Quantifying the importance of the key sites on haemagglutinin in determining the selection advantage of influenza virus: using A/H3N2 as an example
The recurrence of seasonal influenza epidemics is attributed to the continuous evolution of influenza viruses, which enables them to change pathogenicity and escape from human adaptive immunity (1, 2). The selection advantage of influenza virus is largely contributed by a few key amino acids (AA) substitutions on the surface glycoprotein haemagglutinin (HA) (2 –5). Identifying and measuring the importance of these key sites are crucial in understanding patterns of influenza activities. There is a growing need for efficient computational methods to characterize the contribution of AA sites in the evolution process. (S...
Source: Journal of Infection - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shi Zhao, Jingzhi Lou, Lirong Cao, Zigui Chen, Renee WY Chan, Marc KC Chong, Benny CY Zee, Paul KS Chan, Maggie H Wang Source Type: research

Cardiovascular complications in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses the most significant modern-day public health challenge since the Spanish flu of 1918, causing substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide.1 Coronavirus disease 2019 predominantly affects the respiratory system, causing severe pneumonia and respiratory distress syndrome. There is also involvement of multiple organs, and the cardiovascular system has been implicated. In a recent study to investigate characteristics and prognostic factors in 339 elderly patients with COVID-19, Wang and colleagues observed a high proportion of severe and critical cases as well as high f...
Source: Journal of Infection - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Setor K. Kunutsor, Jari A. Laukkanen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in tears and conjunctival secretions of COVID-19 patients with conjunctivitis
We read with great interest the recent study of Azzi et al.1 regarding the possible role of saliva in the detection of SARS-CoV-2. We congratulate the authors for their excellent study and their results highlighting that saliva represents a promising tool in COVID-19 diagnosis. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Noemi Guemes-Villahoz, Barbara Burgos-Blasco, Ana Arribi Vilela, Pedro Arriola-Villalobos, Beatriz Vidal-Villegas, Rosalia Mendez-Fernandez, Alberto Delgado-Iribarren, Juli án García Feijoó Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Tumor biomarkers predict clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients
A recent article in  Journal of Infection by Fu and colleagues have summarized the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China, and described that those with medical comorbidities tend to have more severe clinical symptoms and higher case-fatality rate, according to data of 43 studies inv olving 3600 patients.1 Of the data from China, 81% cases were mild, 14% were severe, and 5% were critical, and the case-fatality rate was 2.3% in all cases and 49.0% in critical cases. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bangshun He, Aifang Zhong, Qiuyue Wu, Xiong Liu, Jie Lin, Chao Chen, Yiming He, Yanju Guo, Man Zhang, Peiran Zhu, Jian Wu, Changjun Wang, Shukui Wang, Xinyi Xia Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinical features and outcome of COVID-19 in United Kingdom nursing homes
Objectives: To understand SARS-Co-V-2 infection and transmission in UK nursing homes in order to develop preventive strategies for protecting the frail elderly residents.Methods: An outbreak investigation involving 394 residents and 70 staff, was carried out in 4 nursing homes affected by COVID-19 outbreaks in central London. Two point-prevalence surveys were performed one week apart where residents underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing and had relevant symptoms documented. Asymptomatic staff from three of the four homes were also offered SARS-CoV-2 testing. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: NSN Graham, C Junghans, R Downes, C Sendall, H Lai, A McKirdy, P Elliott, R Howard, D Wingfield, M Priestman, M Ciechonska, L Cameron, M Storch, MA Crone, PS Freemont, P Randell, R McLaren, N Lang, S Ladhani, F Sanderson, DJ Sharp Source Type: research

Interleukin-17: a potential therapeutic target in COVID-19
In a recent review, Ye and colleagues discussed in this journal the inflammatory response mechanisms underlying the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and its implications for therapy1, consistently with the current worldwide necessity of understanding and finding clinical therapies for the disease as it has been declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, that to date has triggered the infection of more than 5 million people and over 300.000 deaths around the world. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vicky M. Monta ño Mendoza Source Type: research

