn period. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peyton Wilson, Genevieve Taylor, Jamie Knowles, Elizabeth Blyth, Jeff Laux, Jacob Lohr, Ravi Jhaveri Source Type: research

PCR cycle threshold to assess a diagnostic stewardship intervention for C. difficile testing
We read with interest the article by Kamboj et al., who demonstrated that low Clostridium difficile real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycle thresholds of detection (CT) were predictive of toxin enzyme immunoassay positivity and disease severity in C. difficile nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive oncology patients.1 These findings are consistent with other studies that found C. difficile PCR CT (i.e. ≤26.0-28.0) may be similar to cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) and superior to toxin enzyme immunoassay in differentiating clinical C. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gregory R. Madden, Melinda D. Poulter, Costi D. Sifri Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Epidemiologic estimates of Hepatitis E Virus infection in European countries
Reliable epidemiologic estimates of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection and evidence on factors determining country-differences are sparse. We systematically assessed and extracted research data on three HEV infection markers and identified factors influencing HEV-positivity to generated adjusted EU/EEA country-specific estimates by a meta-analysis. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Johannes Horn, Mahrrouz Hoodgarzadeh, Carolina J Klett-Tammen, Rafael T Mikolajczyk, G érard Krause, Jördis J Ott Source Type: research

Triacetylfusarinine C: a urine biomarker for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the most common airborne fungal infection mainly affecting individuals with a suppressed immune system including those with prolonged neutropenia, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (1). IA is caused by infection with different Aspergillus species, with A. fumigatus accounting for ∼90% of all cases (1). IA has become one of the leading causes of death in immunocompromised patients, with 6-week mortality rates of around 30% (2). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Martin Hoenigl, Thomas Orasch, Klaus Faserl, Juergen Prattes, Juergen Loeffler, Jan Springer, Fabio Gsaller, Frederike Reischies, Wiebke Duettmann, Reinhard B. Raggam, Herbert Lindner, Hubertus Haas Source Type: research

The use of stand-by emergency treatment (SBET) for malaria in travellers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium species, occurring on an endemic level in large areas of Africa, Asia, and Central and Southern America, with a constantly evolving epidemiology1. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pietro Ferrara, Cristina Masuet-Aumatell, Fernando Ag üero, Josep Maria Ramon-Torrell Tags: Review Source Type: research

Social patterning of telephone health-advice for diarrhoea and vomiting: analysis of 24 million telehealth calls in England
Gastrointestinal (GI) infections are common in the population, leading to diarrhoea and vomiting as well as more serious health problems. Previous estimates suggest that around 25% of people in the UK suffer an episode of infectious intestinal disease (IID) per year and that foodborne illness in England and Wales costs around £1.5 billion annually.1 Many infections are known to vary by social group however the role of socioeconomic inequalities in risk of GI infection in high income countries, such as in the UK, is not well understood, with studies presenting conflicting findings. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Natalie L. Adams, Tanith C. Rose, Alex J. Elliot, Gillian Smith, Roger Morbey, Paul Loveridge, James Lewis, Gareth Studdard, Mara Violato, Sarah J. O'Brien, Margaret Whitehead, David C. Taylor-Robinson, Jeremy I. Hawker, Benjamin Barr Source Type: research

Hemagglutinin characteristics, changes in pathogenicity, and antigenic variation of highly pathogenic H7N9 avian influenza viruses in China
We read with interest a recent article about the evolutionary dynamics of H7N9 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in mainland China in this journal.1 Since 2013, five waves of the H7N9 epidemic have spread from eastern to southern and northern China. H7N9 was regarded as low pathogenic (LP) AIV in the previous four waves. In the 5th wave, some H7N9 viruses have an insertion of several basic amino acids at the HA cleavage site, which is associated with transition from low to high pathogenicity for chicken. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guangyu Hou, Jinping Li, Suchun Wang, Shanju Cheng, Cheng Peng, Jiming Chen, Wenming Jiang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) pneumonia in the non-ventilated immunocompromised host: Burden and predictors
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is known to be an infrequent cause of pneumonia affecting mostly severely immunocompromised hosts.1 However, HSV pneumonia has rarely been described in such patient population probably considered not clinically relevant or unrecognized.2 –5 On the other hand, HSV ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) results to be not uncommon among immunocompetent patients and has been frequently reported in literature.6–10 Currently, the diagnosis of HSV lower respiratory tract (LRT) infections including pneumonia and tracheobronchitis remains very demanding. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Luzzati Roberto, D'Agaro Pierlanfranco, Busca Annalisa, Maurel Cristina, Martellani Fulvia, Rosin Chiara, Segat Ludovica, Gatti Giuseppe, Mascarello Marta, Confalonieri Marco Source Type: research

