Mycology Laboratory Diagnostic Capacity for Invasive Fungal Diseases in 2017: Results of a National Survey
Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite medical and diagnostic advances. Severely immunocompromised patients including those with haematological malignancies and those undergoing transplantation continue to be at high risk of IFD.1 –3 Recent reports of invasive aspergillosis following influenza infection highlight there is also need for greater vigilance and diagnostic support in other patient groups such as intensive care patients.4,5 To improve outcomes for patients with IFD, a comprehensive diagnostic mycology work-up is vital. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Silke Schelenz, Katie Owens, Rebecca Guy, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Rohini J. Manuel, Malcolm Richardson, Caroline Moore, David A. Enoch, Christianne Micallef, Philip Howard, Samir G. Agrawal, Elizabeth M. Johnson, Berit Muller-Pebody, English Surveillan Source Type: research

Impact of point-of-care testing for respiratory viruses on antibiotic use in adults with exacerbation of airways disease: further analysis form a randomised controlled trial
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the arguably one of the greatest threats to global human health and is driven by the overuse of antibiotics.1 Antibiotics are prescribed to the vast majority of patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness (ARI), including in clinical groups where viruses are strongly implicated in their aetiology. Most asthma exacerbations are associated with respiratory virus infection, especially rhinovirus2 and randomised controlled trials have failed to demonstrate any benefit from antibiotic treatment. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nathan J. Brendish, Samuel Mills, Sean Ewings, Tristan W. Clark Source Type: research

Differential risk of severe infection in febrile neutropenia among children with blood cancer or solid tumor
: To describe and analyze the differences between infections in children with febrile neutropenia (FN) treated for solid tumor or blood cancer. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mathilde Delebarre, Rodrigue Dessein, Marion Lagr ée, Françoise Mazingue, Hélène Sudour-Bonnange, Alain Martinot, François Dubos Source Type: research

Interferon regulatory factor 1 eliminates mycobacteria by suppressing p70 S6 kinase via mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling
Tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, represents the most prevalent infectious disease and spreads to approximately one-third of the global population.1 The host defense system becomes crucial in TB patients particularly those with drug resistance TB who have failed to be cured with first-line anti-Mtb drugs including isoniazid (INH).2,3 Interferons (IFNs) production which can be induced by Mtb infection, serves as potent immune regulator and evokes multiple immune responses to various pathogens including bacteria infection. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xinying Zhou, Jiahui Yang, Zelin Zhang, Lijie Zhang, Linmiao Lie, Bo Zhu, Lei Xu, Yuchi Gao, Xialin Du, Yingqi Huang, Ruining Wang, Honglin Liu, Yanfen Li, Shengfeng Hu, Chaoying Zhou, Qian Wen, Qiuwei Pan, Li Ma Source Type: research

Cell-derived microvesicles in infective endocarditis: role in diagnosis and potential for risk stratification at hospital admission
Infective endocarditis (IE) is the microorganism infection of the endocardium known for its high morbidity and mortality in spite of treatment.1 The clinical presentation and outcome are largely determined by the immune and inflammatory response influenced by the host-pathogen interaction. The complex pathogenesis of this condition is a challenge, and understanding the immune-inflammatory cell pathways can be a step closer to improve disease management. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Milton Henriques Guimar ães Júnior, Teresa Cristina Abreu Ferrari, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Marcela de Lima Moreira, Lorena Júnia de Souza Santos, Matheus Fernandes Costa-Silva, Rodrigo Matos Pinto Coelho, Pedro Henrique Oliveira Murta Pinto, Tijmen Source Type: research

Diagnostic value of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra for osteoarticular tuberculosis
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top ten causes of deaths and the leading cause from a single infectious agent, with an estimated 1.3 million deaths in 2017.1 Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) accounted for 14% of the 6.4 million incident cases.1 Osteoarticular TB is ranked as the third most frequent form of EPTB.2 Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy are the best ways to prevent severe sequelae and mortality for osteoarticular TB patients. Therefore, continual progress in osteoarticular TB diagnosis is highly important. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Qing Sun, Shuqi Wang, Weijie Dong, Guanglu Jiang, Fengmin Huo, Yifeng Ma, Hairong Huang, Guirong Wang Source Type: research