Does type of immunosupression influence the course of Covid-19 infection?
Minotti Chiara and colleagues and Ya Goa and colleagues have evaluated the burden of immunosupression on Covid-19 outcomes.1,2 Coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19) is a new challenge for physicians, especially for those who treat patients with immunocompromised status. Pathophysiology of Covid-19 is complex and a combination of factors is responsible for the hyperinflammatory state leading a cytokine release syndrome in some patients.3 Few studies have reported that different biological features such as the cytokine release,3 a defect in type I-interferon response4 and/or polymorphisms of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system ...
Source: Journal of Infection - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: J. Razanamahery, T. Soumagne, S. Humbert, A.S. Brunel, Q. Lepiller, E. Daguindau, L. Mansi, C. Chirouze, K. Bouiller Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Is the conclusion available? Letter to the Editor concerning the study of Prof. Jin titled “Clinical features and outcomes of pregnant women suspected of coronavirus disease 2019”
We have read with great interest a recent study of Prof. Jin regarding the clinical features and outcomes of pregnant women suspected of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19)1, especially the significance of pulmonary CT scan plus blood routine examination for screening COVID-19. Due to the worldwide outbreak of infection in the past few months, there were quite a number of urgent hospital admissions for delivery, many effective measures have been taken to reduce the incidence of nosocomial infection and the expansion of the epidemic. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Han Xie, Hao Ying Source Type: research

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using commercial assays and seroconversion patterns in hospitalized patients
In this study, we evaluated the performance of six CE-marked point-of-care tests (POC) and three ELISA assays for the diagnosis of COVID-19 by exploring seroconversions in hospitalized patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: E Tuaillon, K Bollor é, A Pisoni, S Debiesse, C Renault, Marie S, Groc S, Niels C, Pansu N, Dupuy AM, Morquin D, Foulongne V, Bourdin A, Le Moing V, Van de Perre P Source Type: research

Respiratory Syncytial Virus hospitalizations burden: a nation-wide population-based analysis, 2000-2017
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract morbidity, particularly among young infants and children1. It can also cause lower respiratory tract morbidity in elderly individuals, particularly in patients with chronic pulmonary and cardiac diseases or immunodeficiency2. Presently, the only available modality for preventing illness due to RSV consists of passive immunization with a humanized monoclonal antibody (Palivizumab) directed towards the RSV F protein3. However, it is restricted to specific high-risk infants and children4, and requires substantial financial resources5. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Zalman Kaufman, Yael Applbaum, Rita Dichtiar, Ada Steiman, Ethel-Sherry Gordon, Lital Keinan-Boker, Tamy Shohat, Ziona Haklai Source Type: research

The everchanging epidemiology of meningococcal disease worldwide and the potential for prevention through vaccination
Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of bacterial meningitis and septicaemia worldwide and is associated with high case fatality rates and serious life-long complications among survivors. Twelve serogroups are recognised, of which six (A, B, C, W, X and Y) are responsible for nearly all cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). The incidence of IMD and responsible serogroups vary widely both geographically and over time. For the first time, effective vaccines against all these serogroups are available or nearing licensure. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sydel Parikh, Helen Campbell, Julie A. Bettinger, Lee H. Harrison, Helen S Marshall, Federico Martinon-Torres, Marco Aurelio Safadi, Zhujun Shao, Bingqing Zhu, Anne von Gottberg, Ray Borrow, Mary E Ramsay, Shamez N Ladhani Source Type: research

Temperature-dependent surface stability of SARS-CoV-2
The ongoing severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic puts a large strain on public healthcare systems worldwide. Given that effective treatments and vaccines are not yet available, it is of utmost importance to elucidate potential routes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to device effective transmission-based precautions. Ye et al. recently described SARS-CoV-2 contaminated surfaces in COVID-19 patient care areas in a hospital environment1. Moreover, infectious virus has been shown to persist on surfaces for several hours to days at room temperature (RT)2. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Annika Kratzel, Silvio Steiner, Daniel Todt, Philip V'kovski, Yannick Brueggemann, Joerg Steinmann, Eike Steinmann, Volker Thiel, Stephanie Pfaender Source Type: research

