Presentations and Outcomes of Central Nervous System TB in a UK Cohort: The high burden of neurological morbidity
Central nervous system TB (CNS-TB) represents one of the most serious clinical manifestations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. There are two main patterns of disease presentation: (i) tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and (ii) intracranial tuberculous mass lesion(s) (TBML). Although CNS-TB only accounts for about 1% of TB cases,1 it contributes disproportionately to morbidity and mortality. Pathologically, CNS-TB arises from haematogenous seeding of M. tuberculosis to the brain following pulmonary infection. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Clare Logan, Claire Mullender, Miriam Mirfenderesky, Nicholas Feasey, Catherine Cosgrove, Peter Riley, Angela Houston, Tom Harrison, Tihana Bicanic, Phil Rich, Paul Hart, S íle F Molloy, Derek C. Macallan Source Type: research

Quantifying the impact of public health protection measures on the spread of SARS-CoV-2
The new virus, SARS-CoV-2, has probably affected millions of people world-wide since December 2019 and killed thousand. We have designed a model and used it to quantify the effect of local protective measures on the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, assess their effectiveness and adapt health service strategies in Toulouse, France. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chlo é Dimeglio, Jean-Michel Loubes, Jean-Michel Mansuy, Jacques Izopet Source Type: research

Prior Presumed Coronavirus Infection Reduces COVID-19 Risk: A Cohort Study
While this study cannot attribute this association to cross-immunity resulting from a prior CCC infection, it is one potential explanation. Regardless of the cause, the reduction in the odds of being infected by SARS-CoV-2 among those with a recent diagnosis of common cold symptoms may have a role in shifting future COVD-19 infection patterns from endemic to episodic. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dvir Aran, Daniel C. Beachler, Stephan Lanes, J. Marc Overhage Source Type: research

Impact of immunosuppressive therapy on the severity of COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients
We read with interest the article by Minotti et al on immunosuppression on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.1 Variable clinical courses of Coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) were reported 2 –4 in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, but few data are available on the impact of immunosuppression on clinical severity. Since immune system plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 by developing a hyperinflammatory state,5 immunomodulators were found to improve clinica l course. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marco Merli, Luisa Pasulo, Giovanni Perricone, Giovanna Travi, Roberto Rossotti, Valeriana Giuseppina Colombo, Riccardo De Carlis, Stefania Chiappetta, Maria Cristina Moioli, Enrico Minetti, Maria Frigerio, Luciano Gregorio De Carlis, Luca Belli, Stefano Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 positive virus culture 7 weeks after onset of COVID-19 in an immunocompromised patient suffering from X chromosome-linked agammaglobulinemia
Walsh et al. recently published a review in this journal focusing on the duration of infectiousness in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. (1) Based on available data from SARS-CoV-2 culture studies and contract tracing studies included in this review, the authors reported that patients with mild-to-moderate Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are considered to be without infectious potential beyond day 10 after the onset of symptoms. In contrast, immunocompromised and severe-to-critical patients may have prolonged viral shedding and, thus, may also provide prolonged infectiousness. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Katharina Guetl, Florentine Moazedi-Fuerst, Konrad Rosskopf, Marianne Brodmann, Robert Krause, Philipp Eller, Patricia Wilhelmer, Florian Eisner, Nazanin Sareban, Peter Schlenke, Harald H. Kessler, Ivo Steinmetz, Monika Redlberger-Fritz, Karin Stiasny, Ma Source Type: research