Correlation of the lymphocyte: Monocyte ratio amongst polymerase chain reaction confirmed cases of influenza infections
Recently in a systemic review and meta-analysis published in the Journal of Infection, Rusell et al., described the utility of the peripheral lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) in respiratory viral infections.1,3 Based on this study, a LMR (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: S Zheng Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Persistent Norovirus Outbreaks in a Hospital Setting – the Role of Environmental Contamination
A recent review highlighted the healthcare burden of norovirus infections in China, prior to 2017. Norovirus infections occurred all year round, with 22-29% detection rates in children (6-35 months old) and adults (including the elderly), predominantly of norovirus GII.4 (70.4%).1 Similarly, in England and Wales in 2016 there were 7795 laboratory reported cases of norovirus and acute gastroenteritis, which was estimated to cost the National Health Service up to £86 million annually in bed closures and staff absences,2,3 making norovirus the second-largest contributor of gastrointestinal disease hospital burden in Eng...
Source: Journal of Infection - June 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Benedict RS Rogers, Christopher W Holmes, Matthew Hull, Dawn Westmoreland, Cristina Celma, Stuart Beard, Jake Dunning, Julian W Tang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Correlation of the Lymphocyte:Monocyte Ratio Amongst Polymerase Chain Reaction Confirmed Cases of Influenza Infections
Recently in a systemic review and meta-analysis published in the Journal of Infection, Rusell, et al, described the utility of the peripheral lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) in respiratory viral infections. 1 Based on this study, a LMR (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: S Zheng Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Elevated lactate levels in the cerebrospinal fluid associated with bacterial meningitis
We read with interest the recent article by Heemskerk et al in this Journal who identified higher lactate levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as an independent variable strongly associated with TB meningitis.1 Here we report on a retrospective analysis of the biochemical markers, including lactate, in CSF samples collected from 2167 patients admitted between 2014-2018 with symptoms and signs of infective meningitis or encephalitis. 1364 specimens were collected from adult patients (>16 years old) and 803 from paediatric patients ( (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Andrew Bosworth, Khiranmai Bhatt, Alexandra Nance, Gemma Winzor, Sowsan F. Atabani Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

ESAT-6 modulates Calcimycin-induced autophagy through microRNA-30a in mycobacteria infected macrophages
In spite of putting in tremendous efforts to eradicate Tuberculosis (TB) by many stakeholders, this disease is still the leading killer among infectious diseases that have caused enormous affliction to humanity. As per the latest global TB report 2018 by World Health Organization (WHO), TB has impacted 10.0 million people in 2017 and 1.6 million succumb to this deadly demon.1 All efforts to make this world TB-free have yielded limited results due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extremely drug-resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Assirbad Behura, Abtar Mishra, Saurabh Chugh, Shradha Mawatwal, Ashish Kumar, Debraj Manna, Amit Mishra, Ramandeep Singh, Rohan Dhiman Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Costs associated with acute respiratory illness and select virus infections in hospitalized children, El Salvador and Panama, 2012-2013
: Although acute respiratory illness (ARI) is a leading cause of hospitalization among young children, few data are available about cost of hospitalization in middle-income countries. We estimated direct and indirect costs associated with severe ARI resulting in hospitalization among children aged (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 31, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jorge H. Jara, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Tirza De Leon, Kathia Luciani, Yarisa Sujey Brizuela, Dora Estripeaut, Juan Miguel Castillo, Alfredo Barahona, Mary Corro, Rafael Cazares, Ofelina Vergara, Rafael Rauda, Rosalba Rodr íguez, Danilo Franco, Marc-Al Source Type: research