Combined use of Quantiferon and HBHA-based IGRA supports tuberculosis diagnosis and therapy management in children
Interferon- γ release assays (IGRA) are designed for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) infection, and do not discriminate latent TB infection (LTBI) from active TB. Heparin-binding hemagglutinin antigen (HBHA) emerged as a promising antigen for TB diagnosis when used in IGRA format. Aim of this study was to prosp ectively evaluate the performance of an HBHA-based IGRA to support TB diagnosis and TB therapy monitoring in children with TB infection or active TB disease. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Michela Sali, Danilo Buonsenso, Pamela D'Alfonso, Flavio De Maio, Manuela Ceccarelli, Basem Battah, Ivana Palucci, Teresa Chiacchio, Delia Goletti, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Piero Valentini, Giovanni Delogu Source Type: research

Malaria Systems Immunology: Plasmodium vivax induces tolerance during primary infection through dysregulation of neutrophils and dendritic cells
Malaria remains an important public health problem worldwide, with more than 216 million cases per year 445,000 deaths.1 The cyclical fever and pro-inflammatory state associated with malaria has been postulated to inhibit establishment and maintenance of immunological memory 2; indeed, humoral and cellular responses to Plasmodium antigens are inefficiently generated and rapidly lost in the absence of ongoing exposure. As a result, individuals from high malaria transmission areas develop partial protection against severe symptoms at an early age and experience a significant number of asymptomatic infections afterwards. (Sou...
Source: Journal of Infection - September 21, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Andres F. Vallejo, Robert C. Read, Myriam Arevalo-Herrera, S ócrates Herrera, Tim Elliott, Marta E. Polak Source Type: research

Next generation sequencing for diagnosis of severe pneumonia: China, 2010 –2018
We read with interest the recent review by Brown et al.1 that addressed the capability of next generation sequencing (NGS) in diagnosing suspected infectious encephalitis, and discuss the feasibility for introduction of NGS methods as a frontline diagnostic test. There is increasing evidence of a role for NGS in the work-up of undiagnosed encephalitis. Lower costs and increasing accessibility of these technologies will facilitate larger studies of these patients. They recommend NGS should be considered as a front-line diagnostic. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 17, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yun Xie, Jiang Du, Wei Jin, Xiaolei Teng, Ruijie Cheng, Peijie Huang, Hui Xie, Zhigang Zhou, Rui Tian, Ruilan Wang, Tienan Feng Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Comparison the pathogen diagnosis of severe pneumonia by using next generation sequencing and traditional detection methods, China, 2010-2018
We read with interest the recent review by Julianne R. Brown et al.1 that addressed the capability of next generation sequencing (NGS) in diagnosing suspected infectious encephalitis, and discuss the feasibility for introduction of NGS methods as a frontline diagnostic test. There is increasing evidence of a role for NGS in the work-up of undiagnosed encephalitis. Lower costs and increasing accessibility of these technologies will facilitate larger studies of these patients. They recommend NGS should be considered as a front-line diagnostic. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 17, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yun Xie, Jiang Du, Wei Jin, Xiaolei Teng, Ruijie Cheng, Peijie Huang, Hui Xie, Zhigang Zhou, Tienan Feng, Rui Tian, Ruilan Wang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emergency of fungemia cases caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida auris in Beijing, China
Recent reports in this Journal have documented the emergence of Candida auris disease in various parts of the world.1, 2 C. auris is an emerging fungal pathogen, which was first described in 2009 in Japan.3 Recent reports highlight ongoing challenges due to significant patient mortality, organism misidentification, high rates of multidrug resistance, and a high potential for nosocomial horizontal transmission.4 C. auris can often be misidentified as C. haemulonii and many other fungal species in conventional diagnostic laboratories using phenotypic and biochemical methods. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yong Chen, Lihua Qi, Zhigang Wang, Xian Xia, Weihong Fan, Jingya Zhao, Jia Chen, Liangliang Zhang, Jie Liu, Li Han Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Improving the microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis: a prospective, international, multicentre comparison of conventional and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, GeneXpert, and culture of cerebrospinal fluid
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most devastating form of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Over half of treated TBM patients die or suffer severe neurological sequelae1, largely due to late diagnosis. For HIV co-infected patients TBM mortality is around 60%2,3. Worldwide, smear microscopy on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following conventional Ziehl-Neelsen staining (CZN) is insensitive. Culture of MTB takes at least 2 weeks and is therefore too slow to be clinically relevant during the acute phase. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: A. Dorothee Heemskerk, Joseph Donovan, Do Dang Anh Thu, Suzaan Marais, Lidya Chaidir, Vu Thi Mong Dung, Chad M. Centner, Vu Thi Ngoc Ha, Jessi Annisa, Sofiati Dian, Louise Bovijn, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Ahmad Rizal Ga Source Type: research