Zero measles after COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan Running title: measles and COVID-19
Dear Editor, (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chao-Hsun Chen, Chih-Cheng Lai, Chien-Ming Chao, Hung-Jen Tang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 re-infection: a case report from Qatar
Dear Editor, (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alanoud AlFehaidi, Syed Ali Ahmad, Ehab Hamed Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Lack of detrimental effect of corticosteroids on antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 and viral clearance in patients hospitalized with COVID-19
Dear Editor, (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mar Masi á, Marta Fernández-González, José Alberto García, Sergio Padilla, Félix Gutiérrez Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Identification of recently identified tick-borne viruses (Dabieshan tick virus and SFTSV) by metagenomic analysis in ticks from Shandong province, China
The aim of this study is to systematically examine the variety of viruses maintained in ticks from Shandong Province. A total of 2522 ticks were sampled from five cities of Shandong Province and divided into 264 pools according to location and species. Viral megagenomic analysis revealed the sequences of two viruses, Dabieshan tick virus and SFTSV. Then qRT-PCR and nested PCR were performed to confirm the presence of corresponding pathogens, which showed positive results for Dabieshan tick virus and SFTSV, with a minimum infection rate of 0.67% (17/2522) and 2.5% (63/2522), respectively. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lijun Shao, Zheng Pang, Hongchen Fu, Ruiheng Chang, Zuomiao Lin, Aiqun Lv, Shenghan Wang, Xiangbing Kong, Meihui Luo, Xing Liu, Xiaoli Yu, Lin Liu, Guoyu Niu Source Type: research

Comparing the 4C mortality score for COVID-19 to established scores (CURB65, CRB65, qSOFA, NEWS) for respiratory infection patients
Dear Editor, (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zoe Wellbelove, Chloe Walsh, Tanaraj Perinpanathan, Patrick Lillie, Gavin Barlow Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Developing new therapeutic approaches for treating infections caused by multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a major challenge to global health. This problem is most apparent in healthcare facilities, with a comparatively small number of pathogens being responsible for a substantial burden of hospital acquired infections globally. One of the key pathogens is the Gram-negative coccobacilli, Acinetobacter baumannii. It has been estimated that between 47%-93% of A. baumannii infections are associated with multi-drug resistance (MDR), which is facilitated through a variety of well documented mechanisms ( β-lactamases, efflux pumps, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, permeability defects, ...
Source: Journal of Infection - October 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peter Gallagher, Stephen Baker Tags: Review Source Type: research

A case of SARS-CoV-2 re-infection
Dear Editor, (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alanoud AlFehaidi, Syed Ali Ahmed, Ehab Hamed Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

COVID-19: Spatial resolution of excess mortality in Germany and Italy
Stang et al. [1] explored age-specific numbers of weekly deaths in Germany from 2016 to June 2020. We wish to complement their results and conclusion that excess mortality existed for two months with analyses of higher spatial resolution. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: P Morfeld, B Timmermann, JV Gro ß, S DeMatteis, M Campagna, P Lewis, P Cocco, TC Erren Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Ct values from SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic PCR assays should not be used as direct estimates of viral load
We read with interest the review by Walsh et al.1 summarizing data on detection patterns and viral loads of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the course of infection. We agree with them that determination of SARS-CoV-2 viral load in clinical samples will aid the interpretation of laboratory assays and in the management of isolation and contact tracing protocols, but it should be noted that currently there is no standard measure of viral load in clinical samples. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Elias Dahdouh, Fernando L ázaro-Perona, María Pilar Romero-Gómez, Jesús Mingorance, Julio García-Rodriguez, SARS-CoV-2 Working Group Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Sex-disaggregated data confirm serum ferritin as an independent predictor of disease severity both in male and female COVID-19 patients
Dear Editor (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Orietta Gandini Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Low impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection among paediatric acute respiratory disease hospitalizations
We read with interest the article by G Pagani et al1, in which the authors report that 0 to 19-year-old children exhibit the lowest SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence among all the age-groups. In our centre, which is a 250-bed reference paediatric hospital located in Barcelona, 960 patients with fever and/or respiratory symptoms were tested for SARS-CoV-2 in the emergency department during the regional pandemic peak (week 11-20/2020) and only 56 of them were positive (6%). Thirty-one of them were admitted to hospital (Table S1, Supplementary data) and only 7 with an acute-lower respiratory disease (ALRD). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Mel é, Desiree Henares, Rosa Pino, Silvia Asenjo, Rocío Matamoros, Victoria Fumadó, Claudia Fortuny, Juan-José García-García, Iolanda Jordan, Pedro Brotons, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Mariona F-de-Sevilla, Cristian Launes, Kids-Corona Paediatric H Source Type: research

