SARS-CoV-2 infections in children following the full re-opening of schools and the impact of national lockdown: prospective, national observational cohort surveillance, July-December 2020, England
The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, led many countries to impose strict national lockdowns which, in most countries, included school closures, even though children were relatively spared by the pandemic.1 School closures not only disrupts the education of students, but also affects their physical, mental and social development and wellbeing, as well as restricting access to health visiting, social care and school-based vaccinations, all of which disproportionately impact children from disadvantaged backgrounds, thus exacerbating inequalities. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 24, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anna A Mensah, Mary Sinnathamby, Asad Zaidi, Laura Coughlan, Ruth Simmons, Sharif A Ismail, Mary E Ramsay, Vanessa Saliba, Shamez N Ladhani Source Type: research

In-vitro evaluation of the immunomodulatory effects of baricitinib: implication for COVID-19 therapy
COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging respiratory infection caused by SARS-CoV-2, reported for the first time in Wuhan (China) and now spread to almost all countries in the world.1 (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 24, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Linda Petrone, Elisa Petruccioli, Tonino Alonzi, Valentina Vanini, Gilda Cuzzi, Saeid Najafi Fard, Concetta Castilletti, Fabrizio Palmieri, Gina Gualano, Pietro Vittozzi, Emanuele Nicastri, Luciana Lepore, Alba Grifoni, Andrea Antinori, Alessandra Vergori Source Type: research

HIV infection and placental malaria reduce maternal transfer of multiple antimalarial antibodies in Mozambican women
Each year, more than 200 million cases of malaria occur worldwide, the majority in Africa [1]. Pregnant women and children older than 6 months of age are the most vulnerable groups affected by malaria. In fact, malaria in pregnancy is estimated to account for 100,000 neonatal deaths annually and it increases the risk of severe maternal anaemia, premature delivery, low birth weight (LBW) and perinatal mortality [2, 3]. The lower impact of malaria disease in infants younger than 6 months of age is thought to be due to a number of factors, such as passive transfer of maternal antibodies or higher presence of foetal haemoglobi...
Source: Journal of Infection - February 22, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Selena Alonso, Marta Vidal, Gemma Ruiz-Olalla, Raquel Gonz ález, Chenjerai Jairoce, M. Nelia Manaca, Miquel Vázquez-Santiago, Reyes Balcells, Anifa Vala, María Ruperez, Pau Cisteró, Laura Fuente-Soro, Evelina Angov, Ross L. Coppel, Benoit Gamain, Davi Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Application of the Xpert MTB/RIF technology in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoarticular tuberculosis
We have read with great interest a recent study of MD Qing Sun regarding Xpert Ultra as a useful tool for rapid diagnosis of osteoarticular Tuberculosis (TB) [1]. In their study, Xpert Ultra demonstrated higher sensitivity (90.91%) than Mycobacterium culture (39.39%, P (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 20, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Qibin Liu, Xuemin Fang, Xianxiang Chen, Xiyong Dai, Xiaoyu Liu, Feng Xu, Peng Peng Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Distinguishing bacterial versus non-bacterial causes of febrile illness – a systematic review of host biomarkers
Severe and non-severe fevers are a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world and are one of the primary reasons patients seek healthcare services, both in high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) [1]. Fever, also referred to as acute febrile illness (AFI), may result from a variety of infectious or non-infectious causes. However, infections are the leading cause of AFI; particularly in LMICs, where AFI-caused infections represent a major disease burden for children [2, 3]. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: B. Leticia Fernandez-Carballo, Camille Escadafal, Emily MacLean, Anokhi J. Kapasi, Sabine Dittrich Source Type: research

