No evidence for an effect of selective spatial attention on the development of secondary hyperalgesia: A replication study
Central sensitization refers to the increased responsiveness of nociceptive neurons in the central nervous system after repeated or sustained peripheral nociceptor activation. It is hypothesized to play a key role in the development of chronic pain. A hallmark of central sensitization is an increased sensitivity to noxious mechanical stimuli extending beyond the injured location, known as secondary hyperalgesia. For its ability to modulate the transmission and the processing of nociceptive inputs, attention could constitute a promising target to prevent central sensitization and the development of chronic pain. It was rece...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 3, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation in the assessment of biceps voluntary activation in individuals with tetraplegia
After spinal cord injury (SCI), motoneuron death occurs at and around the level of injury which induces changes in function and organization throughout the nervous system, including cortical changes. Muscle affected by SCI may consist of both innervated (accessible to voluntary drive) and denervated (inaccessible to voluntary drive) muscle fibers. Voluntary activation measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation (VATMS) can quantify voluntary cortical/subcortical drive to muscle but is limited by technical challenges including suboptimal stimulation of target muscle relative to its antagonist. The motor evoked potential...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 3, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Follow the sound of my violin: Granger causality reflects information flow in sound
Recent research into how musicians coordinate their expressive timing, phrasing, articulation, dynamics, and other stylistic characteristics during performances has highlighted the role of predictive processes, as musicians must anticipate how their partners will play in order to be together. Several studies have used information flow techniques such as Granger causality to show that upcoming movements of a musician can be predicted from immediate past movements of fellow musicians. Although musicians must move to play their instruments, a major goal of music making is to create a joint interpretation through the sounds th...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 3, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Post-operative glioblastoma multiforme segmentation with uncertainty estimation
Segmentation of post-operative glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is essential for the planning of Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) treatment and other clinical applications. Recent methods developed for pre-operative GBM segmentation perform poorly on post-operative GBM MRI scans. In this paper we present a method for the segmentation of GBM in post-operative patients. Our method incorporates an ensemble of segmentation networks and the Kullback–Leibler divergence agreement score in the objective function to estimate the prediction label uncertainty and cope with noisy labels and inter-observer variability. Moreover, our met...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 3, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Leber ’s hereditary optic neuropathy companied with multiple-related diseases
ConclusionLeber’s hereditary optic neuropathy can be accompanied with multiple-related diseases, especially different subtypes of ON, which were also exhibited with IOIS and compression optic neuropathy for the first time in this cohort. This condition may be a distinct entity with an unusual clinical and therapeutic profile. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 3, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural classification maps for distinct word combinations in Broca ’s area
Humans are equipped with the remarkable ability to comprehend an infinite number of utterances. Relations between grammatical categories restrict the way words combine into phrases and sentences. How the brain recognizes different word combinations remains largely unknown, although this is a necessary condition for combinatorial unboundedness in language. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate pattern analysis to explore whether distinct neural populations of a known language network hub—Broca’s area—are specialized for recognizing distinct simple word combinations. The phrases consisted...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 3, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial: EEG/MEG based diagnosis for psychiatric disorders
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 2, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Quantitatively characterizing reflexive responses to pitch perturbations
ConclusionOur results demonstrate the stereotyped nature of an individual’s responses to pitch perturbations. Further, we identified a model that captures population responses to pitch perturbations and characterizes individual differences in a stable manner with parameters that relate to underlying motor control capabilities. Future work will evaluate the model in characterizing responses from individuals with communication disorders. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 2, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Visual P2p component responds to perceived numerosity
Numerosity perception is a key ability for human and non-human species, probably mediated by dedicated brain mechanisms. Electrophysiological studies revealed the existence of both early and mid-latency components of the Electrophysiological (EEG) signal sensitive to numerosity changes. However, it is still unknown whether these components respond to physical or perceived variation in numerical attributes. We here tackled this point by recording electrophysiological signal while participants performed a numerosity adaptation task, a robust psychophysical method yielding changes in perceived numerosity judgments despite phy...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 1, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Programming of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson ’s disease with sweet spot-guided parameter suggestions
In this study, a sweet spot-guided algorithm was developed that automatically suggested stimulation parameters. These suggestions were retrospectively compared to clinical monopolar reviews. A cohort of 24 Parkinson’s disease patients underwent bilateral DBS implantation in the subthalamic nucleus at our center. First, the DBS’ leads were reconstructed with the open-source toolbox Lead-DBS. Second, a sweet spot for rigidity reduction was set as the desired stimulation target for programming. This sweet spot and estimations of the volume of tissue activated were used to suggest (i) the best lead level, (ii) the best con...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 1, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Math difficulties in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder do not originate from the visual number sense
There is ample evidence from literature and clinical practice indicating mathematical difficulties in individuals with ADHD, even when there is no concomitant diagnosis of developmental dyscalculia. What factors underlie these difficulties is still an open question. Research on dyscalculia and neurotypical development suggests visual perception of numerosity (the number sense) as a building block for math learning. Participants with lower numerosity estimation thresholds (higher precision) are often those with higher math capabilities. Strangely, the role of numerosity perception in math skills in ADHD has been neglected, ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 28, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Identifying neural correlates of multidimensional, subjective gaming experiences during active gameplay
Studying how gaming experiences are encoded is important to understand the effects of gaming on the brain. Although studies have investigated neural correlates of gaming experiences, the brain patterns related to the full range of subjective experiences across different types of games are yet to be identified. The present study used three custom-made, immersive driving games with different input dynamics (controlling a car, a boat, or a spaceship) and different mechanics to assess subjective gaming experiences in a magnetic resonance imaging scanner. A correlational analysis identified several brain networks associated wit...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 28, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

White matter microstructure and sleep-wake disturbances in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis
ConclusionCompromised callosal microstructure in UHR individuals was related to objectively observed disruptions in sleep-wake functioning. Lower FA in ventrally located regions was associated with subjectively measured sleep-wake disturbances and was partly explained by psychopathology. These findings call for further investigation of sleep disturbances as a potential treatment target. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 28, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Do we parse the background into separate streams in the cocktail party?
In the cocktail party situation, people with normal hearing usually follow a single speaker among multiple concurrent ones. However, there is no agreement in the literature as to whether the background is segregated into multiple streams/speakers. The current study varied the number of concurrent speech streams and investigated target detection and memory for the contents of a target stream as well as the processing of distractors. A male-voiced target stream was either presented alone (single-speech), together with one male-voiced distractor (one-distractor), or a male- and a female-voiced distractor (two-distractor). Beh...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 28, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Temporal interference stimulation targeting right frontoparietal areas enhances working memory in healthy individuals
ConclusionOur pilot study suggests that TI is a promising technique that can be safely implemented in human participants. Studies are warranted to confirm the findings of this study and to further examine the effects of TI-sham stimulation as well as the effects of TI on deeper brain regions. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 28, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research