Baseline Differences in Anxiety Affect Attention and tDCS-Mediated Learning
Variable responses to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocols across individuals are widely reported, but the reasons behind this variation are unclear. This includes tDCS protocols meant to improve attention. Attentional control is impacted by top-down and bottom-up processes, and this relationship is affected by state characteristics such as anxiety. According to Attentional Control Theory, anxiety biases attention towards bottom-up and stimulus-driven processing. The goal of this study was to explore the extent to which differences in state anxiety and related measures affect visual attention and catego...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - March 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Deep-Learning-Based Multivariate Pattern Analysis (dMVPA): A Tutorial and a Toolbox
In recent years, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has been hugely beneficial for cognitive neuroscience by making new experiment designs possible and by increasing the inferential power of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and other neuroimaging methodologies. In a similar time frame, “deep learning” (a term for the use of artificial neural networks with convolutional, recurrent, or similarly sophisticated architectures) has produced a parallel revolution in the field of machine learning and has been employed across a wide variety of applications. Traditional MVPA a...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - March 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Theory of Mind and Its Elusive Structural Substrate
In this study we used two different tasks to evaluate ToM, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), and the Short Story Task (SST). Performance in these tasks was correlated to brain anatomy measures including voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and cortical thickness (CT) analysis, from ninety-one neurotypical participants. High-resolution structural brain images were acquired, and whole-brain and region of interest (ROI) analyses were implemented. The analyses did not show statistically significant associations between ToM performance and brain structural measures after correction. Significant associations between performance...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - March 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intraoperative Cognitive Mapping Tasks for Direct Electrical Stimulation in Clinical and Neuroscientific Contexts
Direct electrical stimulation (DES) has been widely applied in both guidance of lesion resection and scientific research; however, the design and selection of intraoperative cognitive mapping tasks have not been updated in a very long time. We introduce updated mapping tasks for language and non-language functions and provide recommendations for optimal design and selection of intraoperative mapping tasks. In addition, with DES becoming more critical in current neuroscientific research, a task design that has not been widely used in DES yet (subtraction and conjunction paradigms) was introduced for more delicate mapping of...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - March 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Social Exclusion Down-Regulates Pain Empathy at the Late Stage of Empathic Responses: Electrophysiological Evidence
Conclusions were inconsistent, and there is a lack of clarity in identifying which component of pain empathy is more likely to be affected. To investigate these issues, we used a Cyberball task to manipulate feelings of social exclusion. Two groups (social exclusion and social inclusion) participated in the same pain empathy task while we recorded event-related potentials (ERP) when participants viewed static images of body parts in painful and neutral situations. The results showed early N2 differentiation between painful and neutral pictures in the central regions in both groups. The pattern at the late controlled proces...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - March 1, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Closed-Loop Deep Brain Stimulation to Treat Medication-Refractory Freezing of Gait in Parkinson ’s Disease
This study of a human PPN CL-DBS trial in medication-refractory FoG showed feasibility in recruitment, suboptimal safety, and a heterogeneous clinical effect in FoG outcomes. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - March 1, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Is Reconsolidation a General Property of Memory?