Molecular typing of group B Neisseria meningitidis'subcapsular antigens directly on biological samples demonstrates epidemiological congruence between culture-positive and -negative cases: a surveillance study of invasive disease over a 13-year period.
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) represents a global healthcare concern due to the high case-fatality rate (10-15%) and the high percentage of permanent sequelae among survivors (10-20%) (1). Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) is responsible for the great majority of IMD in high-income countries, accounting for more than half of the cases of IMD in Europe and for more than one third of those in the U.S. (2,3). MenB IMD peak incidence is reported in the first 5 years of life, in particular in the first year, as well as during adolescence (2,3). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lorenzo Lodi, Maria Moriondo, Francesco Nieddu, Silvia Ricci, Sara Guiducci, Francesca Lippi, Clementina Canessa, Elisa Calistri, Francesco Citera, Mattia Giovannini, Giuseppe Indolfi, Massimo Resti, Chiara Azzari Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of invasive serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis isolates from Spain during 2015-2018: evolution of the vaccine antigen factor H binding protein (FHbp)
Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of invasive disease worldwide, including both bacterial meningitis and septicemia, but also some other clinical presentations [1]. Serogroups A, C, W, Y and X are responsible for a high proportion of the clinical cases, but serogroup B (MenB) is still the most frequent among invasive isolates in industrialized countries [2]. While there are available polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against serogroups A, C, W and Y, either as monovalent or multivalent formulations [3], the serogroup B capsular polysaccharide is not an effective candidate as a vaccine antigen [4]. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Raquel Abad, Cristina Garc ía-Amil, Carmen Navarro, Elena Martín, Ariadna Martín-Díaz, Julio A Vázquez Source Type: research

Tobacco smoking and meningococcal disease in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), presenting predominantly as meningitis and/or septicaemia, is a life-threatening condition resulting from infection with Neisseria meningitidis, otherwise known as the meningococcus. N. meningitidis colonises the pharyngeal mucosa and at any given time, around 10% of the population are estimated to be asymptomatic carriers of N. meningitidis (1). In a small proportion of carriers, N. meningitidis crosses the epithelial barrier and enters the bloodstream, giving rise to IMD. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ellie K Pilat, James M Stuart, Clare E French Source Type: research

Prevalence of cervicovaginal human papillomavirus infection and genotypes in the pre-vaccine era in China: A nationwide population-based study
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common genital infection, which mainly causes cervical cancer and other anogenital or head and neck cancers, including anal, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer.1 The epidemiological characteristics of HPV infection vary greatly worldwide; for example, the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes with respect to age and geographic locations.2,3 Prophylactic HPV vaccines are recommended to prevent HPV infection and reduce the related burden of diseases, especially for cervical cancer. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: He-Ling Bao, Cheng Jin, Shi Wang, Yi Song, Zhou-Yang Xu, Xiao-Jin Yan, Bo Wang, Yi Ning, Hai-Jun Wang Tags: Original Investigation Source Type: research

Optimal combination of early biomarkers for infection and sepsis diagnosis in the emergency department: the BIPS study
The recent update in sepsis definitions have reinforced sepsis as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. (1)Because clinical signs at admission are often non-specific, sepsis biomarkers have been intensively investigated in order to improve sepsis identification and to promote the implementation of early therapeutic strategies . (2) In this very active field of research, the most studies have been conducted in the critical care setting. However, most patients with sepsis are admitted at hospitals through emergency departments (ED). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: L. Velly, S. Volant, C. Fitting, D.A. Ghazali, F. Salipante, J. Mayaux, G Monsel, J-M Cavaillon, P Hausfater Source Type: research

A retrospective multicenter analysis of candidaemia among COVID-19 patients during the first UK pandemic wave
It is with great interest that we read the recent article by De Francesco et al (1), who reported on chlamydia pneumoniae and mycoplasma pneumoniae co-infection in patients with COVID-19. Here, we report our experience with candidaemia co-infection with COVID-19. An increased incidence of candidaemia has been noted in patients with COVID-19 and although patient characteristics, investigations and antifungal therapies have been described (2), to our knowledge, compliance with candidaemia management bundles has not (3). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sarah Denny, Alireza Abdolrasouli, Tamador Elamin, Ximena Gonzalo, Scott Pallett, Esmita Charani, Aatish Patel, Hugo Donaldson, Stephen Hughes, Darius Armstrong-James, Luke SP Moore, Nabeela Mughal Source Type: research