The association between severe or death COVID-19 and autoimmune disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Recently, Chen Tao (Doctor) and colleagues published a retrospective study, and delineated the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who died [1]. They found that chronic hypertension and other cardiovascular comorbidities were more frequent among deceased patients than recovered patients [1]. And there is no different from the autoimmune disease between the two group patients [1]. We appreciate this discovery, however, the conclusion of their study drew from a retrospective study, and the number of patients is only 113. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - June 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ming Liu, Ya Gao, Yuejun Zhang, Shuzhen Shi, Yamin Chen, Jinhui Tian Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A clinical risk score to identify patients with COVID-19 at high risk of critical care admission or death: an observational cohort study.
Our study identified predictors of critical care admission and death in people admitted to hospital with COVID-19. These predictors were incorporated into a risk score that will inform clinical care and stratify patients for clinical trials. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: James B Galloway, Sam Norton, Richard D Barker, Andrew Brookes, Ivana Carey, Benjamin D Clarke, Raeesa Jina, Carole Reid, Mark D Russell, Ruth Sneep, Leah Sugarman, Sarah Williams, Mark Yates, James Teo, Ajay M Shah, Fleur Cantle Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor: Variability but not admission or trends in NEWS2 score predicts clinical outcome in elderly hospitalised patients with COVID-19
In a recent article in the Journal, Bruno and colleagues present short-term outcomes in elderly patients with severe COVID-19 disease admitted to a single Italian Infectious Disease unit.1 The study found that elderly patients are at increased risk of adverse outcomes due to high number of comorbidities and emphasises the need to improve clinical management in these patients. In particular, elderly patients who are likely to deteriorate will need to be rapidly identified.2 Existing prognostic models for COVID-19 based on clinical, laboratory and radiological variables are at high risk of bias. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shirley Sze, Daniel Pan, Caroline M.L. Williams, Nicholas Wong, Amandip Sahota, David Bell, Julian W. Tang, Martin Wiselka, Iain Stephenson, Manish Pareek Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza virus in Early Stage of the COVID-19 Epidemic in Wuhan, China
In this Journal, Tang et al. have report the symptoms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection appear very similar to influenza (1). We would like to share our findings for co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus. In December, 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) caused Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, Hubei province, China (2, 3). The epidemic of SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread worldwide and affected more than 4 million patients with more than 300  000 deaths in more than 230 countries (4). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xin Zheng, Hua Wang, Zhengyuan Su, Wei Li, Dongliang Yang, Fei Deng, Jianjun Chen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Drinking no-links to the severity of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
We read with interest a study published in your journal. Zhaohai Zheng and colleagues through a systematic review of clinical trials found that smoking was risk factors for disease progression in patients with COVID-19.1 However, there is no study to show whether the severity of (Coronavirus disease 2019) COVID-19 is related to drinking. Only some studies have shown that no substantial difference was observed in the habits of drinking between severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients.2,3 But these studies drew conclusions only based on the cohort study which the sample size is limited. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ming Liu, Ya Gao, Shuzhen Shi, Yamin Chen, Kelu Yang, Jinhui Tian Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Chronic conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs masking severe SARS-CoV-2 manifestations in an elderly rheumatic patient
In early 2020 a new beta-corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) spread all over the world, and with a high incidence in Europe, especially in Italy [1,2]. SARS-CoV-2 infection may lead to a wide range of clinical presentations, from an asymptomatic form to a severe acute respiratory syndrome [3]. The symptoms more frequently observed were fever, chills, myalgia or fatigue, followed by a dry cough and dyspnea 3-7 days later. The age and the presence of chronic comorbidities (hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic lung, kidney or cerebrovascular disease or malignancy) have been considered as the major risk factors for ac...
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Caterina Sagnelli, Valeria Gentile, Rosella Tirri, Margherita Macera, Salvatore Cappabianca, Francesco Ciccia, Vanvitelli COVID-19 group Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

