The optokinetic response is effective to assess objective visual acuity in patients with cataract and age-related macular degeneration
AbstractPurposeTo estimate objective visual acuity in subjects suffering from cataract and age-related macular degeneration via the optokinetic response evoked by a non-conventional induction method (oktotype); in addition, to compare such objective outcome with the subjective acuity based on the ETDRS charts.MethodsPatients were presented with 13 sequences of symbols arranged horizontally to form a serial pattern, moving from left to right at a constant rate. In each sequence, the size of the stimuli was reduced progressively, while the operator checked for the disappearance of the optokinetic response via a small video c...
Source: International Ophthalmology - August 14, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Corneal endothelial decompensation due to airbag injury
ConclusionAirbag-related localized corneal endothelial decompensation is a less known occurrence. This case emphasizes on the fact that serial monitoring of endothelial counts and conservative management can prove beneficial in such scenarios. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - August 14, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Comment on “performance characteristics of multicolor versus blue light and infrared imaging in the identification of reticular pseudodrusen”
(Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - August 13, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Predicting visual function after an ocular bee sting
ConclusionToxic endophthalmitis and toxic optic neuropathy can be complications of ocular bee sting. We discuss the management of this rare occurrence and the role of electroretinographic testing and visual evoked potentials in predicting visual outcome. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - August 13, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Cystoid macular edema following selective laser trabeculoplasty in a patient with ocular hypertension
ConclusionCystoid macular edema may occur following SLT treatment in patients with previous traumatic cataract surgery which responds to topical treatment. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - August 13, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Correction to: Primary vitrectomy with short-term silicone oil tamponade for uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment
Dear editor and readers, this letter is written to make you aware that the original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - August 1, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Structural neurodegeneration correlates with early diabetic retinopathy
ConclusionIn patients with type 2 diabetes, structural neurogenic characteristics were associated with DR. If confirmed by larger prospective studies, these results may indicate that a complex neurovascular interaction is an early event in the pathogenesis of DR. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - July 17, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Choroidal thickness measurements in subjects on 3 spectral domain optical coherence tomography machines: common mistake in reproducibility analysis
(Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - July 17, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Efficacy of fumagillin bicyclohexylamine on experimental corneal neovascularization in rat model
ConclusionsPreviously proved to be effective for treatment of microsporidial keratitis in humans, topical and subconjunctival concentration or dosing of fumagillin bicyclohexylamine failed to reduce corneal neovascularization induced by silver nitrate in this study. Further studies comparing different concentrations and dosing may detect inhibitory effects of fumagillin on corneal neovascularization without inducing toxicity. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - July 13, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Controlled drainage of subretinal fluid during scleral buckling surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: the pigment stream sign
ConclusionsThe pigment stream sign, easily detectable by the surgeon, allows to understand, during the evacuative puncture, when the SRF has been drained almost completely and that the drainage procedure is therefore close to the end. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - July 10, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Investigation of conjunctivochalasis histopathology with light and electron microscopy in patients with conjunctivochalasis in different locations
ConclusionsMechanical and inflammatory factors induce development of CCh, and signs associated with these factors can be detected with light and electron microscopy of conjunctival tissue. No relationship was observed between CCh localization and pathological changes in tissues examined in our study, and large-scale case series are required to evaluate the possible effect of CCh localization on pathological findings. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - July 10, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Pars plana vitrectomy with or without intraoperative 360 ° peripheral endolaser for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment treatment
ConclusionsPars plana vitrectomy without the 360 ° peripheral endolaser can provide successful anatomic outcomes and functional improvement in uncomplicated primary RRDs. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - July 10, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Agreement and repeatability of central corneal thickness measurements by four different optical devices and an ultrasound pachymeter
ConclusionsDifferent CCT measurement techniques produce quite different results, so CCT evaluation and follow-up should be performed using the same device or devices with close compatibility. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - July 9, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Genetic features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates associated with eye infections referred to Farabi Hospital, Tehran, Iran
ConclusionsIn our study, a high prevalence of virulence factors was observed inP. aeruginosa isolates from contact lens wearer with keratitis. As theP. aeruginosa isolates from different infection origins and different geographic region may have different virulence factors, having a better perception of these differences could help to improve development of clinical instructions for the control of keratitis. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - July 7, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Platelet lysate promotes re-epithelialization of persistent epithelial defects: a pilot study
ConclusionsUndiluted autologous platelet lysate, prepared according to a standardized methodology, is a safe and effective adjunct therapy for the treatment of PED. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - July 5, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Optimising drug therapy for non-infectious uveitis
ConclusionSuccessful management of non-infectious uveitis requires the clinician carefully balance advantages and disadvantages of each new and old therapy while considering individual circumstances. Counselling regarding the benefits and complications of each therapy can help patients make an informed choice. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 30, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Fumaric acid: a possible new therapy for macular edema?