Persistence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swabs after death
We read with great interest the letter of Landi et al.1 in which the authors reported solid data about the persistence of virus particles in SARS-CoV-2 patients after the acute phase of epidemic infection. In particular, authors found that 20,6% of patients were tested positive again after at least one month from post-acute care admission (on a total of 29 examined patients). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Manuel Scimeca, Silvestro Mauriello, Francesca Servadei, Bartolo Cagiano, Marco Ciotti, Lucia Anemona, Manuela Montanaro, Erica Giacobbi, Michele Treglia, Sergio Bernardini, Luigi Tonino Marsella, Orazio Schillaci, Alessandro Mauriello Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing for the diagnosis of suspected pneumonia in immunocompromised patients
Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, often requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) [1, 2]. Early identification of causative pathogens is essential for administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and improved clinical outcome [1-4]. The current strategy of diagnostic techniques for suspected pneumonia requires knowledge of the most likely pathogens. However, this approach may be too cumbersome or even impossible in cases of polymicrobial infections and may not be appropriate for the identification of unexpected pathogens. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jin-Min Peng, Bin Du, Han-Yu Qin, Qian Wang, Yan Shi Source Type: research

Optimal symptom combinations to aid COVID-19 case identification: analysis from a community-based, prospective, observational cohort
We confirmed the significance of COVID-19 specific symptoms for triggering RT-PCR and identified additional symptom combinations with optimal trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity that maximize case capture given different resource settings. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: M. Antonelli, J. Capdevila, A. Chaudhari, J. Granerod, L.S. Canas, M.S. Graham, K. Klaser, M. Modat, E. Molteni, B. Murray, C.H. Sudre, R. Davies, A. May, L.H. Nguyen, D.A. Drew, A. Joshi, A.T. Chan, J.P. Cramer, Professor T. Spector, J. Wolf, Professor S Source Type: research

Panbio ™ rapid antigen test for SARS-CoV-2 has acceptable accuracy in symptomatic patients in primary health care
: Ag-RDT had relatively good performance characteristics in suspected symptomatic patients within five days since the onset of symptoms. However, our data do not support the sole use of Panbio ™ Ag-RDT in asymptomatic individuals. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oana Bulilete, Patricia Lorente, Alfonso Leiva, Eugenia Carandell, Antonio Oliver, Estrella Rojo, Pau Pericas, Joan Llobera, COVID-19 Primary Care Research Group Source Type: research

Recurrent COVID-19 including evidence of reinfection and enhanced severity in thirty Brazilian healthcare workers
The COVID-19 global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and has spread worldwide.1 The virus can infect the respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic and central nervous systems, with a high rate of severe cases requiring hospitalization.2 The average incubation period from SARS-CoV-2 exposure to symptom onset is approximately 4 –5 days, with 97.5% of symptomatic patients experiencing symptoms within 11.5 days. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Let ícia Adrielle dos Santos, Pedro Germano de Góis Filho, Ana Maria Fantini Silva, João Victor Gomes Santos, Douglas Siqueira Santos, Marília Marques Aquino, Rafaela Mota de Jesus, Maria Luiza Dória Almeida, João Santana da Silva, Daniel M. Altmann Source Type: research