Genetic characterization of an H5N6 avian influenza virus from chickens in Guangdong, China
Recently, A highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV), isolated from Greylag goose, has been documented in this journal1. Migratory waterfowl are the major reservoir hosts of AIV2. The migration flyways serve as an important source of AIV across distant sites by facilitating fecal-oral transmission3. Ten genetically unique clades have been reported for H5 HA, while clade 2.3.4.4 of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus(HPAIV) that first identified from China in late 2013 has replaced H5N1 as the dominating HPAIV subtype in southern China2, 4, 5. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jing Yang, Yong Li, Jinyue Guo, Kaijian Luo, Hai Yu, Yao Chen, Anqi Li, Sheng Yuan, Saeed El-Ashram, Shujian Huang, Feng Wen Source Type: research

Estimates of the rate of infection and asymptomatic COVID-19 disease in a population sample from SE England
Seroprevalence amongst adults from London and South-East England was 12%, and 19% of seropositive individuals with prospective symptom logging were fully asymptomatic throughout the study. Anosmia demonstrated the highest symptom specificity for SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 14, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Philippa M. Wells, Katie J. Doores, Simon Couvreur, Rocio Martinez Nunez, Jeffrey Seow, Carl Graham, Sam Acors, Neophytos Kouphou, Stuart J.D. Neil, Richard S. Tedder, Pedro M. Matos, Kate Poulton, Maria Jose Lista, Ruth E. Dickenson, Helin Sertkaya, Thom Source Type: research

Sepsis – the broken code How accurately is sepsis being diagnosed?
We read with interest  the recent correspondence by Zhang et al,1 in response to an earlier paper2 in the Journal of Infection. Ease of use, reliability and prognostic capability of any clinical scoring system are indeed critical to its utility. However, another crucial aspect that is frequently overlooked is the v alidity of the data which may undermine the worth of the score, including the underlying diagnosis. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Robert Tidswell, Thomas Parker, David Brealey, Mervyn Singer Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The duration of infectiousness of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious virus that is responsible for tens of millions of cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide.(1) SARS-CoV-2 constitutes a significant public health concern due to its high basic reproduction rate (R0 of 4-5 in the unmitigated setting), the absence of immunity in the human population, the lack of effective treatment or vaccination approaches, the high SARS-CoV-2 viral loads detectable in respiratory samples, and the occurrence of transmission early in the disease course, often pre-symptomatically, or by those asymptomatic o...
Source: Journal of Infection - October 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kieran A. Walsh, Susan Spillane, Laura Comber, Karen Cardwell, Patricia Harrington, Jeff Connell, Conor Teljeur, Natasha Broderick, Cillian F. de Gascun, Susan M. Smith, M áirín Ryan, Michelle O'Neill Tags: Review Source Type: research

False negative RT-PCR and false positive antibody tests –Concern and solutions in the diagnosis of COVID-19
We read with interest that antibody testing using a rapid immunochromatographic assay is reliable in the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.1 However, the accuracy of antibody testing and RT-PCR does not meet the need for a large number of screening tests. False negative RT-PCR and false positive antibody tests are a concern. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xingwang Jia, Liehui Xiao, Yajie Liu Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

On-site Multiplex PCR for CSF diagnostics in an Acute Hospital versus Referral to Reference Laboratories: Assessing Economic Factors, Length of Stay and Antimicrobial Stewardship.
Dear Editor, (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: R Barry, C Dempsey, L Barry, C Hooton, A O ’ Connor, C Reynolds, M Cremin, SF Felsenstein, R Cunney, J Dean, GD Corcoran Source Type: research