Debridement, antibiotics and implant retention for periprosthetic joint infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis of treatment outcomes
We aimed to assess infection control rates after DAIR in patients with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following joint arthroplasty and evaluate factors associated with infection control using a systematic review and meta-analysis. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Setor K. Kunutsor, Andrew D. Beswick, Michael R. Whitehouse, Vikki Wylde, Ashley W. Blom Source Type: research

Communicating antimicrobial resistance and stewardship in the national press: Lessons from sepsis awareness campaigns
Clear messages from the scientific community warn of the threat to human health from increasing ineffectiveness of antibiotics as a result of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The World Health Organisation (WHO) has set out strategic goals to address AMR at a global level, and in the United Kingdom (UK), a report by the Review on AMR1 predicted ten million deaths from resistant infections annually by 2050.1,2 There have been repeated warnings about its potential impact on healthcare, with multiple important medical interventions likely to be jeopardised by a lack of effective antibiotics. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: L. Rush, C. Patterson, L. McDaid, S. Hilton Source Type: research

Communicating Antimicrobial Resistance and Stewardship in the National Press; Lessons from Sepsis Awareness Campaigns
Clear messages from the scientific community warn of the threat to human health from increasing ineffectiveness of antibiotics as a result of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The World Health Organisation (WHO) has set out strategic goals to address AMR at a global level, and in the United Kingdom (UK), a report by the Review on AMR1 predicted ten million deaths from resistant infections annually by 2050.1, 2 There have been repeated warnings about its potential impact on healthcare, with multiple important medical interventions likely to be jeopardised by a lack of effective antibiotics. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: L. Rush, C. Patterson, L. McDaid, S. Hilton Source Type: research

Survival following Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: A prospective multinational cohort study assessing the impact of place of care
Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SAB) is a common, life-threatening infection with a high mortality. Survival can be improved by implementing quality of care bundles in hospitals. We previously observed marked differences in mortality between hospitals and now assessed whether mortality could serve as a valid and easy to implement quality of care outcome measure. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kate Nambiar, Harald Seifert, Siegbert Rieg, Winfried V. Kern, Matt Scarborough, N. Claire Gordon, Hong Bin Kim, Kyoung-Ho Song, Robert Tilley, Hannah Gott, Chun Hsing Liao, Jonathan Edgeworth, Emmanuel Nsutebu, Luis Eduardo L ópez-Cortés, Laura Morata, Source Type: research

Survival following Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection; a prospective multinational cohort study assessing the impact of place of care
Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SAB) is a common, life-threatening infection with a high mortality. Survival can be improved by implementing quality of care bundles in hospitals. We previously observed marked differences in mortality between hospitals and now assessed whether mortality could serve as a valid and easy to implement quality of care outcome measure. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kate Nambiar, Harald Seifert, Siegbert Rieg, Winfried V. Kern, Matt Scarborough, N. Claire Gordon, Hong Bin Kim, Kyoung-Ho Song, Robert Tilley, Hannah Gott, Chun Hsing Liao, Jonathan Edgeworth, Emmanuel Nsutebu, Luis Eduardo L ópez-Cortés, Laura Morata, Source Type: research