Some doubts on the meta-analysis of the clinical significance of thrombocytopenia complicating sepsis
We read with great interest the recently published meta-analysis by Xie et al.,1 who concluded that thrombocytopaenia was associated with poor prognosis in patients with sepsis. Though their study sounds scientific, however, we wish to raise some questions about the study. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xianshi Zhou, Guanghua Tang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Shiga toxin-induced haemolytic uraemic syndrome and the role of antibiotics: a global overview
Antibiotic administration in Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) infections is a topic of great controversy. As the role of shiga toxin (Stx) is central to the development of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), it is not surprising that an increase in its production or release would be expected to have catastrophic consequences. The two toxins produced by STEC, Stx1 and Stx2, appear to differ significantly in their potency to induce protein synthesis inhibition and cytotoxicity, with some subtypes of Stx2 being more potent than Stx1, while other subtypes have similar potency. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Loukas Kakoullis, Eleni Papachristodoulou, Paraskevi Chra, George Panos Tags: Review Source Type: research

Revealing true diversity of measles viruses circulating in India, 2012 –17
In this journal, Ahmed and colleagues drew attention to the resurgence of measles and the specter of vaccine failure.1 In India, measles virus (MeV) genotyping is based on the carboxyl-terminal of nucleoprotein (N) and or hemagglutinin (H) gene and subsequently classified into A-H clades and 24 sub-clades or genotypes.2 Recent reports had revealed that the H and matrix-fusion (M/F) non-coding region had greater variability than N gene.3,4 The genetic characterization of MeV is essential to measure the impact of immunization with context of measles elimination strategies in India. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sunil R. Vaidya, Aditya S. Kulkarni, Divya R. Bhattad, Chandrashekhar G. Raut Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Xie et al, and Thrombocytopenia Complicating Sepsis: some constructive criticisms
We read with great interest the recently published meta-analysis by Xie et al. 1, who concluded that thrombocytopaenia was associated with poor prognosis in patients with sepsis. Though their study sounds scientific, however, we wish to raise some questions about the study. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xianshi Zhou, Guanghua Tang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Bloodstream infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: clinical features, therapy and outcome from a multicenter study
In recent years, bloodstream infections (BSI) due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) have been increasingly observed among hospitalized patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), surgical and medical wards.1 –3 MDR-AB has been defined one of the top priority pathogens by the World Health Organization4,5; specifically, in Italy an increased incidence of MDR-AB was observed in the last years.6 (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alessandro Russo, Matteo Bassetti, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Novella Carannante, Angela Raffaella Losito, Michele Bartoletti, Silvia Corcione, Guido Granata, Antonella Santoro, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Maddalena Peghin, Antonio Vena, Francesco Amadori, Franc Source Type: research

Shiga toxin-induced Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome and the role of antibiotics
Antibiotic administration in Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) infections is a topic of great controversy. As the role of shiga toxin (Stx) is central to the development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), it's not surprising that an increase in its production or release would be expected to have catastrophic consequences. The two toxins produced by STEC, Stx1 and Stx2, appear to differ significantly in their potency to induce protein synthesis inhibition and cytotoxicity, with some subtypes of Stx2 being more potent than Stx1, while other subtypes have similar potency. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Loukas Kakoullis, Eleni Papachristodoulou, Paraskevi Chra, George Panos Tags: Review Source Type: research

Norovirus outbreaks in Beijing, China, from 2014 to 2017
Noroviruses are a leading cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide.1 Norovirus outbreak surveillance mechanisms are already established in developed countries, where about 50% of all outbreaks of AGE occur.2 However, in developing countries including China, most studies have focused on sporadic AGE, and the epidemiological features of norovirus outbreaks remain unclear. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhiyong Gao, Baiwei Liu, Hanqiu Yan, Weihong Li, Lei Jia, Yi Tian, Yanwei Chen, Quanyi Wang, Xinghuo Pang Source Type: research