Effect of Administering Subsequent Immune Checkpoint Inhibition in Cancer Patients with Prior COVID-19 Infection
We read with interest the recent article published by Skevaki C et  al who described the laboratory characteristics of patients infected with the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus,1 which indicated that patients with COVID-19 have varying degrees of multiple organ dysfunction. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by symptomatology from immune hyperactivation against normal tissues such as the lungs. Because immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are intended to galvanize the immune system, it is imperative to evaluate the effect of ICI therapy in patients who have recovered from prior COVID-19. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jianping Bi, Sheng Wang, Yajie Wang, Dongqin Yang, Vivek Verma, Jing Huang, Guang Han Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Co-infection in COVID-19, a cohort study
In this study, we investigated a COVID-19 cohort in Shanghai, China. We screened viruses include Human parainfluenza virus 1, Human parainfluenza virus 2, Human parainfluenza virus 3, Human parainfluenza virus4, Influenza A virus, Influenza B virus, Human rhinovirus, Human metapneumovirus, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human Bocavirus, Human adenovirus, Human Coronavirus 229E, Human Coronavirus NL63, Human Coronavirus HKU1, Human Coronavirus OC43; bacteria include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Legionella pneumophila, Group A Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenza, Staphylococ...
Source: Journal of Infection - October 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wuhui Song, Xiaofang Jia, Xiaonan Zhang, Yun Ling, Zhigang Yi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

False Negative RT-PCR and False Positive Antibody Tests ——Concern and Solutions in the Diagnosis of COVID-19
We read with interest that antibody testing using a rapid immunochromatographic assay is reliable in the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.1 However, the accuracy of antibody testing and RT-PCR does not meet the need for a large number of screening tests. False negative RT-PCR and false positive antibody tests are a concern. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xingwang Jia, Liehui Xiao, Yajie Liu Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Measles surveillance in Pakistan
We read with great interest the article entitled “Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease during COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan” by Hung-Jen Tang et at .1 Authors discussed the decline in invasive pneumococcal disease and here we would like to present the decline in measles cases in Pakistan during the COVID-19 pandemic. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Muhammad Suleman Rana, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Aamer Ikram, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Muhammad Salman, Salman Sharif, Massab Umair, Adnan Khurshid, Ghulam Mujtaba Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The use of Automated Data Extraction Tools to Develop a Solid Organ Transplant Registry: Proof of Concept Study of Bloodstream Infections
Broadly defined, electronic health records (EHR) represent longitudinal data, in electronic format, that are collected during routine delivery of care [1]. Although the data generated in EHRs are primarily for patient care, they can be used for clinical research. A registry is an organized system that uses observational study methods to collect uniform data to evaluate specified outcomes for a population defined by a particular disease, condition or exposure and serves one or more predetermined purposes [2]. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ricardo M. La Hoz, Terrence Liu, Donglu Xie, Beverley Adams-Huet, DuWayne L. Willett, Robert W. Haley, David E. Greenberg Source Type: research

The burden of bacteremic and non-bacteremic Gram-negative infections: a prospective multicenter cohort study in a low-resistance country
Infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Enterobacterales, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species, also called Gram-negative infections (GNI), are associated with significant mortality, morbidity and health care costs[1] Such infections occur in community-dwelling subjects and may also complicate treatment in healthcare facilities as post-operative wound infections, urinary tract infections (UTI), hospital-acquired pneumonia and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: J.W. Timot ëus Deelen, Wouter C. Rottier, Cornelis H. van Werkhoven, Sjoukje H.S. Woudt, Anton G.M. Buiting, J. Wendelien Dorigo-Zetsma, Jan A.J.W. Kluytmans, Paul D. van der Linden, Steven F.T. Thijsen, Bart J.M. Vlaminckx, Annemarie J.L. Weersink, Heid Source Type: research

Serial semiquantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva samples
Dear Editor: (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ming-Hui Mao, Jing-Jing Guo, Li-Zheng Qin, Zheng-Xue Han, Ya-Jie Wang, Di Yang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Spectrum of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis: an analysis of 685 cases diagnosed over 22 years
Paragonimiasis is a foodborne trematodiasis caused by infection with the lung fluke Paragonimus spp. Several tens of different Paragonimus spp. are widely distributed and more than seven major species complexes have been reported to cause human infections.1,2 Paragonimiasis is detected globally, but infections are more common in Asian enclaves including Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and India, where consumption of raw or inadequately cooked freshwater crustaceans, which harbor metacercaria(e), is traditional and widespread. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - October 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chun-Seob Ahn, Jong Wook Shin, Jeong-Geun Kim, Weon-Young Lee, Insug Kang, Jung-Gi Im, Yoon Kong Source Type: research