A unified personal protective equipment ensemble for clinical response to possible high consequence infectious diseases: A consensus document on behalf of the HCID programme
During the early stages of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa in 2013 to 2016, a large number of healthcare worker (HCW) deaths occurred.1 This clearly demonstrated the importance of both adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) and the training required to use it appropriately. The UK's response to the outbreak was overseen by the Department of Health, with expertise from Public Health England (PHE), the national Advisory Committee for Dangerous Pathogens (ACDP) and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bozena Poller, Anne Tunbridge, Samantha Hall, Mike Beadsworth, Mike Jacobs, Erica Peters, Matthias L Schmid, Allison Sykes, Vin Poran, Nick Gent, Cariad Evans, Brian Crook, High Consequence Infectious Diseases Project Working Group Source Type: research

Unsolicited consultation by infectious diseases specialist improves outcomes in patients with bloodstream infection: A prospective cohort study
The incidence rate of bloodstream infections (BSI) has increased over the last decades.1 BSI is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.1,2 Several aspects of the clinical management of BSI, such as early administration of active antibiotics and source control, can influence patient outcomes3,4 and are therefore amenable to intervention. Indeed, infectious diseases specialist (IDS) consultation in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is associated with lower mortality, as a meta-analysis of quasi-experimental and observational studies has shown. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Patricia Jim énez-Aguilar, Alberto Romero-Palacios, Iría-Jesus De-la-Calle, María-Carmen Martínez-Rubio, José-Antonio Girón-González, Jesus Rodríguez-Baño Source Type: research

Unsolicited consultation by infectious diseases specialist for patients with bloodstream infection: a prospective cohort study
The incidence rate of bloodstream infections (BSI) has increased over the last decades (1). BSI is associated with significant morbidity and mortality (1, 2). Several aspects of the clinical management of BSI, such as early administration of active antibiotics and source control, can influence patient outcomes (3, 4) and are therefore amenable to intervention. Indeed, infectious diseases specialist (IDS) consultation in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is associated with lower mortality, as a meta-analysis of quasi-experimental and observational studies has shown (5). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Patricia Jim énez-Aguilar, Alberto Romero Palacios, Iría-Jesús De-la-Calle, María-Carmen Martínez-Rubio, José-Antonio Girón-González, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño Source Type: research

Candida infection of membrane oxygenator during ECMO therapy
Recently, clinical characteristics and outcome of periprosthetic joint infections due to Candida species1 and improvements of survival in candidemic patients by application of five different measures were published in the Journal.2 We would like to contribute a clinical case with Candida albicans colonization and infection of the extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenator (MO) inducing failure of the Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) which underlines the difficulties in foreign body associated Candida infections. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gernot Schilcher, Thomas Valentin, Florian Eisner, Gerald Hackl, Luka Brcic, Ines Zollner-Schwetz, Robert Krause, Philipp Eller Source Type: research

Candida caused membrane oxygenator infection: diagnostic approach and case description in a patient undergoing ECMO therapy
First study able to assign Candidemia to the membrane oxygenator of the ECMO deviceProof of infection by pre- and post oxygenator blood cultures and histologic analysisThis infection represents a subentity of ECMO Device Related Bloodstream Infections (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gernot Schilcher, Thomas Valentin, Florian Eisner, Gerald Hackl, Luka Brcic, Ines Zollner-Schwetz, Robert Krause, Philipp Eller Source Type: research

Enteroviruses associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Brazil
Dear Editor, (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ivanildo P. Sousa Jr, Fernanda M. Burlandy, Eliane V. Costa, Fernando N. Tavares, Edson E. da Silva Source Type: research