An Early Warning Score to predict ICU admission in COVID-19 positive patients
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses multiple challenges to our healthcare systems. A particular challenge is the surge of hospital admissions with a significant fraction requiring transfer to intensive care units (ICU) because of respiratory failure.1,2 Early recognition of patients requiring ICU admission is a critical step in the management of COVID-19 patients. We read with interest the communication in this Journal from Su and colleagues who investigated the utility of clinical scoring systems to predict ICU requirement in patients with ...
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sylvain Meylan, Rachid Akrour, Jean Regina, Pierre-Alexandre Bart, Fabrice Dami, Thierry Calandra Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Markers of liver injury and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Since January 2020 when it was first isolated in China, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout the world and caused substantial morbidity and mortality.(1) Despite the rapidly growing knowledge base on the clinical course of the disease, no therapeutic agents have been proven to be effective for COVID-19. Further clarification of the clinical course of the disease could help in the development of effective treatment strategies. Wang and colleagues in their recent elegant study to investigate characteristics and prognostic factors in 339 elderly patients with COVID-19, observed a high proportion of severe...
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Setor K. Kunutsor, Jari A. Laukkanen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Evaluation of MucorGenius ® mucorales PCR assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis
Introduction (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: H élène Guegan, Xavier Iriart, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Antoine Berry, Florence Robert-Gangneux, Jean-Pierre Gangneux Source Type: research

Cancer in intensive care unit patients with COVID-19
In a recent article, Ma et al. suggested that patients with cancer will be more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and complications, although data on COVID-19 and malignancies remain limited.1 In a small study, Liang et al. noted that patients with cancer were more likely to experience severe sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as intensive care admission, invasive ventilation or death.2 However, Wang and Zhang argued that the most important morbidity factor is exposure to an infection source, whereas worse outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection could be associated (at le...
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sergey Moiseev, Sergey Avdeev, Michail Brovko, Larisa Akulkina, Victor Fomin Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Estimation of RAAS-Inhibitor effect on the COVID-19 outcome: A Meta-analysis
Some studies of hospitalized patients suggested that the risk of death and/or severe illness due to COVID-19 is not associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and/or angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers (ARBs). Nevertheless, some controversy still exists and there is limited information of the ACEIs/ARBs effect size on COVID-19 prognosis. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Carlos J. Pirola, Silvia Sookoian Source Type: research

Applicability of the CURB-65 pneumonia severity score for outpatient treatment of COVID-19
Tomlins and colleagues recently reported in this journal the clinical features of 95 sequential hospitalised patients with novel coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) in the first UK cohort.1 Interestingly, consistent with evidence supporting the use of CURB-65 as a predictor of mortality secondary to community acquired pneumonia (CAP), non-survivors had a significantly higher median CURB-65 score versus survivors (2.5 versus 1 respectively). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yann Nguyen, F élix Corre, Vasco Honsel, Sonja Curac, Virginie Zarrouk, Bruno Fantin, Adrien Galy Source Type: research

COVID-19: Evidence of the Eye
We read with interest of the article by Huang et al.1 in your journal about the nonspecific and atypical manifestations of COVID-19 patients. As the initial epicenter of the outbreak, China has gained much clinical knowledge and experience in response to the disease. Based on 13 case series and 9 case reports, we would like to share five key points of the ocular manifestations of COVID-19 patients, hoping to provide a new perspective and broader view of the disease. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yueyang Zhong, Kai Wang, Yanan Zhu, Danni Lyu, Ke Yao Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

COVID-19 Patients with Recent Influenza A/B Infection: A Retrospective Study
We read with the interest the recent paper by Chen et al. who described the clinical progression of 249 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).1 As the author mentioned, some factors, such as age and CD4 T cell counts, would be associated with intensive care units (ICU) admission. In addition, the application of host-directed therapy and early control of viral replication might be crucial for improving the prognosis of COVID-19. We are interested in investigating the potential risk factors associated with the progression and prognosis of COVID-19. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ping Wu, Wanrong Lu, Liang He, Yifan Meng, Peng Wu, Wencheng Ding, Ke Ma, Jia Liu Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