Point-of-care evaluation of a rapid antigen test (CLINITEST Ⓡ Rapid COVID-19 Antigen Test) for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals
Several studies evaluating the performance of Rapid antigen assays (RAD) for the diagnosis of SARS-VCoV-2 infection have been recently published in this Journal.1 –3 Decentralized testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection is one of the cornerstones of controlling the COVID-19 pandemic.4 RAD based on lateral flow immunochromatography (LFIC) technology offer advantages over molecular assays for the purpose, as they are low-cost, easy-to-use and instrument-free devices . An increasing number of RAD LFIC assays are being marketed nowadays. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ignacio Torres, Sandrine Poujois, Eliseo Albert, Gabriela Álvarez, Javier Colomina, David Navarro Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Point-of-care evaluation of a rapid antigen test (CLINITEST ® Rapid COVID-19 Antigen Test) for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals
Several studies evaluating the performance of Rapid antigen assays (RAD) for the diagnosis of SARS-VCoV-2 infection have been recently published in this Journal.1-3 Decentralized testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection is one of the cornerstones of controlling the COVID-19 pandemic.4 RAD based on lateral flow immunochromatography (LFIC) technology offer advantages over molecular assays for the purpose, as they are low-cost, easy-to-use and instrument-free devices. An increasing number of RAD LFIC assays are being marketed nowadays. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ignacio Torres, Sandrine Poujois, Eliseo Albert, Gabriela Álvarez, Javier Colomina, David Navarro Tags: LETTER TO THE EDITOR Source Type: research

The association of dementia with COVID-19 mortality: Evidence based on adjusted effect estimates
Patients with dementia may be particularly vulnerable in the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Recently, Canevelli et al reported that the prevalence of dementia among 2,621 COVID-19-related deaths in Italy was 15.8%, which is higher than expected based on the considered reference data (15.8% vs. 11.3%, P (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Haiyan Yang, Xuan Liang, Hongjie Hou, Jie Xu, Li Shi, Yadong Wang Source Type: research

Early Lopinavir/ritonavir does not reduce mortality in COVID-19 patients: results of a large multicenter study
The COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented event for current generations of physicians, has stricken hard on society.1 There is a significant lack of effective drugs for stopping viral replication. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is a well-known combination used in patients with HIV which was included in the arsenal against SARS-CoV-2 early in the pandemic.2 Its use in COVID-19 was based on inconsistent results from experimental and clinical research that was mostly done while investigating other β-coronaviruses (SARS and MERS). (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jaime Lora-Tamayo, Guillermo Maestro, Antonio Lalueza, Manuel Rubio-Rivas, Gracia Villarreal Paul, Francisco Arnalich Fern ández, José Luis Beato Pérez, Juan Antonio Vargas Núñez, Mónica Llorente Barrio, Carlos Lumbreras Bermejo, for the SEMI-COVID- Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Decrease in Norovirus infections in Germany following COVID-19 containment measures
We read with interest the recent systematic review by Fricke et al., showing that the number and positivity rate of influenza cases have decreased in result of non-pharmaceutic interventions targeted at the COVID-19 pandemic (1). Similarly, a report in the United States had shown that the incidences of acute otitis media and streptococcal pharyngitis decreased, while gonorrhea increased during quarantine (2). These studies show that COVID-19 containment measures and the overall behavioral changes in the communities are likely to have an effect in the transmission and/or reporting of other infections. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ulrich Eigner, Thomas Verstraeten, John Weil Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Role of super-spreader phenomenon in a covid-19 cluster among healthcare workers in a primary care hospital
We read with great interest the recent publication of Majra et al (1) focusing on "societal" superspreading events (SSE) as a major risk factor for epidemic spread. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marine Nadal, Ludovic Lassel, Michel Denis, Aude Gibelin, Sandra Fournier, Laurent Menard, H élène Goulet, Abdi Basma, Muriel Farthoukh, Gilles Pialoux Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in key aging pathways, and phenotypic markers of frailty are associated with increased odds of hospital admission with Covid-19
Dear Editor, (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dr Greg Scutt, Dr Andrew Overall Source Type: research