Is the analysis sufficient? Letter to the Editor concerning the study of Prof. Wang titled “Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra improved the diagnosis of paucibacillary tuberculosis: A prospective cohort study”
We read with great interest the recent study of Prof. Huang regarding the Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra improved the diagnosis of paucibacillary tuberculosis.1 Due to the limitations of the use of Xpert in patients with sputum smear-negative or extrapulmonary tuberculosis or people co-infected with HIV, WHO has recommend using the Xpert Ultra for TB diagnosis and suggested to extensively evaluate Xpert Ultra in different epidemiological and geographical settings with different patient populations since March 2017. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Meng Zhang, Jian-qing He Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Better fit of codon usage of the polymerase and nucleoprotein genes to the chicken host for H7N9 than H9N2 AIVs
Recently, the evolution of H7N9 AIVs has been widely studied in this journal.1, 2 The six internal genes (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS) of H7N9 are from chicken H9N2 avian influenza viruses.3 Genotypic analysis of these six internal genes revealed that the most frequent genotypes of H9N2 genotypes did not become the major genotypes in H7N9, thus it appears that H7N9 prefer some genotypes for these genes.4 The cause for this preference remains unknown, as is whether this preference helped H7N9 become a successful AIV subtype. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wen Luo, Ying lia, Shu Yu, Xuejuan Shen, Lin Tian, David M. Irwin, Yongyi Shen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

High prevalence of colonisation with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among patients admitted to Vietnamese hospitals: risk factors and burden of disease
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is an increasing problem worldwide, but particularly problematic in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) due to limitations of resources for surveillance of CRE and infection prevention and control (IPC). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dien M. Tran, Mattias Larsson, Linus Olson, Ngoc T.B. Hoang, Ngai K. Le, Dung T.K. Khu, Hung D. Nguyen, Tam V. Vu, Tinh H. Trinh, Thinh Q. Le, Phuong T.T. Phan, Binh G. Nguyen, Nhung H. Pham, Bang H. Mai, Tuan V. Nguyen, Phuong T.K. Nguyen, Nhan D. Le, Tu Source Type: research

Genomic epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W in Switzerland between 2010 and 2016
We read with great interest the paper on ‘Clonal replacement and expansion among invasive meningococcal isolates of serogroup W in France’ by Hong, E; Barret, AS et al. published in this journal1. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stefano Leo Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Performance of synovial fluid D-lactate for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection: a prospective observational study
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) represents a serious complication after arthroplasty, which is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. An accurate diagnosis of infection is crucial to plan adequate treatment. Several attempts were made to investigate different biomarkers, such as alpha-2-macroglobulin, adenosine deaminase, procalcitonin, IL-1, IL-6, IL1 β and alpha defensin, which can be helpful in distinction of PJI from aseptic pathology.1–3 Currently used diagnostic tests of synovial fluid lack sensitivity or specificity for PJI. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Katsiaryna Yermak, Svetlana Karbysheva, Carsten Perka, Andrej Trampuz, Nora Renz Source Type: research

A case of a FilmArray ® ME false negative in meningococcal meningitis
Lumley and colleagues, in this Journal recently reported the enhanced utility of a multiplex PCR system in CNS infection.1 Several real time PCR systems have been commercialized in recent years for diagnosing bacterial and viral meningitis and encephalitis. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Patricia Gonz ález-Donapetry, Julio García-Rodríguez, Emilio Cendejas-Bueno Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A case of a FilmArray ME false negative in meningococcal meningitisA case of a FilmArray ® ME false negative in meningococcal meningitis
Lumley and colleagues, in this Journal recently reported the enhanced utility of a multiplex PCR system in CNS infection.1 Several real time PCR systems have been commercialized in recent years for diagnosing bacterial and viral meningitis and encephalitis. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Patricia Gonz ález-Donapetry, Julio García Rodríguez, Emilio Cendejas Bueno Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Higher relapse rate among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients receiving sofosbuvir/ledipasvir for 8 vs 12 weeks
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection is still a major public health problem. Recent estimations point to a global prevalence of 70 million people living with HCV chronic infection worldwide.1 Most untreated HCV-infected individuals may be soon concentrated in countries in South America, Africa, South-east Asia and Eastern Europe, because access to treatments has been more difficult in those areas, mainly due to cost issues.2 HIV infection is also highly prevalent in some specific countries of these regions3 and, in this way, both epidemics do overlap. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ana ïs Corma-Gómez, Juan Macías, Dolores Merino Muñoz, Francisco Téllez, Rafael Granados, Luis E. Morano, Ignacio De Los Santos Gil, Francisco J. Vera-Méndez, Antonio Collado, Rosario Palacios, Juan A. Pineda Source Type: research