Screening for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among healthcare workers in a University Hospital in Southern France
A recent study in this journal reported characteristics of healthcare workers (HCW) infected with SARS-CoV-2 in order to identify new cases as early as possible.1 Here, we aimed to determine the serological status of HCW after the first wave of the epidemic, and the extent of their protective immunity. This is particularly important as this population will always be in the front line combatting the probable continuation of the present epidemic.2,3 HCW can also be a source of transmission, introducing virus into a hospital harbouring many susceptible patients or co-workers. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chlo é Dimeglio, Fabrice Herin, Marcel Miedougé, Jean-Pierre Cambus, Florence Abravanel, Jean-Michel Mansuy, Jean-Marc Soulat, Jacques Izopet Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific cytokine biomarkers to differentiate active TB and LTBI: A systematic review
It is estimated that one-quarter of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)1. Despite effective treatment being available for over 70 years, it continues to be the leading cause of death from a single infectious disease worldwide2. One of the main factors contributing to this toll is the limitations of current diagnostic tests. As a result, an estimated 3 million cases of tuberculosis (TB) each year are not diagnosed or notified3, 4. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eva L. Sudbury, Vanessa Clifford, Nicole L. Messina, Rinn Song, Nigel Curtis Tags: Review Source Type: research

Discovery of mcr-3.1 gene carried by a prophage located in a conjugative IncA/C2 plasmid from a Salmonella Choleraesuis clinical isolate
The emergence of mcr-gene posts a serious threat to the use of colistin which is one of the last-resort treatments against human infections caused by MDR Gram-negative bacteria. In this Journal, the discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-3 in poultry fecal samples from China live poultry markets (LPMs) has been recently reported (1, 2). Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of plasmid-borne mcr-3.1 present in an MDR Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis isolate from human. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yuanlong Pan, Yuan Fang, Yuqing Feng, Na Lyu, Luping Chen, Jing Li, Xuebin Xu, Baoli Zhu, Yongfei Hu Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The role of Frailty on Adverse Outcomes Among Older Patients with COVID-19
The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought an enormous burden to current healthcare systems worldwide with poor outcomes especially among older people 1. However, other comorbidities besides age were shown to affect the prognostic risk, suggesting that we need a more comprehensive approach 2. The assessment and adaptation of frailty using appropriate tools in clinical practice to determine health outcomes should constitute the cornerstone of patient management 3. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Harun Kundi, Elif Hande Özcan Çetin, Uğur Canpolat, Sevgi Aras, Osman Celik, Naim Ata, Suayip Birinci, Serkan Çay, Özcan Özeke, Ibrahim Halil Tanboğa, Serkan Topaloğlu Source Type: research

The potential indicators for pulmonary fibrosis in survivors of severe COVID-19
We read great interest in the risk factors of critical or mortal COVID-19 cases, recently reported by Ye, et al in this journal [1]. Here we paid more attention about the long-term lung sequelae among survivors of severe COVID-19. With more than 21 million people worldwide recovered from COVID-19, early analysis suggested a high rate of patients had residual abnormal lung function and fibrotic remodeling on CT, especially in survivors of severe SARS-CoV-2 associated pneumonia [2,3]. These might contribute to long-term impairment of lung function or even lung transplants. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wenhui Huang, Qingxia Wu, Zhuozhi Chen, Zhiyuan Xiong, Kun Wang, Jie Tian, Shuixing Zhang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

High Rates of Antimicrobial Resistance among Clinical Isolates from Microbiology Laboratories in Syria.
Dear Editor (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alabedeen Karamya, Alexey Youssef, Ali Adra, Nabil Karah, Souha S. Kanj, Wael Elamin, Rabiea Al Nahas, Ali Shaddood, Ali Saleh, Esraa Althiab, Aula Abbara Source Type: research