Oral corticoid, aspirin, anticoagulant, colchicine, and furosemide to improve the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients - the COCAA-COLA cohort study
Corticosteroids mitigate 28-day all-cause mortality in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients requiring oxygen or mechanical ventilation (meta-analysis summary odds ratio (OR), 0.66; 95%-confidence interval (95%IC), [0.53-0.82]; P (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jean-Philippe Kevorkian, Amanda Lopes, Damien S ène, Jean-Pierre Riveline, Claire Vandiedonck, Florine Féron, Kladoum Nassarmadji, Stéphane Mouly, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, Jean-François Gautier, Bruno Mégarbane Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Home-based SARS-CoV-2 lateral flow antigen testing in hospital workers
We read with interest the recent paper from Fowler et al. on the use of a reverse transcriptase loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection1 and the subsequent recommendation of its suitability for asymptomatic staff testing.2 Lateral flow device (LFD) antigen tests have also been proposed as rapid point-of-care diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2 infection and have the advantage over the RT-LAMP assay in that they can be self-delivered by healthcare workers at home with immediate results. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Louise O Downs, David W Eyre, Denise O'Donnell, Katie Jeffery Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Critical evaluation of the methodology used by Wilson-Davies et  al., (2020) entitled “Concerning the Optigene Direct LAMP assay, and it`s use in at-risk groups and hospital staff”
Dear Editor-in-Chief, (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dr Veronica Fowler, Dr Angela Douglas, Professor Keith Godfrey, Professor Anthony Williams, Professor Andrew Beggs, Stephen Kidd, Dr Nick Cortes, Professor Mark Wilcox, Dr Kerrie Davies, Melanie Smith, Professor Dame Sue Hill Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Concerns regarding the sensitivity of the OptiGene direct SARS-CoV-2 LAMP assay and its suitability for use in at-risk groups and hospital staff
The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered an unprecedented demand for diagnostic tests. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly contagious in the pre-symptomatic period, when the viral load is high. In the effort to reduce transmission, for the first time in infection diagnostics history, testing is being aimed not only at symptomatic, but also at asymptomatic individuals, both in the health care setting and in the community. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eleri S.W. Wilson-Davies, Adhyana I.K. Mahanama, Buddhini Samaraweera, Nusreen Ahmed, Simon Friar, Emanuela Pelosi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The chilly climate may increase the chance of infecting COVID-19
Up to February 2021, the outbreak of COVID-19 caused more than 100 million infections and 2 million deaths (WHO, Coronavirus disease 2019 Situation, February 3, 2020) and has raised great concern all over the world and poses serious threat to global public health.1, 2 WHO raised the global COVID-19 risk to its highest level on February 28, 2020. Due to the joint efforts of all countries in the world, the epidemic has been well contained in some countries.3 However, the recent infections of COVID-19 began to increase and it is possible to usher in the second wave of the pandemic (Fig. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gen Li, Jiawei Niu, Xuelei Fan, Tianbao Chen, Dongsheng He Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

First report of Autochthonous Furuncular Myiasis caused by Dermatobia Hominis in Europe.
In this Journal, Chong and colleagues reported evidence that global warming is influencing influenza epidemiology (1). We believe this climatological change could be determinant for the geographic distribution of parasitic diseases. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lula Maria Nieto-Benito, Enrique Rodriguez-Lomba, Pablo Martin-Rabadan-Caballero, Ana Pulido Perez Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Costs and Outcomes of 1-year post-discharge care trajectories of patients admitted with infection due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria
: AMR has an impact on patients ’ c-LOS stay beyond the initial hospitalization. Half of patients hospitalized due to AMR are readmitted to hospital within the ensuing year, along five different trajectories. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mehdi Touat, Christian Brun-Buisson, Marion Opatowski, J érôme Salomon, Didier Guillemot, Philippe Tuppin, Grégoire de Lagasnerie, Laurence Watier Source Type: research

Prevalence and molecular characterizations of seven additional drug resistance among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in China: a subsequent study of a national survey
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), defined as resistance to at least isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF), is a major threat to TB control and prevention strategy worldwide.1 Compared with drug-susceptible TB, treatment of MDR-TB requires longer time and more expensive drugs with greater toxicities. 2 The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended key changes to treat multidrug- and RIF-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) in August 2018, 3 and categorized levofloxacin/moxifloxacin (Mfx), bedaquiline (Bdq) and linezolid (Lzd) as Group A (medicines to be prioritized), clofazimine (Cfz), cycloserine (Cs)/terizidone as...
Source: Journal of Infection - February 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guirong Wang, Guanglu Jiang, Wei Jing, Zaojing Zong, Xia Yu, Suting Chen, Weimin Li, Hairong Huang Source Type: research