COVID-19 patients with hypertension have more severity condition, and ACEI/ARB treatment have no infulence on the clinical severity and outcome
A number of pneumonia cases of unknown causes have emerged in Wuhan, Hubei, China since December 2019.1 After sequencing analysis of samples from the lower respiratory tract, a coronavirus,2 which was last named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2).3 On February 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced a new name for the disease caused by 2019-nCoV: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).4 With the arrival of the Spring Festival, an epidemic SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread rapidly. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jianhua Hu, Xiaoli Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Hong Zhao, Jiangshan Lian, Shaorui Hao, Hongyu Jia, Meifang Yang, Yingfeng Lu, Dairong Xiang, Huan Cai, Shanyan Zhang, Jueqing Gu, Chanyuan Ye, Guodong Yu, Ciliang Jin, Lin Zheng, Yida Yang, Jifang Sheng Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Qualitative serology in patients recovered from SARS CoV 2 infection
In this study authors performed an anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM test on 14 confirmed COVID-19 patients and 28 negative controls. Antibody response varied with different clinical manifestations and disease severity. and development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies had a shorter duration of positive RT-PCR result and no worsening clinical conditions compared to those without the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Paulo Bettencourt, Catarina Fernandes, Ana Gil, Antonio Almeida, AlveolosMargarida Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Experience of short-term hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in COVID-19 patients and effect on QTc trend
We have read the paper on concerns in prescribing COVID-19 treatment in this journal with great interest.1 With the scale of transmission and mortality risk, there is an urgent need to identify an effective antiviral. Combinational hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin emerge as potential therapy but yielded mixed results from clinical studies2-5 and raising concerns over cardiovascular safety.6,7 We would like to report risk profile, QTc trend and outcomes of 13 COVID-19 confirmed patients admitted to Taiping Hospital, Perak, Malaysia between 21 March 2020 and 13 April 2020, with mild to moderate diseases who were commenced...
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hor Chee Peng, Narwani Hussin, Saravanaa Nalliah, Way Ti Ooi, Xing Yi Tang, Sara Zachariah, Gurpreet pal Singh Jugindar Singh, Rosilawati Abdul Rani, Kunaraj Perumal, Cheah Wee Kooi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The potential impact of vulnerability and coping capacity on the pandemic control of COVID-19
Worldwide, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has induced a substantial global burden. Since its first diagnosis in Wuhan, China, its spread has affected 216 countries.1 As of 16 May, 2020, there were more than 4.4 million cases and greater than 302,000 confirmed deaths among patients with COVID-19. Arguably, some nations with lower capacity to cope with the pandemic, especially in low and middle-income countries, might have poorer control of the disease. However, no previous study has proven this association. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Martin CS Wong, Jeremy YC Teoh, Junjie Huang, Sunny H Wong Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Improved sensitivity using a dual target, E and RdRp assay for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection: Experience at a large NHS Foundation Trust in the UK
We read with interest the letter from Hao et al highlighting the issues regarding the sensitivity of real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing of upper respiratory tract samples for COVID19 disease [1]. Extensive RT-PCR testing by has been key to clinical decision-making, epidemiological analysis and policy development during the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The majority of RT-PCR assays target the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), envelope protein (E) or nucleocapsid protein (N) genes [2]. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hayley Colton, Michael Ankcorn, Mehmet Yavuz, Leeanne Tovey, Alison Cope, Mohammad Raza, Alexander J Keeley, Amy State, Bozena Poller, Matthew Parker, Thushan I de Silva, Cariad Evans Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Fatality rate of COVID-19 in patients with malignancies: a sytematic review and meta-analysis
In this study fatality rate of the COVID-19 in patients with malignancy reported as 13.5%. To have a better estimation of fatality rate, in this letter, we aim to summarize the fatality rate among cancer patients with COVID-19 infection using meta-analysis. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zeinab Mohseni Afshar, Maliheh Dayani, Medi Naderi, Farnia Ghabarveisi, Samira Shiri, Fatemeh Rajati Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Derivation and validation of a scoring system to assess pre-test probability of being COVID-19 positive
we read with interest the work by Bermejo-Martin et al. [1] underlining the role of lymphopenia as a predictive marker of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. In an epidemic setting biomarkers can be useful at both patient level and for adequate resources allocation. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: A. Borghetti, A. Ciccullo, M. Paratore, F. Rovedi, L. Stella, A. Marchetti, P. Cattani, L. Zileri Dal Verme, R. Cauda, A. Gasbarrini, S. Di Giambenedetto, Residents against COVID-Unit Elite (ResCUE)-Team Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Co-infections in people with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Introduction (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Louise Lansbury, Benjamin Lim, Vadsala Baskaran, Wei Shen Lim Source Type: research