Sex differences in mortality in the intensive care unit patients with severe COVID-19
The available evidence suggests that mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in males is higher than in females.1 In a recent cross-sectional study, de Lusignan et al. evaluated the absolute excess risk (AER) of mortality and excess mortality rate (EMR) in the UK from a COVID-19 sentinel surveillance network in people aged 45 years and above.2 The AER in mortality was calculated by comparing mortality for weeks 2 to 20 this year with mortality data from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) from 2018 for the same weeks. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sergey Moiseev, Michail Brovko, Ekaterina Tao, Nikolay Bulanov, Larisa Akulkina Victor Fomin Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Letter in response to article in journal of infection: “Clinical characteristics of 345 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Japan: A multicenter retrospective study”
In this study, severity was defined as the need for oxygen supplementation. Respiratory failure is indeed the most important pathology that contributes to the severity of COVID-19. Obesity is associated with restr ictive breathing patterns and reduced lung volumes and is a risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome.2 Furthermore, it is also reported as an independent risk factor for the severity of COVID-19. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dr. Daisuke Miyazawa Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics, symptoms and outcomes of 1054 adults presenting to hospital with suspected COVID-19: a comparison of patients with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has led to over 21 million cases and over 700,000 deaths worldwide [1]. Over 130,000 patients have been admitted to hospitals in the UK with confirmed COVID-19 [2]. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nathan J Brendish, Stephen Poole, Vasanth V Naidu, Christopher T Mansbridge, Nicholas Norton, Florina Borca, Hang TT Phan, Helen Wheeler, Matthew Harvey, Laura Presland, Tristan W Clark Source Type: research

The usefulness of NEWS2 at day 7 of hospitalization in predicting COVID-19 evolution and as an early endpoint in therapeutic trials
Dear Editor, (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: T. SIXT, F. MORETTO, H. DEVILLIERS, M. ABDALLAHOUI, I. EBERL, T. ROGIER, M. DUONG, A. SALMON-ROUSSEAU, S. MAHY, M. BUISSON, C. ESTEVE, P. CHAVANET, F. CATHERINE, M. BLOT, L. PIROTH Source Type: research

Survey of antibiotic and antifungal prescribing in patients with suspected and confirmed COVID-19 in Scottish hospitals
A relatively low prevalence of antibiotic prescribing in SARS-CoV-2 hospitalised patients and low proportion of broad spectrum antibiotics in non-critical care settings was observed potentially reflecting national antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. Broad spectrum antibiotic and antifungal prescribing in critical care units was observed indicating the importance of infection prevention and control and stewardship initiatives in this setting. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ronald A. Seaton, Cheryl L. Gibbons, Lesley Cooper, William Malcolm, Rachel McKinney, Stephanie Dundas, David Griffith, Danielle Jeffreys, Kayleigh Hamilton, Brian Choo-Kang, Suzanne Brittain, Debbie Guthrie, Jacqueline Sneddon Source Type: research

Downregulation of IGF2 expression in third trimester placental tissues from Zika virus infected women in Brazil
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, which includes other viruses relevant to public health, such as dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV) and West Nile (WNV) viruses. Although ZIKV infection in humans is often characterized as a self-limiting disease 1,2, infections during pregnancy can lead to fetal malformations and neurodevelopment abnormalities 3 –5. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Andr éia A. Suzukawa, Camila Zanluca, Natasha A.N. Jorge, Lucia de Noronha, Andrea C. Koishi, Caroline B.V. de Paula, Patrícia Z. Rebutini, Seigo Nagashima, Aruana F.F. Hansel-Frose, Vinícius S.C. Parreira, Juliano Bordignon, Margaret R. MacDonald, Cha Source Type: research