Early clinical experience with imatinib in COVID-19: searching for a dual effect
We have read with interest the recent articles by Chen et al.1 and Chan and colleagues,2 in which the antiviral action of favipiravir and sofosbuvir/daclatasvir against SARS-CoV-2 is assessed. Data reported by the authors are certainly instructive, but, in our opinion, finding drugs not only with antiviral effects, but also with immunomodulatory properties, would be more advantageous, since a heightened immune response has been observed in severe COVID-19.3 In this regard, tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib, originally designed to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), has been also proposed as a possible therapy for...
Source: Journal of Infection - February 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alejandro Morales-Ortega, Luis Rivas-Prado, Bego ña Frutos-Pérez, Beatriz Jaenes-Barrios, Ana Isabel Farfán-Sedano, Carlos Javier García-Parra, Belén Hernández-Muniesa, Miguel Ángel Duarte-Millán, Elena Madroñal-Cerezo, Ana Ontañón-Nasarre, Jos Source Type: research

Intensified thromboprophylaxis in COVID-19 critically ill patients: is it enough?
We read with great interest the review article by Skevaki et al.1, who analyzed laboratory characteristics of COVID-19 patients. They show that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes systemic disease, involving multiple organs and systems, including hyperactivation of the immune system and the clotting system. Indeed, initial reports of venous thrombotic events (VTE) in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 have yielded prevalences of more than 40% 2 –4, prompting the empirical use of intensified thromboprophylaxis regimens. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Etienne de Montmollin, Doroth ée Faille, Valérie Andrieu, Nadine Ajzenberg, Jean-François Timsit Source Type: research

COVID-19 in immunocompromised patients: a systematic review of cancer, hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplant patients
To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review evaluating COVID-19 phenotype and outcomes in immunocompromised patients and comparing them to the general population, which shows that hospital outcomes appear to be worse in adult CA and SOT patients, potentially due to their higher co-morbidity burden. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 3, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jennifer A. Belsky, Brian P. Tullius, Margaret G. Lamb, Rouba Sayegh, Joseph R. Stanek, Jeffery J. Auletta Source Type: research

Introduction of Brazilian SARS-CoV-2 484K.V2 related variants into the UK
While the new UK SARS-CoV-2 variant (B.1.1.7/ VOC-202012/01) continues to cause a large number of new COVID-19 cases in the UK,1 focus in the media has currently shifted to the potential for import of other new variants that may also be more infectious and/or demonstrate immune or vaccine escape based on mutations in the S protein. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 3, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oliver T.R. Toovey, Kirsty N. Harvey, Paul W. Bird, Julian Wei-Tze Wei-Tze Tang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Cefazolin as second line treatment for invasive Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infection in a UK cohort of patients
Worldwide, cefazolin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics, as revealed in a recent article in this Journal,1 but until recently has had limited availability in the United Kingdom. We became interested in using cefazolin in the treatment of invasive Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections, particularly bloodstream infections (BSI). Accumulating evidence suggests cefazolin is better tolerated than anti-staphylococcal penicillins(e.g. flucloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin),2,3 equally efficacious in the treatment of BSI due to MSSA,4,5 and may improve outcomes in MSSA BSI. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 3, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bernadette C. Young, Louise Dunsmure, Louise Downs, Kornelija Kildonaviciute, Nicola Jones Source Type: research