AbstractIntroductionCauses of macular edema are multifactorial, but inflammation, vascular factors and mechanical traction are of major importance. Therapeutic options of macular edema depend on the underlying cause. Intravitreal administration of inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor leads to inhibition of retinal neovascularization and subsequent edema.ObjectiveFumaric acid esters are successfully used in dermatology for years according to their antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects.ResultFor the very first time, we describe a successful therapeutic attempt for macular edema, controlled by optical coher...
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 29, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Novel microsurgical management of uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome
ConclusionUGH syndrome can be induced by unstable in-the-bag IOL due to zonular laxity. Depending on the severity of the syndrome, this condition can be fought by applying a minimally invasive approach —IOL suturing to the iris with direct observation under the surgical microscope precisely in the anticipated location with no or minimal pupil deformation. Symptoms of UGH did not recur due to increased stability of the IOL and, as a result of this, declined irritation of the uveal tissue. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 26, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the effect of combined intravitreal ranibizumab injection and sub-tenon steroid injection in the treatment of resistant diabetic macular edema
AbstractPurposeTo compare sub-tenon steroid plus anti-VEGF injection with anti-VEGF injection solely in the treatment of resistant diabetic macular edema (DME).MethodPatients who exhibited insufficient anatomic [over 350  μm central macular thickness (CMT)] and less than 3 lines of visual gain at least six anti-VEGF injections, were randomly divided into two groups. In group I, the anti-VEGF injection was performed 10 days after the sub-tenon steroid injection [Triamcinolone acetonide (Sinakort-A®)]. And anti-VEGF was performed when needed during the follow-up period. In group II, treatment was continued w...
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 26, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Assessment of measurement methods of posterior inflammation in stromal choroiditis: the value of quantitative outcome measures versus the presently qualitatively based paradigm
ConclusionThis study highlights the precise measurement of global posterior inflammation achieved by a dual FA/ICGA scoring system in stromal choroiditis. In contrast, SUN-VH scale appears imprecise and inadequate, as only a minute percentage of the studied eyes could have been included in a clinical trial based on this criterion. To evaluate posterior intraocular inflammation meaningfully in stromal choroiditis, the use of dual FA/ICGA is strongly advised and should replace the presently recommended SUN-VH system. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 26, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Granular corneal dystrophy: an enigma resolved
ConclusionVariable clinical presentation of GCD in different age groups can lead to diagnostic dilemma. Screening of family members can be helpful especially when dealing with early cases of GCD. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 25, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Prevalence and topographical characteristics of keratoconus in patients with refractive errors in the Egyptian delta
AbstractPurposeTo study the prevalence of keratoconus (KC) and the topographical characteristics of the affected corneas in patients with refractive errors who were seeking refractive surgery in the Egyptian delta.MethodsA retrospective study covering four and half years (Jan 2012 –June 2016) where the topographical data of 8124 participants were obtained from the records of a refractive center in the Nile delta region, Egypt. The diagnosis of KC was based on the Holladay criteria in one or both eyes, using the Pentacam scans, whereas grading of KC was based on the Amsler-K rumeich classification.ResultsThe prevalenc...
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 25, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinal ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses following carotid endarterectomy
ConclusionsCarotid endarterectomy results in thinning of the superior peripapillary RNFL thickness. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine peripapillary RNFL and GCC thicknesses before and after CEA. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 23, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Demonstration of anatomical development of the human macula within the first 5  years of life using handheld OCT
ConclusionOur findings conform with the literature that the anatomical development of the macular IRL completes before 5  months of age and hence before the PRL. We also identify 24 months of age as an important developmental milestone for photoreceptors development in the human macula. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 23, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

A rare case of atypical pleomorphic adenoma arising from periocular ectopic lacrimal gland
ConclusionsDue to its rarity, the natural history and prognosis of atypical pleomorphic adenoma is unclear. Physicians need to recognize this entity, and complete surgical excision with strict follow-up regimens are likely warranted. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 23, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Effect of four local anesthetics (tetracaine, proparacaine, lidocaine, and bupivacaine) on intraocular pressure in dogs
ConclusionWe recommend using drugs that combine inducing longer anesthesia with producing the smallest change in IOP, such as bupivacaine and, subsequently, lidocaine. Tetracaine and proparacaine have a significant effect on IOP, and if these drugs are used, this effect should be considered. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 23, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Novel and easy techniques for 27-gauge silicone oil infusion and removal
ConclusionsWe recommend the use of the 24-gauge catheter method for 27-gauge silicone oil infusion when commercial infusion cannula is unavailable. The machine-independent method using easily available plastic infusion tube and syringe would be an ideal option when 27-gauge surgery is anticipated. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 22, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

A new perspective for analyzing clinical characteristics of idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis syndrome
AbstractPurposeWe aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis (IRVAN) syndrome. Furthermore, we aimed to correlate the number and location of retinal aneurysms with the size of retinal non-perfusion area and neovascularization.MethodsSix patients with IRVAN syndrome (1 male and 5 females, age 5 –38 years) were enrolled in this study. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) was used to determine the total number of retinal aneurysms, number of aneurysms within the first branch of the retinal artery, minimum distance between the non-perfusion margin an...