A cluster of cases of pneumocystis pneumonia identified by shotgun metagenomics approach
We read with interest the recent letter by Ling-Yun Guo et  al. (1) that addressed the capability of metagenomics sequencing in diagnosing different sources of abscess cases and agreed with that metagenomics sequencing could assist clinical decision with minimized turn-around time and satisfying diagnostic performance to detect multiple organisms (2). Pneu mocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a serious and sometimes critical infections caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii, which usually occurs in immune-suppressed patients accompanied with mixed infections, and early rapid diagnosis is critical in the disease prognosis. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yi Zhang, Jing-Wen Ai, Peng Cui, Hong-Long Wu, Ming-Zhi Ye, Wen-Hong Zhang Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis prosthetic joint infections: a case series and literature review
We aimed to characterize diagnosis, management, and outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis prosthetic joint infections (PJI). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fabrice Uhel, Gregory Corvaisier, Yves Poinsignon, Catherine Chirouze, Guillaume Beraud, Olivier Grossi, Nicolas Varache, C édric Arvieux, Rozenn Le Berre, Pierre Tattevin, for the Groupe d'Epidémiologie et Recherche en Infectiologie Clinique Centre-Oue Source Type: research

Serum level of IL-8 is associated with reversion of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Tests
Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) showed advantages for diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection, as compared to tuberculin skin test (TST), with improved specificity in BCG vaccinated individuals and convenience without repeat visits [1]. Two commercial IGRAs, QuantiFERONTB Gold In-Tube (QFT, Qiagen, USA) and T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec, Oxon, UK), have been recommended to replace TST in some high-income countries, such as United States [2]. However, frequent QFT conversion and reversion in serial tests has been observed in several studies [3-6]. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Henan Xin, Haoran Zhang, Xuefang Cao, Xiangwei Li, Mufei Li, Boxuan Feng, Qi Jin, Lei Gao Source Type: research

Emergence of Coxsackie A6 hand-foot-and-mouth disease and comparative severity of Coxsackie B vs. echovirus infections, 2014-2016, UK
Enterovirus (EV) infections (n=102) in paediatric and adult patients, presenting with hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), suspected sepsis or viral meningitis during Jan 2014 to Dec 2016 were characterised. Coxsackie A6 was the predominant EV type in HFMD, Coxsackie B viruses caused more severe infections than echoviruses, based on laboratory parameter derangement. Single cases of EVD68 and EV71 from respiratory and skin samples, respectively, were identified, albeit with no neurological complications in either case. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kah Wee Teo, Florence YL Lai, Srini Bandi, David J Allen, Julian W Tang Source Type: research

A hand hygiene intervention to decrease Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and absence due to sickness among kindergarteners in China: A cluster-randomized controlled trial
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has recently emerged in the Asia-Pacific region as the most severe epidemic disease affecting infants and young children (1). Children younger than five years old are especially susceptible to HFMD, as they do not yet have protective immunity to Enterovirus 71 (EV71) or Coxsackievirus virus A 16 (CV-A16), which are the common viral pathogens that lead to HFMD (2). Asymptomatic adult carriers of EV71 and CA16 are a major reservoir for the transmission of these viruses (3). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xiaona Liu, Wanli Hou, Zhiguang Zhao, Jinquan Cheng, Ed F. van Beeck, Xiaodong Peng, Kylah Jones, Xia Fu, Yan Zhou, Zhen Zhang, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Vicki Erasmus Source Type: research

Diagnostic stewardship in the post-vaccine era: reducing demand for meningococcal and pneumococcal PCR
We read with interest the article by Zheng et  al. published in May 2018 (Meningococcal disease and control in China: Findings and updates from the Global Meningococcal Initiative), which describes the changing vaccine-associated epidemiology of meningococcal disease in China and the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of m eningococcal disease.1 PCR is considered one of the greatest discoveries in molecular biology and the use of multiplex PCR panels maximises laboratory efficiency and productivity, but necessitates diagnostic stewardship. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 16, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ciara O'Connor, Claire McGuinness, Deirdre Cafferty, Robert Cunney, Richard J. Drew Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Gut microbiota associated with pulmonary tuberculosis and dysbiosis caused by anti-tuberculosis drugs
Background: An improved understanding of the gut microbiota could lead to better strategies for the diagnosis, therapy and prophylaxis of tuberculosis (TB). The impact of both Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and anti-TB treatment on the gut microbiota has rarely been studied.Methods: We characterized the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota in pulmonary TB patients as well as the effects of anti-TB drugs on the gut microbiota.Results: Pulmonary Mtb infection led to a minor decrease in the α diversity of the gut microbiota when compared to healthy controls, which mainly resulted from changes in t...
Source: Journal of Infection - August 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yongfeng Hu, Qianting Yang, Jie Dong, Lilian Sun, Yafang Zhu, Haoxiang Su, Bo Liu, Jian Yang, Fan Yang, Xinchun Chen, Qi Jin Source Type: research