High-risk exposure without personal protective equipment and infection with SARS-CoV-2 in-hospital workers - The CoV-CONTACT cohort
The objective of the present study was to estimate within the hospital, the risk of in-hospital HWs infection following a high-risk exposure to SARS-CoV-2-infected subject without personal protective equipment. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sarah Tubiana, Charles Burdet, Nadhira Houhou, Michael Thy, Pauline Manchon, Fran çois Blanquart, Charlotte Charpentier, Jérémie Guedj, Loubna Alavoine, Sylvie Behillil, Anne Leclercq, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Mikaël Attia, Caroline Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Interleukin-37 as a biomarker of mortality risk in patients with sepsis
Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by the host's unbalanced response to infection (1). This is a new consensus definition and derived from “The International Consensus on Sepsis and Septic Shock" (Sepsis-3) (2). Preliminary extrapolation of data from high-income countries shows an estimated 31.5 million cases of sepsis and 19.4 million cases of severe sepsis worldwide, which may cause 5.3 million deaths (3). Sepsis is still the leadi ng cause of death in critically ill patients worldwide. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: ChunXiang Wu, Jin Ma, Hao Yang, JianBo Zhang, ChangRui Sun, Yu Lei, MingZong Liu, Ju Cao Source Type: research

Protecting healthcare workers in conflict zones during the COVID-19 pandemic: northwest Syria
We read with interest Jones et al's correspondence on SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among health workers and share experiences of COVID-19 cases among health-workers in Northwest Syria (NWS).1 This geographical area includes parts of Aleppo and Idleb governorates and shelters 4.17 million civilians (of whom 2.6 million are internally displaced and 1.4 million reside in camps). It shares closed borders with Turkey on one side and closed lines with areas under government control on the other side. (See figure 1) Most people in NWS live in overcrowded, unhygienic conditions with poor access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)...
Source: Journal of Infection - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Naser Almhawish, Nabil Karah, Yasir Elferruh, Aya Aksh, Aula Abbara Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Is COVID-19 severity associated with anti-spike antibody duration? Data from the ARCOVID prospective observational study
we read with interest the article by AT Hanrath and colleagues in which the Authors showed the association between prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and protection against symptomatic reinfection1. The study confirms the need for a better understanding of the immunological response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This would permit to better target public health policies such as the vaccination campaign2. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fabio Borgonovo, Matteo Passerini, Marco Piscaglia, Valentina Morena, Andrea Giacomelli, Letizia Oreni, Gianfranco Dedivitiis, Angelica Lupo, Stefania Falvella, Maria Vittoria Cossu, Amedeo F. Capetti Source Type: research

High-risk exposure without personal protective equipment and infection with SARS-CoV-2 in in-hospital workers - the CoV-CONTACT cohort
The objective of the present study was to estimate within the hospital, the risk of in-hospital HWs infection following a high-risk exposure to SARS-CoV-2-infected subject without personal protective equipment. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sarah Tubiana, Charles Burdet, Nadhira Houhou, Michael Thy, Pauline Manchon, Fran çois Blanquart, Charlotte Charpentier, Jérémie Guedj, Loubna Alavoine, Sylvie Behillil, Anne Leclercq, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Mikaël Attia, Caroline Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Side effect of a 6 p.m curfew for preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2: A modeling study from Toulouse, France
The spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the resulting disease Covid-19 has killed over 2 million people as of January 22, 2021. We have designed a model and used it to quantify the effect of a 6 p.m curfew on the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Toulouse, France. The data show that this measure can lead to the opposite effect from that intended due to larger groups of people on the authorized hours. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - January 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chlo é Dimeglio, Marcel Miedougé, Jean-Michel Loubes, Jean-Michel Mansuy, Jacques Izopet Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Side effect of a 6 p.m curfew for preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2: a modelling study from Toulouse, France
The spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the resulting disease Covid-19 has killed over 2 million people as of January 22, 2021. We have designed a model and used it to quantify the effect of a 6 p.m curfew on the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Toulouse, France. The data show that this measure can lead to the opposite effect from that intended due to larger groups of people on the authorized hours. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - January 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chlo é Dimeglio, Marcel Miedougé, Jean-Michel Loubes, Jean-Michel Mansuy, Jacques Izopet Source Type: research