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 22, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Comparison of Holladay equivalent keratometry readings and anterior corneal surface keratometry measurements in keratoconus
ConclusionIn diseases which affect the posterior corneal surface, such as keratoconus, it is thought that because of the asymmetrical peripheral placement of the corneal apex, as the corneal diameter increases there could be an error increase of 1 –3 mm in keratometric systems evaluating the anterior surface. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 22, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Comparison of preoperative and postoperative measurements of optical low-coherence reflectometry biometry and assessment of its refractive predictability
ConclusionWhen the measurement and refractive results of the OLCR biometry were evaluated, it was observed that there was a very satisfactory result and a predictable device compatible with the current literature. The SRK/T formula, one of the new generation formulas, has shown high MAE and RE results in eyes with AL  ≤ 22 mm, although not statistically significant. Other new generation formulas should be tried in these eyes. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 21, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The effects of collagen cross-linking on corneal density: a comparison between accelerated and conventional methods
AbstractPurposeTo compare the corneal density before and after accelerated versus conventional corneal cross-linking (CXL).MethodsPentacam densitometry and corneal mapping were performed before and 6  months following the randomly assigned intervention. Corneal density was measured over different zones and layers of the cornea by two independent ophthalmologists. Total corneal density was calculated. The patients were followed up for the occurrence of procedure-related and unrelated complicatio n 1 week, 1 month and a final visit around 6 months (180 ± 10 days) after the proced...
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 21, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Ectopic lens material in an otherwise healthy 5-week-old infant
ConclusionThe abnormality is likely embryological in origin, and the established progression for similar conditions means long-term monitoring is required to ensure the best possible visual outcome. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 21, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The tarsal plate manifestation of IgG4-related disease
ConclusionsPeriorbital IgG4-RD may be confined to the tarsal plate. Treatment with systemic and topical steroids may induce significant regression. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 20, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Changes in ocular surface status after phacoemulsification in patients with senile cataract
ConclusionThere is a transient deterioration of “dry eye” status post-phacoemulsification. The patients should be carefully counselled about the evanescent nature of the disease. Incision can be given at the site of high corneal curvature to neutralize astigmatism without any fear of inducing dry eye. Minimum light exposure and ultrasound ene rgy should be used during the surgery. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 20, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Real-life experience of ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema in Taiwan
ConclusionTreatment for DME with at least three monthly ranibizumab loading injections, with or without other supplementary treatments, is effective at 12  months thereafter. Two monthly reinjections of ranibizumab, while not significantly increasing vision, may have a role in preventing visual loss. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 20, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Novel hydrogel-based ocular drug delivery system for the treatment of conjunctivitis
ConclusionThe formulated hydrogel formulation can be used as an alternative to conventional ophthalmic eye drop formulation of drugs neomycin and betamethasone for the purpose of providing prolonged therapy for the treatment of conjunctivitis. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 19, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The difference of surgical outcomes between manifest exotropia and esotropia
ConclusionSurgical correction of strabismus could improve ocular alignment and binocular sensory functions in patients with manifest strabismus, regardless of onset age, strabismus duration, or type. Postoperative 1-month status may help to predict the final motor and sensory outcomes. ET patients would benefit more final successful ocular alignment and excellent binocular sensory functions from early surgery and maintaining postoperative small deviation angle than XT patients. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 19, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

YKL-40 expression in pterygium: a potential role in the pathogenesis
ConclusionsWe believe YKL-40 may play a significant role in pterygium pathogenesis. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 19, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Novel grid and sectoral analyses in monitoring corneal scars
ConclusionOur novel approach to monitor corneal density changes using the grid or sectoral sampling methods seemingly enhances the power in monitoring density changes in corneal scars when compared to conventional total-diameter average densitometry. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 19, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Ocular changes in nephropathic cystinosis: The course of the gold-dust
ConclusionsThere is a variability of ocular manifestations of nephropathic cystinosis. Ophthalmologists have a central role in the early diagnosis of cystinosis as mostly the first manifestation are cystine crystals in the cornea. Penetrating keratoplasty may be one of the therapeutical options. Nevertheless, the patient has to be informed about the limited prognosis because of the persisting underlying disease. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 18, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Outer nuclear layer thickness at the central fovea relation with symptom duration in central serous chorioretinopathy
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate a relation between the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness and symptom duration in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using spectraldomain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) and to compare with healthy subjects.MethodsThis retrospective study included 67 CSC patients and 20 healthy subjects. The ONL thickness was measured between internal limiting membrane and external limiting membrane at central fovea using SD-OCT (Topcon 3D OCT-2000, Japan). The patients were divided into six groups based on symptom duration: group (1) contained 14 patients (symptom duration between 1 and 3...