Phylogeographic patterns of the African swine fever virus
The emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses is frequently reported in this journal, 1,2 while other emergent diseases, e.g., African swine fever (ASF), which also cause great losses in recent years. African swine fever is caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV). ASFV is the only member of the Asfarviridae family, and the genus Asfivirus.3 Infections of swine with ASFV show high morbidity and mortality (up to 100%). At present, there is no effective vaccine to prevent ASF and thus it is a great threat to global pig production.  Since its first described in Kenya in the 1920s, ASF has been recorded in most s...
Source: Journal of Infection - May 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xuejuan Shen, Zhiqing Pu, Yiliang Li, Shu Yu, Fucheng Guo, Tingting Luo, Xiaobing Li, Xu Zhang, Wen Luo, Yutan Fan, David M. Irwin, Rui-Ai Chen, Yongyi Shen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Higher relapse rate among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients receiving sofosbuvir/ledipasvir for 8 weeks
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection is still a major public health problem. Recent estimations point to a global prevalence of 70 million people living with HCV chronic infection worldwide.1 Most untreated HCV-infected individuals may be soon concentrated in countries in South America, Africa, South-east Asia and Eastern Europe, because access to treatments has been more difficult in those areas, mainly due to cost issues.2 HIV infection is also highly prevalent in some specific countries of these regions3 and, in this way, both epidemics do overlap. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ana ïs Corma-Gómez, Juan Macías, Dolores Merino MuñOZ, Francisco Téllez, Rafael Granados, Luis E. Morano, Ignacio De Los Santos Gil, Francisco J. Vera-Méndez, Antonio Collado, Rosario Palacios, Juan A. Pineda Source Type: research

Transmission Risk of Avian Influenza Virus along Poultry Supply Chains in Guangdong, China
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are zoonotic pathogens that proliferate in a wide variety of host and undergo continuous genetic reassortment.1 Currently, 18 different haemagglutination (HA, H1-H18) and 11 different neuraminidase (NA, N1-N11) subtypes have been discovered, among which H1-H16 and N1-N9 were identified in avian species and had adapted to humans, equines, and swine.2 The continuous reassortment among AIV subtypes resulted in the emergence of novel AIVs and poised significant zoonotic risk to human. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jian-Yong Wu, Eric HY Lau, Jun Yuan, Ming-Ling Lu, Chao-Jun Xie, Kui-Biao Li, Xiao-Wei Ma, Jian-Dong Chen, Yan-Hui Liu, Lan Cao, Mei-Xia Li, Biao Di, Yu-Fei Liu, Jian-Yun Lu, Tie-Gang Li, Xin-Cai Xiao, Da-Hu Wang, Zhi-Cong Yang, Jia-Hai Lu Source Type: research