Strengthening early testing and surveillance of COVID-19 to enhance identification of asymptomatic patients
Clinicians are often uncertain if a patient presents with respiratory symptoms may have coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We read with great interest a study performed by Huang and colleagues [1], which described the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 22 close contacts of a 22-year-old man with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). They found that SARS-CoV-2 shown stronger infectivity in the incubation-period with more rapid transmission in the younger population. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Martin CS Wong, Jeremy YC Teoh, Junjie Huang, Sunny H Wong Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Ethnicity profiles of COVID-19 admissions and outcomes
A recent letter in this journal by Tang and his colleagues compared hospitalised, community and staff Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection rates during the early phase of the evolving COVID-19 epidemic,1 but an emerging factor is the ethnicity of individuals. In this letter, we report our investigation into the potential associations between ethnicity and COVID-19. Despite only 15% of the UK population being from black and ethnic minority (BAME) backgrounds,2 recent data has identified that 34% of patients admitted to intensive care (ITU) with COVID-19 belong to BAME groups. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dr Nishchay Kakkar, Dr Jessica Dunphy, Dr Mohammad Raza Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Cardiovascular disease as a risk factor of disease progression in COVID-19: The corrected effect size and forest plot
While the world is in lockdown for months since December of 2019 due to novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, a lot of research is in progress to find out various risk factors associated with COVID-19 progression and related mortalities.1 (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Seshadri Reddy Varikasuvu, Naveen Dutt Source Type: research

Follow-up study on pulmonary function and radiological changes in critically ill patients with COVID-19
The clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2),1 range from asymptomatic, mild pneumonia to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).2 An epidemiological study with 72,314 patients has reported that around 4.7% of patients with COVID-19 developed ARDS, and the mortality rate in these patients was up to 49%.3 Most patients surviving from ARDS caused by other coronaviruses like SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus suffered from impaired pulmonary function and radiological abnormalities. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Early administration of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir could prevent severe COVID-19
No specific treatment against SARS-CoV-2 is available after 6 months of COVID-19 worldwide outbreakAntivirals could decrease the viral load and reduce direct and indirect damages of SARSCoV-2 infectionRitonavir-bosted lopinavir is effective against SARS-CoV-2 in vitroSequential virological and pharmacological monitoring helped to understand the efficacy of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir in a SARS-CoV-2 infected patientRitonavir-boosted lopinavir could be proposed as early treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Elise Klement-Frutos, Sonia Burrel, Gilles Peytavin, St éphane Marot, Minh P. Lê, Nagisa Godefroy, Vincent Calvez, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Eric Caumes, Valérie Pourcher, David Boutolleau Tags: Virology and pharmacology of LPV/r in SARS-CoV-2-infected patient Source Type: research

Cost effectiveness of testing HIV infected individuals for TB in a low TB/HIV setting
INTRODUCTION (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Santino J Capocci, Janey Sewell, Colette Smith, Ian Cropley, Sanjay Bhagani, Angelita Solamalai, Stephen Morris, Ibrahim Abubakar, Margaret A Johnson, Marc C I Lipman Source Type: research

Modelling SARS-COV2 Spread in London: Approaches to Lift the Lockdown
To use mathematical models to predict the epidemiological impact of lifting the lockdown in London, UK, and alternative strategies to help inform policy in the UK. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lara Gosc é, Professor Andrew Phillips, P. Spinola, Dr Rishi K. Gupta, Professor Ibrahim Abubakar Source Type: research

Urinary HPV DNA testing as a tool for cervical cancer screening in women who are reluctant to have a Pap smear in France
In 2018, cervical cancer was the 4th most common cancer in women for incidence and mortality after breast, colorectal, and lung cancer.1 In France, in 2017, it was the 12th most common cancer with 2,800 new cases each year. Regarding mortality rate, it is 4th in the world (about 270,000 deaths per year), 1st in low-income countries, and 12th in France (about 1,100 deaths per year).2,3 (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Caroline Lefeuvre, Adeline Pivert, H élène Le Guillou-Guillemette, Françoise Lunel-Fabiani, Pascal Veillon, Anne-Sophie Le Duc-Banaszuk, Alexandra Ducancelle Source Type: research