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 18, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Effectiveness of sampling methods employed for Acanthamoeba keratitis diagnosis by culture
ConclusionApart from biopsy, optimum corneal samples for the improved diagnosis of AK can be obtained using a modified bezel needle instead of a scalpel, while cotton swabs are not recommended. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 18, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Comparative study of visual dysfunctions in 6 –10-year-old very preterm- and full-term-born children
ConclusionVPB children with no-ROP are at an increased risk of developing decreased BCVA at least in one eye and anisometropia compared to age-matched full-term controls. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 18, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Trends in the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity over a 10-year period
ConclusionWe observed a decreasing trend in the incidence of any ROP across the 10-year period in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong, while the incidence of Type 1 ROP remained stable at 4.5%. The factors leading to the trend were unclear. Improved prenatal care, changing proportion of cases with different birth weight and gestational age, oxygenation level practice in neonatal unit may all contribute to the decreasing trend. Revision of screening criteria may be made according to local experience to maximise cost-effectiveness. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 16, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Corneal stromal depth of the demarcation line in ‘accelerated corneal cross-linking’ with different concentrations of riboflavin solutions
AbstractPurposeThe aim of this study is to compare the effect of different riboflavin solutions (hypotonic and isotonic) used during accelerated corneal cross-linking (CXL) on the mean depth of the demarcation line (DDL) formed in corneal stroma.MethodsThis prospective, cross-sectional study included 38 eyes of 26 patients. All patients underwent accelerated CXL due to progressive keratoconus. When the corneal epithelium was removed, 17 eyes of 12 patients with corneal thickness  400 µm as Group 2. Hypotonic riboflavin was applied to Group 1 patients, and isotonic riboflavin to Group 2 patients. Anterior ...
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 14, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Further observations on a bilateral IRVAN syndrome case
ConclusionsA case of bilateral IRVAN disease with multiple retinal aneurysms, neuroretinitis and peripheral capillary nonperfusion successfully treated with laser photocoagulation, maintaining normal visual acuity in one eye and preventing retinal neovascular complications. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 14, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Catching the therapeutic window of opportunity in early initial-onset Vogt –Koyanagi–Harada uveitis can cure the disease
ConclusionsThere is substantial evidence for a therapeutic window of opportunity in initial-onset acute VKH disease. Timely and adequate treatment led to substantial improvement of disease outcome and prevented chronic evolution and “sunset glow fundus,” and very early treatment led to the cure after discontinuation of therapy in several series, likely due to the fact that the choroid is the sole origin of inflammation in VKH disease. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Giraffe or leopard spot chorioretinopathy as an outstanding finding: case report and literature review
ConclusionLeopard spot retinopathy is an uncommon but clinically distinct manifestation of various disorders. BDUMP may present with leopard spot retinopathy, anterior uveal tract involvement and neovascular glaucoma. As EDI-OCT showed involvement and increased thickening of choroid in both cases of BDUMP and IUES, it may be better to consider such cases as leopard chorioretinopathy and categorize these entities as a member of pachychoroid pigment retinopathy disorders. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 8, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Prevalence of dry eye in video display terminal users: a cross-sectional Caucasian study in Italy
AbstractPurposeTo estimate the prevalence of dry eye among video-terminal (VDT) users and to assess risk factors for dry eye in this population.Study designA single-centre, cross-sectional study was carried out on subjects employed as VDT workers and on a control group.MethodsDemographic data, years spent working at a VDT, number of effective hours at VDT/day, number and hours of breaks/day were considered. All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination and completed the Italian version of the computer vision symptom scale 17-item (CVSS17) questionnaire. Both groups were classified as definite, suspect and non-dr...
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 7, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Minimally invasive combined glaucoma and cataract surgery: clinical results of the smallest ab interno gel stent
AbstractPurposeTo verify the efficacy in intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction and safety of the smallest gel stent (XEN 45 Gel Stent) microincisional glaucoma surgery combined with microincisional cataract surgery (MICS).MethodsNonrandomized prospective clinical study. Forty-one eyes of 33 patients with open-angle glaucoma underwent a XEN 45 Gel Stent implantation combined with MICS. Treatment outcomes analyzed included: IOP, medication use, intra- and postoperative complications. At the end of the follow-up, we evaluated the complete success, defined as a postoperative IOP  ≥ 6 and ≤17 mmHg without gl...
Source: International Ophthalmology - June 1, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research