High diversity of invasive Haemophilus influenzae isolates in France and the emergence of resistance to third generation cephalosporins by alteration of ftsI gene
Our data suggest that invasive H. influenzae isolates differed phenotypically and genotypically from non-invasive isolates. The high proportion of ampicillin resistance by mutation in ftsI among non-invasive isolates may suggest a biological cost of these mutations on the function of PBP3 that can lead to lower bacterial invasiveness. WGS should be used routinely for the characterization of H. influenzae isolates in order to reliably follow the emergence, spread and mechanism of antibiotic resistance. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ala-Eddine Deghmane, Eva Hong, Sara Chehboub, Aude Terrade, Micha ël Falguières, Morgan Sort, Odile Harrison, Keith A. Jolley, Muhamed-Kheir Taha Source Type: research

A hospital cluster combined with a family cluster of avian influenza H7N9 infection in Anhui Province, China
H7N9 avian influenza virus has caused 5 waves of human infections since the virus emerged, resulting in severe pneumonia in humans in the spring of 20131. As of June 2018, 1,536 cases infected with the H7N9 virus had reported, and 611 (39.8%) patients died. In addition to mainland China, the patients were detected in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macao, Canada, and Malaysia. Some studies indicated the potential for limited and non-persistent transmission of the virus. Several family cluster cases have been reported since 20132 –5. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wenyan Zhang, Kefu Zhao, Jing Jin, Jun He, Wei Zhou, Jinju Wu, Renshu Tang, Wenbo Ma, Caiyu Ding, Wei Liu, Lei Zhang, Rongbao Gao Source Type: research

The Incremental Value of Bronchoalveolar Lavage for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a High-Burden Urban Setting
we prospectively evaluated the use of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) specimens to assess their added incremental value to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic strategies used currently in a high-burden urban setting in China. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ping Xu, Peijun Tang, Huafeng Song, Jing Zhao, Hui Chen, Jing Xue, Yunxia Zhai, Yu Pang, Meiying Wu Source Type: research

Torquetenovirus viremia for early prediction of graft rejection after kidney transplantation
New biomarkers reflecting the degree of immunosuppression in transplant recipients are needed to provide an optimal personalized balance between rejection and infection risks. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: M. Solis, A. Velay, P. Gantner, J. Bausson, A. Filiputti, R. Freitag, B. Moulin, S. Caillard, S. Fafi-Kremer Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Human Herpesvirus 6 Infection after Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Multicenter Prospective Study in Adult Patients
Human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6) is a widespread roseolovirus which encompasses two different variants: HHV-6A and HHV-6B sharing 75%-95% nucleotide sequence identity. Variant B is the most commonly detected in clinical specimens: it is considered as the causative agent of the exanthema subitum childhood disease with an estimated seroprevalence of> 95% after the age of 2 years and of pathologies described in immunocompromised patients 1-3. To date, variant A seems less frequently detected 4. Like other herpesviruses, HHV-6 establishes a life-long latency; involved organs are brain, bone marrow and salivary glands, with ...
Source: Journal of Infection - May 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marie Balsat, Sylvie Pillet, Emmanuelle Tavernier, Victoria Cacheux, Vanessa Escuret, C écile Moluçon-Chabrot, Karine Augeul-Meunier, Audrey Mirand, Christel Regagnon, Fabien Tinquaut, Véronique Bousser, Mathieu Oriol, Denis Guyotat, Gilles Salles, Jac Source Type: research

The codon usage bias of avian influenza A viruses
A recent study in this journal revealed that avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) H5Nx (N1, N6 and N8) showed pathogenicity,1 and accordingly had different adaptation to the codon usage pattern of its hosts.2 AIVs classify into 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes.3 The abundance and distribution of different subtypes varies greatly.4 Subtype H5 is the most often isolated AIV, followed by H7 and H9.4 It remains unclear which factor(s) associate with this abundance in birds. Considered that codon usage pattern was suggested to influence the adaptation of H5Nx AIVs,2 in this study, we calculated the codon adap...
Source: Journal of Infection - May 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wen Luo, Lin Tian, Chuqi Huang, Jiayu Li, Xuejuan Shen, Robert W. Murphy, Ming Liao, Yongyi Shen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A human infection with a novel reassortant H3N2 swine virus in China
We read with interest the recent communication by Guo et al. concerning avian influenza virus pathogenicity.1 Swine has been considered an intermediate host for avian influenza viruses to adapt to humans. Cross-species transmissions caused by novel reassortant swine-originate influenza A virus (S-OIV) are of particular concern after the 2009 pandemic caused by pdH1N1 virus and epidemic outbreaks caused by H3N2v.2,3 The genesis of these viruses shows that reassortant is the major driving force for producing highly infectious variants. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jing Lu, Lina Yi, Yi Jing, Hanqing Tan, Wei Mai, Yingchao Song, Lirong Zou, Lijun Liang, Hong Xiao, Min Kang, Jie Wu, Tie Song, Changwen Ke Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