MRSA Colonization Status as a Predictor of Clinical Infection: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen responsible for infectious syndromes including: skin and soft tissue, bone and joint, pneumonia, and bloodstream infections1. Numerous studies have demonstrated a decreased risk of relapse and lower overall mortality associated with the use of targeted beta-lactam therapy over vancomycin, in the treatment of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) infections2,3. The potential benefit of early beta-lactam therapy is often overshadowed by fear of omitting coverage for methicillin resistant S. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 10, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guillaume Butler-Laporte, Samuel de l ’Étoile-Morel, Matthew P. Cheng, Emily G. McDonald, Todd C. Lee Tags: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Source Type: research

Public acceptability of computer-controlled antibiotic management: an exploration of automated dosing and opportunities for implementation
A paucity of data describing citizen perceptions of novel technologies, including those containing unsupervised computer-controlled systems is currently available. We explored citizen perceptions of using a microneedle biosensor and automated dose control system at a university public festival. Groups of citizens (from 2-6 people per group) attended a short demonstration of a microneedle biosensor and automated dosing system versus a traditional phlebotomy approach over a two-day public festival. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 9, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Timothy M Rawson, Damien Ming, Sally AN Gowers, David ME Freeman, Pau Herrero, Pantelis Georgiou, Anthony E Cass, Danny O'Hare, Alison H Holmes Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The Advantages of Next-generation Sequencing Technology in the Detection of Different Sources of Abscess
We reported the apply of next-generation sequencing to identify a series of different sources of abscess cases indicating next-generation sequencing could offer unbiased sequencing and rapid diagnosis of pathogens. For the cases of having positive culture results, the metagenome analysis results were all consistent with those of conventional culture examination. Moreover, NGS could detect multiple pathogenic microorganisms and demonstrated dramatically decrease reads of identification pathogens in recovery phase. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ling-Yun Guo, Wen-Ya Feng, Jie Dong, Xin Guo, Bing Liu, Gang Liu Source Type: research

Outcomes of patients with drug-resistant-tuberculosis treated with bedaquiline-containing regimens and undergoing adjunctive surgery
With over 490,000 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases (MDR-TB; TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin) occurring globally each year, 6.2% of which are XDR-TB (extensively drug-resistant TB: MDR-TB with additional resistance to fluoroquinolones and one second-line injectable), the ‘white plague’ remains a major clinical and public health priority.1–4 (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sergey E. Borisov, Lia D'Ambrosio, Rosella Centis, Simon Tiberi, Keertan Dheda, Jan-Willem Alffenaar, Rohit Amale, Evgeny Belilowski, Judith Bruchfeld, Barbara Canneto, Justin Denholm, Raquel Duarte, Aliasgar Esmail, Alex Filippov, Lina Davies Forsman, Mi Source Type: research

Outcomes of patients with drug-resistant-tuberculosis treated with bedaquiline -containing regimens and undergoing adjunctive surgery
With over 490,000 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases (MDR-TB; TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin) occurring globally each year, 6.2% of which are XDR-TB (extensively drug-resistant TB: MDR-TB with additional resistance to fluoroquinolones and one second-line injectable), the ‘white plague’ remains a major clinical and public health priority.1-4 (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sergey E. Borisov, Lia D'Ambrosio, Rosella Centis, Simon Tiberi, Keertan Dheda, Jan-Willem Alffenaar, Rohit Amale, Evgeny Belilowski, Judith Bruchfeld, Barbara Canneto, Justin Denholm, Raquel Duarte, Aliasgar Esmail, Alex Filippov, Lina Davies Forsman, Mi Source Type: research