Editorial: The effect of fitness on cognitive function and development in adolescents and old adults from lifespan neuroscience perspective
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 28, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Analysis on topological alterations of functional brain networks after acute alcohol intake using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory
ConclusionThis study revealed the effects of acute alcohol intake on the topology and information processing mode of resting-state functional brain networks, providing new perceptions and insights into the effects of alcohol on the brain. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How shifting visual perspective during autobiographical memory retrieval influences emotion: A change in retrieval orientation
Visual perspective during autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval influences how people remember the emotional aspects of memories. Prior research in emotion regulation has also shown that shifting from an own eyes to an observer-like perspective is an efficient way of regulating the affect elicited by emotional AMs. However, the impact of shifting visual perspective is also dependent on the nature of the emotion associated with the event. The current review synthesizes behavioral and functional neuroimaging findings from the event memory and emotion regulation literature that examine how adopting particular visual perspect...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in corticospinal and spinal reflex excitability through functional electrical stimulation with and without observation and imagination of walking
Functional electrical stimulation (FES), a method for inducing muscle contraction, has been successfully used in gait rehabilitation for patients with deficits after neurological disorders and several clinical studies have found that it can improve gait function after stroke and spinal cord injury. However, FES gait training is not suitable for patients with walking difficulty, such as those with severe motor paralysis of the lower limbs. We have previously shown that action observation combined with motor imagery (AO + MI) of walking induces walking-related cortical activity. Therefore, we combined FES, which alternately ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotection in late life attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A review of pharmacotherapy and phenotype across the lifespan
For decades, psychostimulants have been the gold standard pharmaceutical treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the United States, an astounding 9% of all boys and 4% of girls will be prescribed stimulant drugs at some point during their childhood. Recent meta-analyses have revealed that individuals with ADHD have reduced brain volume loss later in life (>60 y.o.) compared to the normal aging brain, which suggests that either ADHD or its treatment may be neuroprotective. Crucially, these neuroprotective effects were significant in brain regions (e.g., hippocampus, amygdala) where severe volume...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Oscillatory beta/alpha band modulations: A potential biomarker of functional language and motor recovery in chronic stroke?
Stroke remains one of the leading causes of various disabilities, including debilitating motor and language impairments. Though various treatments exist, post-stroke impairments frequently become chronic, dramatically reducing daily life quality, and requiring specific rehabilitation. A critical goal of chronic stroke rehabilitation is to induce, usually through behavioral training, experience-dependent plasticity processes in order to promote functional recovery. However, the efficiency of such interventions is typically modest, and very little is known regarding the neural dynamics underpinning recovery processes and pos...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 26, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

External walking environment differentially affects muscle synergies in children with cerebral palsy and typical development
Despite external environmental changes in walking, such as manipulating gait speed, previous studies have shown that the underlying muscle synergy structures (synergy weights or vectors) rarely vary. The purpose of this study is to examine if external environmental changes to the walking task influence muscle synergies in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and/or typical development (TD). To identify muscle synergies, we extracted muscle synergies from eight children with CP and eight age-matched TD in three treadmill walking conditions, e.g., baseline (adjusted to individual comfortable walking speed), variable speed (VS),...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 23, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The relationship between physical activity and trait anxiety in college students: The mediating role of executive function
ConclusionCollege students' physical activity promotes both inhibition and shifting functions, which in turn affect trait anxiety. VPA had a direct effect, while the effect of moderate physical activity (MPA) and LPA was completely mediated exclusively through executive functions, and the mediating effect of shifting function was the highest. It is recommended that college workers should motivate students with high trait anxiety to engage in more VPA and pay attention to changes in their inhibition and shifting functions. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 23, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Complexity changes in functional state dynamics suggest focal connectivity reductions
The past two decades have seen an explosion in the methods and directions of neuroscience research. Along with many others, complexity research has rapidly gained traction as both an independent research field and a valuable subdiscipline in computational neuroscience. In the past decade alone, several studies have suggested that psychiatric disorders affect the spatiotemporal complexity of both global and region-specific brain activity (Liu et al., 2013; Adhikari et al., 2017; Li et al., 2018). However, many of these studies have not accounted for the distributed nature of cognition in either the global or regional comple...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 23, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Revisiting the relation between syntax, action, and left BA44
Among the many lines of research that have been exploring how embodiment contributes to cognition, one focuses on how the neural substrates of language may be shared, or at least closely coupled, with those of action. This paper revisits a particular proposal that has received considerable attention—namely, that the forms of hierarchical sequencing that characterize both linguistic syntax and goal-directed action are underpinned partly by common mechanisms in left Brodmann area (BA) 44, a cortical region that is not only classically regarded as part of Broca’s area, but is also a core component of the human Mirror Neur...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 23, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Activation of human spinal locomotor circuitry using transvertebral magnetic stimulation
Transvertebral magnetic stimulation (TVMS) of the human lumbar spinal cord can evoke bilateral rhythmic leg movements, as in walking, supposedly through the activation of spinal locomotor neural circuitry. However, an appropriate stimulus intensity that can effectively drive the human spinal locomotor circuitry to evoke walking-like movements has not been determined. To address this issue, TVMS was delivered over an intervertebral space of the lumbar cord (L1–L3) at different stimulus intensities (10–70% of maximum stimulator output) in healthy human adults. In a stimulus intensity-dependent manner, TVMS evoked two maj...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 23, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Pediatric Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Brain-Computer Interface Based on the Detection of Emotional Valence
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are being investigated as an access pathway to communication for individuals with physical disabilities, as the technology obviates the need for voluntary motor control. However, to date, minimal research has investigated the use of BCIs for children. Traditional BCI communication paradigms may be suboptimal given that children with physical disabilities may face delays in cognitive development and acquisition of literacy skills. Instead, in this study we explored emotional state as an alternative access pathway to communication. We developed a pediatric brain-computer interface to identify...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 23, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

French Phonological Component Analysis and aphasia recovery: A bilingual perspective on behavioral and structural data
This study aims to compare the effect of French-Phonological Component Analysis (Fr-PCA) in monolinguals and bilingual persons with aphasia, both at the linguistic and cognitive control level, and to examine the structural impact of left hemisphere lesion location and right hemisphere structural data. Eight participants with chronic aphasia received Fr-PCA for a total of 15 h over 5 weeks. The results showed improved accuracy for treated words and generalization to untreated items and discourse in both groups, and improved Flanker task performance for some participants. Bilingual participants improved more than monolingual...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 22, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of a new speech support application on intensive speech therapy and changes in functional brain connectivity in patients with post-stroke aphasia
Aphasia is a language disorder that occurs after a stroke and impairs listening, speaking, reading, writing, and calculation skills. Patients with post-stroke aphasia in Japan are increasing due to population aging and the advancement of medical treatment. Opportunities for adequate speech therapy in chronic stroke are limited due to time constraints. Recent studies have reported that intensive speech therapy for a short period of time or continuous speech therapy using high-tech equipment, including speech applications (apps, can improve aphasia even in the chronic stage. However, its underlying mechanism for improving la...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 22, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Infra-low frequency neurofeedback and insomnia as a model of CNS dysregulation
This paper will review what is conventionally known of sleep homeostasis and focus on insomnia as a primary manifestation of brain dysregulation, whether as a solitary symptom or as part of a larger syndrome such as post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD. It will discuss in brief behavioral/mindfulness treatments that have been used to treat neurologic diseases, as this is germane to the phenomenology of neurofeedback (NF). It will explore how neurofeedback may work at the subconscious level and cover the current clinical experience of the effectiveness of this technique in the treatment of insomnia. It will conclude with a ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 21, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research