No gene communication of HA gene between the human H3N2 and H1N1 pandemic 2009 influenza A viruses
Recently, a study in this journal suggested that the 2014 H1N1 pandemic 2009 (H1N1/pdm2009) had gene communication with 2016/2017 H3N2.1 The influenza A H1N1/pdm2009 virus, a novel swine-derived, triple reassortant virus, was rapidly transmitted between humans and spread to 168 countries, resulting in over 123,000 human deaths globally from March to December 2009.2,3 Since then, it has replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 and circulated as a seasonal virus along with the H3N2 virus, posing substantial risks to human populations,4 creating an opportunity for coinfection and therefore recombination or reassortment between the...
Source: Journal of Infection - April 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xuejuan Shen, Zhiqing Pu, David M. Irwin, Yongyi Shen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Genetic characterization of H7N4 avian influenza virus in China in 2018
Recent study in this journal reported that the first case of human infection with H7N4 avian influenza virus (AIV) was confirmed in China.1 Subsequently, 11 H7N4 AIVs were isolated from poultries, 4 viruses isolated from chickens and 7 viruses isolated from ducks. Presently, H7N4 AIVs were only identified from USA, Australia, Italy, Canada, Netherlands, Germany, Keara, Thailand, and China.2 Most of the H7N4 AIVs were low pathogenicity, except those isolated from Australia in 1997. In the present study, we performed a genetic analysis of these H7N4 AIVs in China during 2018. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - April 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bin Xiang, Libin Chen, Jie Song, Peng Xie, Qiuyan Lin, Ming Liao, Chenggang Xu, Tao Ren Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Avian influenza A viruses H5Nx (N1, N2, N6 and N8) show different adaptations of their codon usage patterns to their hosts
A recent study in this journal identified three H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIVs) with differing NA subtypes (N1, N6 and N8) and revealed that while the three isolates were all highly pathogenic in chickens and ducks only the H5N1 and H5N6 subtypes showed high pathogenicity in mice, with no mortality observed for H5N8.1 This suggests differences in their pathogenicity potential. Since the emergence of H5N1 in China in 1996, it has continued to evolve and reassort with other NA subtypes, including N2, N6, and N8. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - April 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fucheng Guo, Xuejuan Shen, David M. Irwin, Yongyi Shen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

No gene communication between the human H3N2 and H1N1 pandemic 2009 influenza A viruses
Recently, a study in this journal suggested that the 2014 H1N1 pandemic 2009 (H1N1/pdm2009) had gene communication with 2016/2017 H3N2 1. The influenza A H1N1/pdm2009 virus, a novel swine-derived, triple reassortant virus, was rapidly transmitted between humans and spread to 168 countries, resulting in over 123,000 human deaths globally from March to December 2009 2, 3. Since then, it has replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 and circulated as a seasonal virus along with the H3N2 virus, posing substantial risks to human populations 4, creating an opportunity for coinfection and therefore recombination or reassortment between...
Source: Journal of Infection - April 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xuejuan Shen, Zhiqing Pu, David M. Irwin, Yongyi Shen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - April 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