Impact of COVID-19 preventive measures on other infectious and non-infectious respiratory diseases in Pakistan
We read with immense interest the article entitled “The impact of COVID-19 preventive measures on airborne/droplet- transmitted infectious diseases in Taiwan” by Shey-Ying Chen et al [1]. Which reported the decline in other respiratory diseases in Taiwan and here we would like to present the unintended decline in communicable and non-communicabl e respiratory illnesses in Pakistan. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - January 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Muhammad Suleman Rana, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Aamer Ikram, Muhammad Salman, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Massab Umair, Mehmood Qadir Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in a large national hospital and affiliated facility in Tokyo, Japan
We read with interest Jones et al. ’s report of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence among health-care workers (HCWs) and support staff at North Bristol NHS Trust.1 The authors reported 9.3% seroprevalence and its variation by ethnicity, with higher rate observed among non-White including Asia n (14.6%) than White (8.2%). A large geographical variation of seroprevalence among HCW has been reported: higher in North America and Europe than Asia2. In Japan, which has relatively high number of Covid-19 cases in Asia, data are limited on the seroprevalence among HCW. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - January 28, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Akihito Tanaka, Shohei Yamamoto, Kengo Miyo, Tetsuya Mizoue, Kenji Maeda, Wataru Sugiura, Hiroaki Mitsuya, Haruhito Sugiyama, Norio Ohmagari Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Increased inflammatory markers reflecting fibrogenesis are independently associated with cardiac involvement in hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Dear Editor, a high proportion of COVID-19 infected patients have cardiac involvement [1], and elevated surrogate markers of myocardial injury and stress, such as troponins [2] and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) , are found in patients with poor outcome. Beyond direct angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) related mechanisms, overwhelming inflammatory responses could activate regulatory fibrotic pathways, induce tissue damage and be harmful for the host, and such “hyperinflammatory” mechanisms may be involved in COVID-19 associated cardiac involvement [3]. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - January 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ueland T, Dyrhol-Riise AM, Woll BM, Holten AR, Petteresen F, Lind A, Dudman SG, Heggelund L, Holter JC, Aukrust P Source Type: research

Predicting recurrence of respiratory failure in critically ill patients with COVID-19: A preliminary study
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), poses a serious global health threat. Clinical concerns include rapid deterioration of respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, high mortality, and the possibility of reinfection after a successful recovery.1 Recently, COVID-19 relapse after transient improvement has emerged as a clinically relevant issue2,3,4; reports suggest that COVID-19-related inflammation can remain even when patients have seemingly improved. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - January 24, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yuichi Adachi, Takayuki Shiroyama, Yuta Yamaguchi, Teruaki Murakami, Haruhiko Hirata, Saori Amiya, Takayuki Niitsu, Yoshimi Noda, Reina Hara, Takatoshi Enomoto, Takayoshi Morita, Yasuhiro Kato, Akinori Uchiyama, Yoshito Takeda, Atsushi Kumanogoh Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Host-cell recognition through GRP78 is enhanced in the new UK variant of SARS-CoV-2, in silico
In this Journal we previously reported the predicted SARS-CoV-2 spike-host cell receptor GRP78 binding site (1). New SARS-CoV-2 variant VUI 202012/01 started in the UK and currently spreading in Europe and Australia during the last few days. The new variant bears about nine mutations in the spike protein ( Δ69-70, Δ145, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H, T716I, S982A, and D1118H). The N501Y lies in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike and interacts with the host-cell receptor ACE2 responsible for viral recognition and entry. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - January 22, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abdo A Elfiky, Ibrahim M Ibrahim Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Frequent Reassortment and Potential Recombination Shape the Genetic Diversity of Influenza D Viruses
In 2011, a novel genus of influenza viruses was isolated from swine with influenza-like symptoms in the United States, named influenza D viruses (IDVs) [1]. IDVs have been reported in bovine and swine populations across North American and Eurasian countries, including France, Italy, Japan, and China [2], suggesting the potential global spread of this virus. Bovine was proposed to be the natural reservoir of IDVs due to its high seropositivity rate. Earlier studies have shown the cocirculation and frequent reassortment between two distinct genetic lineages of IDVs in the USA [3], and a distinct genetic cluster in Japan [4]....
Source: Journal of Infection - January 20, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yifei Xu, Hao Liang, Hongling Wen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research