Clinical and cortical similarities identified between bipolar disorder I and schizophrenia: A multivariate approach
ConclusionThese multivariate results show that diagnostic boundaries are not clearly related to structural differences or distinct symptom profiles. Our findings add support that (1) BP tend to have less severe symptom profiles when compared to SZ on the PANSS without a clear distinction, and (2) all the gray matter alterations follow the pattern of SZ < BP < HV without a clear distinction between SZ and BP. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 10, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The mean diffusivity of forceps minor is useful to distinguish amnestic mild cognitive impairment from mild cognitive impairment caused by cerebral small vessel disease
ConclusionThe mean diffusivity of forceps minor may serve as an optimal indicator to differentiate between a-MCI and CSVD-MCI. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 9, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Retrospective behavioral sampling (RBS): A method to effectively track the cognitive fluctuations driven by naturalistic stimulation
Everyday experiences are dynamic, driving fluctuations across simultaneous cognitive processes. A key challenge in the study of naturalistic cognition is to disentangle the complexity of these dynamic processes, without altering the natural experience itself. Retrospective behavioral sampling (RBS) is a novel approach to model the cognitive fluctuations corresponding to the time-course of naturalistic stimulation, across a variety of cognitive dimensions. We tested the effectiveness and reliability of RBS in a web-based experiment, in which 53 participants viewed short movies and listened to a story, followed by retrospect...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 9, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The specificity, situational modulations, and behavioral correlates of parent-child neural synchrony
In recent years, aiming to uncover the neural mechanism of parent-child interaction and link it to the children’s social development, a newly developed index, namely, parent-child inter-brain neural synchronization (INS) has attracted growing interest. Existing studies have mainly focused on three aspects of the INS; these are the specificity of the INS (i.e., stronger INS for parent-child dyads than stranger-child dyads), the situational modulations of the INS (i.e., how the valence of the situation or the types of interaction modulate INS), and the associations between the INS and the state-like behavioral tendencies o...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 9, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Systematic errors in the perception of rhythm
One hypothesis for why humans enjoy musical rhythms relates to their prediction of when each beat should occur. The ability to predict the timing of an event is important from an evolutionary perspective. Therefore, our brains have evolved internal mechanisms for processing the progression of time. However, due to inherent noise in neural signals, this prediction is not always accurate. Theoretical considerations of optimal estimates suggest the occurrence of certain systematic errors made by the brain when estimating the timing of beats in rhythms. Here, we tested psychophysically whether these systematic errors exist and...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 9, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Immediate effect of lower extremity joint manipulation on a lower extremity somatosensory illusion: a randomized, controlled crossover clinical pilot study
Conclusion: These findings suggest that extremity manipulation may be a useful intervention for populations where CoP stability is an issue. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence that manipulation of the extremities can drive global postural changes, as well as influence standing behavior. Further, it suggests these global changes may be driven by alterations in central integration.Clinical Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT Number: NCT05226715. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 8, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bio-inspired design of a self-aligning, lightweight, and highly-compliant cable-driven knee exoskeleton
Powered knee exoskeletons have shown potential for mobility restoration and power augmentation. However, the benefits of exoskeletons are partially offset by some design challenges that still limit their positive effects on people. Among them, joint misalignment is a critical aspect mostly because the human knee joint movement is not a fixed-axis rotation. In addition, remarkable mass and stiffness are also limitations. Aiming to minimize joint misalignment, this paper proposes a bio-inspired knee exoskeleton with a joint design that mimics the human knee joint. Moreover, to accomplish a lightweight and high compliance des...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 7, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Common predictors of spoken and written language performance in aphasia, alexia, and agraphia
In this study we aimed to examine an integrated model of language processing that includes the common cognitive processes that support spoken and written language, as well as modality-specific skills. To do so, we evaluated spoken and written language performance from 87 individuals with acquired language impairment resulting from damage to left perisylvian cortical regions that collectively constitute the dorsal language pathway. Comprehensive behavioral assessment served to characterize the status of central and peripheral components of language processing in relation to neurotypical controls (n = 38). Performance data e...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 7, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Within-object element ambiguity allows for a strange illusion of alternating facial expression and structure
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 7, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural responses to naturalistic audiovisual speech are related to listening demand in cochlear implant users
There is a weak relationship between clinical and self-reported speech perception outcomes in cochlear implant (CI) listeners. Such poor correspondence may be due to differences in clinical and “real-world” listening environments and stimuli. Speech in the real world is often accompanied by visual cues, background environmental noise, and is generally in a conversational context, all factors that could affect listening demand. Thus, our objectives were to determine if brain responses to naturalistic speech could index speech perception and listening demand in CI users. Accordingly, we recorded high-density electroencep...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 7, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial: Visual mismatch negativity (vMMN): A unique tool in investigating automatic processing
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 7, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Abnormal proximal-distal interactions in upper-limb of stroke survivors during object manipulation: A pilot study
Despite its importance, abnormal interactions between the proximal and distal upper extremity muscles of stroke survivors and their impact on functional task performance has not been well described, due in part to the complexity of upper extremity tasks. In this pilot study, we elucidated proximal–distal interactions and their functional impact on stroke survivors by quantitatively delineating how hand and arm movements affect each other across different phases of functional task performance, and how these interactions are influenced by stroke. Fourteen subjects, including nine chronic stroke survivors and five neurologi...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 4, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

GNAQ mutations drive port wine birthmark-associated Sturge-Weber syndrome: A review of pathobiology, therapies, and current models
Port-wine birthmarks (PWBs) are caused by somatic, mosaic mutations in the G protein guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha subunit q (GNAQ) and are characterized by the formation of dilated, dysfunctional blood vessels in the dermis, eyes, and/or brain. Cutaneous PWBs can be treated by current dermatologic therapy, like laser intervention, to lighten the lesions and diminish nodules that occur in the lesion. Involvement of the eyes and/or brain can result in serious complications and this variation is termed Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). Some of the biggest hurdles preventing development of new therapeutics are unanswere...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 3, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interference of unilateral lower limb amputation on motor imagery rhythm and remodeling of sensorimotor areas
ConclusionSensorimotor abnormalities reduce neural activity in the sensorimotor cortex, while the motor imagination of the intact limb is diminished. In addition, phantom limb pain may lead to over-activation of sensorimotor areas, affecting bilateral sensorimotor area remodeling. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 3, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparing transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial random noise stimulation over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus: Effects on divergent and convergent thinking
The essential role of creativity has been highlighted in several human knowledge areas. Regarding the neural underpinnings of creativity, there is evidence about the role of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) on divergent thinking (DT) and convergent thinking (CT). Transcranial stimulation studies suggest that the left DLPFC is associated with both DT and CT, whereas left IFG is more related to DT. However, none of the previous studies have targeted both hubs simultaneously and compared transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and random noise stimulation (tRNS). Additio...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 3, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research