“Clean care for all – it's in your hands”: the May 5th, 2019 World Health Organization SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands campaign
Evidence recently published in the journal confirms the importance of hand hygiene to reduce infections and cross-contamination of human pathogens in the community.1 Quality healthcare should be available to everyone. The World Health Organization's (WHO) concept of Universal Health Coverage (UHC),2 embodies the urgent need for access to healthcare for all people around the world. In addition to access, the concept of UHC incorporates the critical element of the necessary quality of delivered health care services. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - April 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alexandra Peters, Tcheun Borzykowski, Ermira Tartari, Claire Kilpatrick, Safiah Hwai Chuen Mai, Benedetta Allegranzi, Didier Pittet Source Type: research

Increased susceptibility to pertussis in adults at childbearing age as determined by comparative seroprevalence study, China 2010-2016
Pertussis is a respiratory infectious disease caused by the Gram negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The number of pertussis cases in many countries with a high vaccination coverage has increased in the last decade. Pertussis has become a common vaccine preventable disease throughout the world. The typical symptoms of pertussis are often seen in unvaccinated children. In order to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by pertussis, whole cell pertussis vaccines (wP) have been used in many countries since the 1950s. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - April 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yuxiao Zhang, Zhiyun Chen, Jianhong Zhao, Nan Zhang, Ning Chen, Jing Zhang, Shuming Li, Qiushui He Source Type: research

Synovial C-reactive protein features high negative predictive value but is not useful as a single diagnostic parameter in suspected periprosthetic joint infection (PJI)
The numbers of total joint arthroplasties (TJA) have steadily increased over the last decade, and concomitantly, there has been an increase in the absolute numbers of periprosthetic joint infections (PJI).1 For clinicians, it is crucial to distinguish between septic and aseptic causes of joint pain because treatment options differ regarding antibiotic therapies and surgical procedures.2 Several societies published guidelines for the diagnosis of PJIs. Most commonly, the guideline of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)3 and the adapted Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) guideline by the consensus meeting...
Source: Journal of Infection - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: A. Plate, A. Anagnostopoulos, J. Glanzmann, L. Stadler, L. Weigelt, R. Sutter, M. K ästli, A.S. Zinkernagel, P.O. Zingg, Y. Achermann Source Type: research

SV40 seroprevalence in two Latin American countries involved in field trials of candidate oral poliovaccines
Polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40) has been reported to cause infections in humans, although the prevalence and distribution of such infections are unknown. The natural host for SV40 is the rhesus macaque and the origin of cross-species human infections dates from 1954 and the use of contaminated poliovaccines.1,2 Vaccine lots of both inactivated (IPV) and live attenuated oral (OPV) poliovaccine were potentially contaminated before the discovery of SV40 in 1960. The virus was an unrecognized agent present in many of the primary rhesus monkey kidney cell cultures used for vaccine production. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - April 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Connie Wong, Shaojie Zhang, Ervin Adam, Lawrence Paszat, Janet S. Butel Source Type: research

Treatment stratification of respiratory syncytial virus infection in allogeneic stem cell transplantation
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains the only curative treatment for many haematological conditions.1 Despite gradually improving outcomes over time the success of the procedure is hindered by infectious complications that along with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remain the main cause of non-relapse morbidity and mortality.2,3 (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - April 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Katalin Balassa, Richard Salisbury, Edmund Watson, Marcin Lubowiecki, Bing Tseu, Nadjoua Maouche, Katie Jeffery, Siraj A. Misbah, Rachel Benamore, Lara Rowley, Daja Barton, Rachel Pawson, Robert Danby, Vanderson Rocha, Andy Peniket Source Type: research

Lymphopenic community-acquired pneumonia is associated with a dysregulated immune response and increased severity and mortality
Lymphopenic ( (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - April 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ra úl Méndez, Rosario Menéndez, Isabel Amara-Elori, Laura Feced, Alba Piró, Paula Ramírez, Amparo Sempere, Alicia Ortega, Jesús F. Bermejo-Martín, Antoni Torres Source Type: research