Severe air pollution links to higher mortality in COVID-19 patients: the “double-hit” hypothesis.
The potential correlation between air pollution and outbreaks of COVID-19 have been described in the recent literature [1 –4]. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Antonio Frontera, Lorenzo Cianfanelli, Kostantinos Vlachos, Giovanni Landoni, George Cremona Source Type: research

Prevalence and associated factors for carriage of Enterobacteriaceae producing ESBLs or carbapenemase and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Hong Kong Community
Infections caused by multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) are on the rise and often attributed to prior asymptomatic carriage [1-3]. The epidemiology of MDROs has been extensively studied in healthcare settings [4-6]. However, recent isolation of MDROs in the community [6, 7] highlights the need for community-based studies to update their epidemiology. Among the MDROs, extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are among the top threats identified by the United States Centers for Disease Contro...
Source: Journal of Infection - May 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kin-On KWOK, Emily CHAN, Pui-Hong CHUNG, Arthur TANG, Wan-In WEI, Chendi ZHU, Steven RILEY, Margaret IP Source Type: research

Asymptomatic infection and atypical manifestations of COVID-19: comparison of viral shedding duration
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) bears several challenging problems, including insidious symptom onset, subclinical manifestations and highly transmissible property during early stage of infection.1 In the recent study by Huang et al., SARS-CoV-2-infection presented strong infectivity during the incubation period with rapid transmission.2 Some patients with COVID-19 are asymptomatic, while others complain of atypical symptoms including loss of smell and taste sense.3 However, there is insufficient data on the prevalence of asymptomatic infection and atypical manifestations of COVID-19. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ji Yun Noh, Jin Gu Yoon, Hye Seong, Won Suk Choi, Jang Wook Sohn, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim, Joon Young Song Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Different patterns of Influenza A and B detected during early stages of COVID-19 in a university hospital in S ão Paulo, Brazil
Dear editor, (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Luciano Kleber de Souza Luna, Dr. Ana Helena Perosa, Danielle Dias Conte, Joseane Mayara Almeida Carvalho, Vit ória Rodrigues Guimarães Alves, Jessica Santiago Cruz, Nancy Bellei Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

MxA suppresses TAK1-IKK α/β-NF-κB mediated inflammatory cytokine production to facilitate Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an aggressive intracellular pathogen and causes tuberculosis (TB). In 2018, 10.0 million people had TB after Mtb infection and 1.4 million of them were died of the diseases [1]. Both innate and adaptive immune cells such as macrophages (M ϕs) and T lymphocytes, play important roles in defensing against mycobacterial infection. However, Mtb can evade the host immune response to tackle the survival strategy [2]. Therefore, in-depth study to identify the host factors involved in the pathogenesis of TB is needed to develop host-directed therapies for eradicating Mtb infection and preventing...
Source: Journal of Infection - May 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xinying Zhou, Lijie Zhang, Linmiao Lie, Zelin Zhang, Bo Zhu, Jiahui Yang, Yuchi Gao, Pengfei Li, Yingqi Huang, Hui Xu, Yanfen Li, Xialin Du, Chaoying Zhou, Shengfeng Hu, Qian Wen, Xiao-Ping Zhong, Li Ma Source Type: research

Incidence, risk factors, and health service burden of sequelae of Campylobacter and Non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in England, 2000-2015: a retrospective cohort study using linked electronic health records
Sequelae of Campylobacter and NTS infections are rare but associated with increased NHS costs. Prior prescription of PPI may be a modifiable risk factor. Incidence of sequelae, healthcare resource use and costs are essential parameters for future burden of disease studies. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dr Oluwaseun B. Esan, Prof. Rafael Perera, Prof. Noel McCarthy, Dr Mara Violato, Dr Thomas R. Fanshawe Source Type: research

Covid-19 mortality in Italian Doctors
Sir- (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Paolo Manzoni, Cristina Milillo Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Water scarcity and COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa
Lv et al recently predicted that many countries could face similar COVID-19 situation as experienced in Hubei in China [1]. Several factors may impact their prediction. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - May 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Desmond Ofosu Anim, Richard Ofori-Asenso Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research