Altered bodily perceptions in chronic neuropathic pain conditions and implications for treatment using immersive virtual reality
Chronic neuropathic pain is highly disabling and difficult to treat and manage. Patients with such conditions often report altered bodily perceptions that are thought to be associated with maladaptive structural and functional alterations in the somatosensory cortex. Manipulating these altered perceptions using body illusions in virtual reality is being investigated and may have positive clinical implications for the treatment of these conditions. Here, we have conducted a narrative review of the evidence for the types of bodily distortions associated with a variety of peripheral and central neuropathic pain conditions. In...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 17, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The impact of early aging on visual perception of space and time
This article aims to investigate the presence and evolution of this phenomenon in early aging. Two groups of participants belonging to two different age ranges (Young Adults: average age 28.8 years old; Older Adults: average age 62.8 years old) participated in the study performing a discrimination and a reproduction task, both in a spatial and temporal conditions. In particular, they were asked to evaluate lengths in the spatial domain and interval durations in the temporal one. Early aging resulted to be associated to a general decline of the perceptual acuity, which is particularly evident in the temporal condition. The ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 16, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association between electroconvulsive therapy and depressive disorder from 2012 to 2021: Bibliometric analysis and global trends
ConclusionOur analysis made it possible to observe an important growth of the field since 2012, to identify key scientific actors in this growth and to predict hot topics for future research. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 15, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial: Cerebral visual impairment, visual development, diagnosis, and rehabilitation
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 15, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Language input in late infancy scaffolds emergent literacy skills and predicts reading related white matter development
This study tests the hypothesis that parental language input during the first 2 years of life predicts emergent literacy skills at 5 years of age, and that white matter development observed early in the 3rd year (at 26 months) may help to account for these effects. We collected naturalistic recordings of parent and child language at 6, 10, 14, 18, and 24 months using the Language ENvironment Analysis system (LENA) in a group of typically developing infants. We then examined the relationship between language measures during infancy and follow-up measures of reading related skills at age 5 years, in the same group of partici...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 15, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A brief review of motor imagery and bimanual coordination
Motor imagery is increasingly being used in clinical settings, such as in neurorehabilitation and brain computer interface (BCI). In stroke, patients lose upper limb function and must re-learn bimanual coordination skills necessary for the activities of daily living. Physiotherapists integrate motor imagery with physical rehabilitation to accelerate recovery. In BCIs, users are often asked to imagine a movement, often with sparse instructions. The EEG pattern that coincides with this cognitive task is captured, then used to execute an external command, such as operating a neuroprosthetic device. As such, BCIs are dependent...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 11, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Altered cerebellar functional connectivity in chronic subcortical stroke patients
ConclusionThese findings shed light on the different increased FC alteration patterns of CAL and CPL that help understand the neuro-mechanisms underlying behavior performance in chronic stroke survivors. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 11, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural dynamics during emotional video engagement relate to anxiety
Inter-subject correlations (ISCs) of physiological data can reveal common stimulus-driven processing across subjects. ISC has been applied to passive video viewing in small samples to measure common engagement and emotional processing. Here, in a large sample study of healthy adults (N = 163) who watched an emotional film (The Lion Cage by Charlie Chaplin), we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) across participants and measured ISC in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Peak ISC on the emotionally engaging video was observed three-quarters into the film clip, during a time period which potentially elicited a positive ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 11, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cannabis, connectivity, and coming of age: Associations between cannabis use and anterior cingulate cortex connectivity during the transition to adulthood
Cannabis use is common among adolescents and emerging adults and is associated with significant adverse consequences for a subset of users. Rates of use peak between the ages of 18–25, yet the neurobiological consequences for neural systems that are actively developing during this time remain poorly understood. In particular, cannabis exposure may interfere with adaptive development of white matter pathways underlying connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex, including the cingulum and anterior thalamic radiations (ATR). The current study examined the association between cannabis use during adolescence and emerging ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 11, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

On the representation of hierarchical structure: Revisiting Darwin ’s musical protolanguage
In this article, we address the tenability of Darwin’s musical protolanguage, arguing that a more compelling evolutionary scenario is one where a prosodic protolanguage is taken to be the preliminary step to represent the hierarchy involved in linguistic structures within a linear auditory signal. We hypothesize that the establishment of a prosodic protolanguage results from an enhancement of a rhythmic system that transformed linear signals into speech prosody, which in turn can mark syntactic hierarchical relations. To develop this claim, we explore the role of prosodic cues on the parsing of syntactic structures, as w...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 11, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dopamine D2/3-receptor availability and its association with autonomous motivation to exercise in older adults: An exploratory [11C]-raclopride study
ConclusionThis study could not confirm the suggested link between striatal D2/3R availability and subjective autonomous motivation to exercise among older adults. The exploratory findings, however, propose that frontal brain regions may be involved in the intrinsic regulation of exercise-related behaviors, though this has to be confirmed by future studies using a more suitable ligand and objective measures of physical activity levels. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 11, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of video-based training on anticipation and decision-making in football players: A systematic review
The training of athletes’ anticipation and decision-making skills has received increasing attention from researchers, who developed and implemented training programs to achieve this. Video-based training (VBT) has become a popular method in anticipation and decision-making skills training. However, little is known about the benefits of implementing VBT in soccer. This systematic review considered the results of studies on VBT aiming to develop decision-making and anticipation skills in football players, and analyzed its effects. Literature published up to March 2022 was systematically searched on the scientific electroni...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 10, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Test-retest reliability of time-varying patterns of brain activity across single band and multiband resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy older adults
In this study, 24 healthy older adults were scanned over three sessions, on weeks 0, 1, and 4. On each visit, they underwent a conventional single band resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scan and three different MB rs-fMRI scans, with MB factors of 4, with and without in-plane acceleration, and 6 without in-plane acceleration. We found test-retest reliability scores to be significantly higher with MB factor 4 with and without in-plane acceleration for most cortical networks. These findings will inform the choice of acquisition parameters for future studies and clinical trials. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 10, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The convergent effects of primary school physical activity, sleep, and recreational screen time on cognition and academic performance in grade 9
This study utilized structural equation modeling with data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364, 52% female, 80% White). Independent variables—sleep, RST, and PA—were collected in grade 5. Dependent variables of cognitive and academic performance were collected at grade 9, including the Stroop task, Woodcock-Johnson, and Tower of London. Grade 5 PA was inversely associated with grade 9 cognition, but this relationship was no longer significant once grade 5 cognition was controlled for in analyses. Grade 5 sleep was positively related to grade 9 cognition, whether baseline cognition ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 10, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of transcranialdirect current stimulation on the right brain temporal area on processing approach and avoidance attitudes with negation
In this study, we examine whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of this area improves the processing of attitudinal verbs (either of approach or avoidance) in the context of affirmative and negative sentences [e.g., Julio (did not)/included meat on the grocery list]. After being subjected to tDCS, 46 participants were given sentences for passive reading. Sentences were displayed in segments with a fixed time of exposition, and a verb, either the one mentioned in the sentence or an alternative one was displayed 1,500 ms after the sentence (e.g., included vs. excluded, in the example). Participants were told...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - November 10, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research