A quick prediction tool for unfavourable outcome in COVID-19 inpatients: Development and internal validation
As COVID-19 pandemic continues to escalate, hospitals around the world confront with the need to attend an increasing number of patients. Therefore, we read with much interest the recent study published in the Journal of Infection by Galloway JB et  al., reinforcing the importance of stratifying patients to ease their management and their incorporation to potential clinical trials1. For this purpose, these authors developed a valuable and complex risk score based on twelve parameters, including, among others, age, gender, diabetes mellitus, h ypertension, and chronic lung disease. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sonsoles Salto-Alejandre, Cristina Roca-Oporto, Guillermo Mart ín-Gutiérrez, María Dolores Avilés, Carmen Gómez-González, María Dolores Navarro-Amuedo, Julia Praena-Segovia, José Molina, María Paniagua-García, Horacio García-Delgado, Antonio Do Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A quick prediction tool for unfavourable outcome in COVID-19 inpatients:development and internal validation
As COVID-19 pandemic continues to escalate, hospitals around the world confront with the need to attend an increasing number of patients. Therefore, we read with much interest the recent study published in the Journal of Infection by Galloway JB et al., reinforcing the importance of stratifying patients to ease their management and their incorporation to potential clinical trials [1]. For this purpose, these authors developed a valuable and complex risk score based on twelve parameters, including, among others, age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic lung disease. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sonsoles Salto-Alejandre, Cristina Roca-Oporto, Guillermo Mart ín-Gutiérrez, María Dolores Avilés, Carmen Gómez-González, María Dolores Navarro-Amuedo, Julia Praena-Segovia, José Molina, María Paniagua-García, Horacio García-Delgado, Antonio Do Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness Analysis of a Fecal Microbiota Transplant Center for Treating Recurrent C.difficile Infection
Clostridiodes difficile (C.difficile) is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, gram-positive bacillus bacteria found in approximately 15% of healthy adults1, although colonization does not necessarily translate to infection. The incidence of C.difficile infection (CDI) in the USA doubled from 2000 to 20102. In 2017 the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported an incidence rate of 130.3 cases of CDI per 100,000 persons, across all ages3. There are prior studies assessing the epidemiology of CDI in Canada 4-8, though only one is truly population-based, analyzing the trend of CDI over a ten-year period in a Canadi...
Source: Journal of Infection - September 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Seth R Shaffer, Julia Witt, Laura E Targownik, Dina Kao, Christine Lee, Fabrice Smielauskas, David T Rubin, Harminder Singh, Charles N Bernstein Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio on admission is an independent risk factor for the severity and mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019
The study by Liu et al. had been published in your journal, and reported that the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was an independent risk factor for the mortality of the COVID-19 patients.1 Based on it, we reported the association between levels of NLR at admission and the disease severity in COVID-19 and further explored the predictive role of NLR for mortality of the COVID-19 patients in more subgroups. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shijie Wang, Lingli Fu, Kejie Huang, Jianglong Han, Rui Zhang, Zhenming Fu Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio at admission is an independent risk factors for the severity and mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019
The study by Liu et al. have been published in your journal and reported that the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an independent risk factor for the mortality of the COVID-19 patients.1 Based on it, we reported the association between levels of NLR at admission and the disease severity in COVID-19, and further explored the predictive role of NLR for mortality of the COVID-19 patients in more subgroups. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shijie Wang, Lingli Fu, Kejie Huang, Jianglong Han, Rui Zhang, Zhenming Fu Tags: TO THE EDITOR Source Type: research

Incidence of spread of clinically relevant SARS-CoV2 infection between children in a tertiary emergency department: An evaluation
Grall and colleagues highlight that asymptomatic carriers are rarely potential viral transmitters in hospital.1 Their study was in adults and to our knowledge spread in healthcare settings between children has not been reported. Leicester was the first area in the United Kingdom to undergo a localised lockdown with reports of relatively high numbers of children and young people affected.2 Our evaluation aimed to identify the number of clinically significant SARS-COV-2 paediatric patients (age (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Meenu Pandey, Shilpa Sisodia, Srini Bandi, Damian Roland Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Incidence of spread of clinically relevant SARS-CoV2 infection between children in a tertiary Children's Emergency Department: an evaluation
Grall and colleagues highlight that asymptomatic carriers are rarely potential viral transmitters in hospital.1 Their study was in adults and to our knowledge spread in healthcare settings between children has not been reported. Leicester was the first area in the United Kingdom to undergo a localised lockdown with reports of relatively high numbers of children and young people affected.2 Our evaluation aimed to identify the number of clinically significant SARS-COV-2 paediatric patients (age (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - September 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Meenu Pandey, Shilpa Sisodia, Srini Bandi, Damian Roland Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research