A hybrid learning framework for fine-grained interpretation of brain spatiotemporal patterns during naturalistic functional magnetic resonance imaging
Naturalistic stimuli, including movie, music, and speech, have been increasingly applied in the research of neuroimaging. Relative to a resting-state or single-task state, naturalistic stimuli can evoke more intense brain activities and have been proved to possess higher test–retest reliability, suggesting greater potential to study adaptive human brain function. In the current research, naturalistic functional magnetic resonance imaging (N-fMRI) has been a powerful tool to record brain states under naturalistic stimuli, and many efforts have been devoted to study the high-level semantic features from spatial or temporal...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 30, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Is there evidence for a noisy computation deficit in developmental dyslexia?
The noisy computation hypothesis of developmental dyslexia (DD) is particularly appealing because it can explain deficits across a variety of domains, such as temporal, auditory, phonological, visual and attentional processes. A key prediction is that noisy computations lead to more variable and less stable word representations. A way to test this hypothesis is through repetition of words, that is, when there is noise in the system, the neural signature of repeated stimuli should be more variable. The hypothesis was tested in an functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment with dyslexic and typical readers by repeating...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 30, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparison of visual requirements and regulations for obtaining a driving license in different European countries and some open questions on their adequacy
We reviewed the current state of knowledge regarding visual function and its suitability as part of medical examinations for driving licenses. We focused only on Group 1 drivers. According to previous studies, visual acuity, which is the most common test, is weakly associated with a higher risk of road accidents, with a greater role of visual field. The inclusion of the visual field test in medical examinations is therefore important, but the actual limit value is still unclear and further research in specific situations is needed. Color vision impairment was not found a threat to traffic safety. Contrast sensitivity decre...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 30, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Electrophysiological indices of pain expectation abnormalities in fibromyalgia patients
Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by dysfunctional processing of nociceptive stimulation. Neuroimaging studies have pointed out that pain-related network functioning seems to be altered in these patients. It is thought that this clinical symptomatology may be maintained or even strengthened because of an enhanced expectancy for painful stimuli or its forthcoming appearance. However, neural electrophysiological correlates associated with such attentional mechanisms have been scarcely explored. In the current study, expectancy processes of upcoming laser stimulation (painful and non-painful) and its furth...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 30, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The modularization design and autonomous motion control of a new baby stroller
The increasing number of newborns has stimulated the infant market. In particular, the baby stroller, serving as an important life partner for both babies and parents, has attracted more attention from society. Stroller design and functionality are of vital importance to babies' physiological and psychological health as well as brain development. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a modularization design method for the novel four-wheeled baby stroller based on the KANO model to ensure the mechanical safety and involve more functionalities. Manual control of the baby stroller requires the rapid response of human motor sys...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 30, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Functional Connectivity of the Basal Ganglia Subregions Changed in Mid-Aged and Young Males with Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome
Conclusion: These findings provide evidence of altered BG subregions' rs-FC in CP/CPPS, which may contribute to our understanding of the BG's role in CP/CPPS. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 30, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association of resting-state theta –gamma coupling with selective visual attention in children with tic disorders
A tic disorder (TD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics, which are repetitive movements and/or vocalizations that occur due to aberrant sensory gating. Its pathophysiology involves dysfunction in multiple parts of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. Spontaneous brain activity during the resting state can be used to evaluate the baseline brain state, and it is associated with various aspects of behavior and cognitive processes. Theta–gamma coupling (TGC) is an emerging technique for examining how neural networks process information through interactions. However, the resting-state TGC of patie...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 29, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Epileptogenic high-frequency oscillations present larger amplitude both in mesial temporal and neocortical regions
High-frequency oscillations (HFO) are a promising biomarker for the identification of epileptogenic tissue. While HFO rates have been shown to predict seizure outcome, it is not yet clear whether their morphological features might improve this prediction. We validated HFO rates against seizure outcome and delineated the distribution of HFO morphological features. We collected stereo-EEG recordings from 20 patients (231 electrodes; 1,943 contacts). We computed HFO rates (the co-occurrence of ripples and fast ripples) through a validated automated detector during non-rapid eye movement sleep. Applying machine learning, we de...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 29, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The influence of one-time biofeedback electromyography session on the firing order in the pelvic floor muscle contraction in pregnant woman –A randomized controlled trial
In this study we aimed at assessing the effects of one-time electromyography (EMG) biofeedback session on the order in which PFM are activated (so called firing order) during conscious contractions in relation to selected synergistic muscles in pregnant, continent women. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 90 healthy nulliparous women with uncomplicated pregnancies and without diagnosed urinary incontinence. We divided the participants into a biofeedback group (50) and a control group (40). They were, respectively: 30 ± 4 and 30 ± 4 years old, at their 23 ± 5 or 25 ± 7 week of gestation and presented 23 ± 5...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 29, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Up right, not right up: Primacy of verticality in both language and movement
When describing motion along both the horizontal and vertical axes, languages from different families express the elements encoding verticality before those coding for horizontality (e.g., going up right instead of right up). In light of the motor grounding of language, the present study investigated whether the prevalence of verticality in Path expression also governs the trajectory of arm biological movements. Using a 3D virtual-reality setting, we tracked the kinematics of hand pointing movements in five spatial directions, two of which implied the vertical and horizontal vectors equally (i.e., up right +45° and bottom...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 29, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Safety of deep brain stimulation in pregnancy: A comprehensive review
ConclusionThe data from 29 pregnancies receiving DBS treatment during pregnancy was not associated with unexpected pregnancy or post-partum complication patterns. Many clinical trials have excluded pregnant individuals. Documentation of outcomes in larger numbers of pregnancies will help clarify the safety profile and will help guide study designs that will safely include pregnant patients. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 29, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Is frontoparietal electroencephalogram activity related to the level of functional disability in patients emerging from a minimally conscious state? A preliminary study
ConclusionEMCS patients still experience neural dysfunction, especially in the frontoparietal region. However, the theta connectivity in the frontoparietal region did not increase specifically. At the level of the whole brain, the same shift could also be seen. Theta functional connectivity in the whole brain may underlie different levels of functional disability. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 29, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

HD-tDCS of primary and higher-order motor cortex affects action word processing
The contribution of action-perception systems of the brain to lexical semantics remains controversial. Here, we used high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) in healthy adults to examine the role of primary (left hand motor area; HMA) and higher-order (left anterior inferior parietal lobe; aIPL) action areas in action-related word processing (action verbs and manipulable nouns) compared to non-action-related control words (non-action verbs and non-manipulable nouns). We investigated stimulation-related effects at three levels of semantic processing: subliminal, implicit, and explicit. Broadly, we f...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 29, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A multimodal approach for the ecological investigation of sustained attention: A pilot study
Natural fluctuations in sustained attention can lead to attentional failures in everyday tasks and even dangerous incidences. These fluctuations depend on personal factors, as well as task characteristics. So far, our understanding of sustained attention is partly due to the common usage of laboratory setups and tasks, and the complex interplay between behavior and brain activity. The focus of the current study was thus to test the feasibility of applying a single-channel wireless EEG to monitor patterns of sustained attention during a set of ecological tasks. An EEG marker of attention (BEI—Brain Engagement Index) was c...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 29, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interpersonal sensorimotor communication shapes intrapersonal coordination in a musical ensemble
Social behaviors rely on the coordination of multiple effectors within one’s own body as well as between the interacting bodies. However, little is known about how coupling at the interpersonal level impacts coordination among body parts at the intrapersonal level, especially in ecological, complex, situations. Here, we perturbed interpersonal sensorimotor communication in violin players of an orchestra and investigated how this impacted musicians’ intrapersonal movements coordination. More precisely, first section violinists were asked to turn their back to the conductor and to face the second section of violinists, w...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 29, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research