Memory reconsolidation holds great hope for memory modification approaches and clinical treatments of mental disorders associated with maladaptive memories. However, it remains controversial as to whether reconsolidation is a general property of all types of memory. Especially, discrepancies have been reported in research focusing on whether declarative memory undergoes reconsolidation, and whether old memories can be reorganized after retrieval. Here, we discuss how these inconsistent results can be reconciled and what information we need to uncover for the general use of reconsolidation. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Interrelation Between Peripersonal Action Space and Interpersonal Social Space: Psychophysiological Evidence and Clinical Implications
The peripersonal space is an adaptive and flexible interface between the body and the environment that fulfills a dual-motor function: preparing the body for voluntary object-oriented actions to interact with incentive stimuli and preparing the body for defensive responses when facing potentially harmful stimuli. In this position article, we provide arguments for the sensorimotor rooting of the peripersonal space representation and highlight the variables that contribute to its flexible and adaptive characteristics. We also demonstrate that peripersonal space represents a mediation zone between the body and the environment...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Electroencephalographic Correlate of Mexican Spanish Emotional Speech Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorder: To a Social Story and Robot-Based Intervention
Socio-emotional impairments are key symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This work proposes to analyze the neuronal activity related to the discrimination of emotional prosodies in autistic children (aged 9 to 11-year-old) as follows. Firstly, a database for single words uttered in Mexican Spanish by males, females, and children will be created. Then, optimal acoustic features for emotion characterization will be extracted, followed of a cubic kernel function Support Vector Machine (SVM) in order to validate the speech corpus. As a result, human-specific acoustic properties of emotional voice signals will be identified. ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Emotional Stimulations on the Online Operation of a P300-Based Brain –Computer Interface
This study aimed at investigating whether external emotional stimuli affect the performance of a P300-based BCI, particularly built for controlling home appliances. We presented a set of emotional auditory stimuli to subjects, which had been selected for each subject based on individual valence scores evaluated a priori, while they were controlling an electric light device using a P300-based BCI. There were four conditions regarding the auditory stimuli, including high valence, low valence, noise, and no sound. As a result, subjects controlled the electric light device using the BCI in real time with a mean accuracy of 88....
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long-Term Mutual Training for the CYBATHLON BCI Race With a Tetraplegic Pilot: A Case Study on Inter-Session Transfer and Intra-Session Adaptation
CYBATHLON is an international championship where people with severe physical disabilities compete with the aid of state-of-the-art assistive technology. In one of the disciplines, the BCI Race, tetraplegic pilots compete in a computer game race by controlling an avatar with a brain-computer interface (BCI). This competition offers a perfect opportunity for BCI researchers to study long-term training effects in potential end-users, and to evaluate BCI performance in a realistic environment. In this work, we describe the BCI system designed by the team Mirage91 for participation in the CYBATHLON BCI Series 2019, as well as i...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Object-Location Memory Training in Older Adults Leads to Greater Deactivation of the Dorsal Default Mode Network
Substantial evidence indicates that cognitive training can be efficacious for older adults, but findings regarding training-related brain plasticity have been mixed and vary depending on the imaging modality. Recent years have seen a growth in recognition of the importance of large-scale brain networks on cognition. In particular, task-induced deactivation within the default mode network (DMN) is thought to facilitate externally directed cognition, while aging-related decrements in this neural process are related to reduced cognitive performance. It is not yet clear whether task-induced deactivation within the DMN can be e...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Language Familiarity and Proficiency Leads to Differential Cortical Processing During Translation Between Distantly Related Languages
In the midst of globalization, English is regarded as an international language, or Lingua Franca, but learning it as a second language (L2) remains still difficult to speakers of other languages. This is true especially for the speakers of languages distantly related to English such as Japanese. In this sense, exploring neural basis for translation between the first language (L1) and L2 is of great interest. There have been relatively many previous researches revealing brain activation patterns during translations between L1 and English as L2. These studies, which focused on language translation with close or moderate lin...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Case Report: Multimodal Functional and Structural Evaluation Combining Pre-operative nTMS Mapping and Neuroimaging With Intraoperative CT-Scan and Brain Shift Correction for Brain Tumor Surgical Resection
Conclusion: This case report and technical note highlights the value of preoperative functional evaluation by nTMS updated intraoperatively with correction of brain deformation by iCT. This multimodal approach may become the optimized technique of reference for patients with brain tumors in eloquent areas that are unsuitable for awake brain surgery. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of the Cerebellum in Social and Non-Social Action Sequences: A Preliminary LF-rTMS Study
An increasing number of studies demonstrated the involvement of the cerebellum in (social) sequence processing. The current preliminary study is the first to investigate the causal involvement of the cerebellum in sequence generation, using low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS). By targeting the posterior cerebellum, we hypothesized that the induced neuro-excitability modulation would lead to altered performance on a Picture and Story sequencing task, which involve the generation of the correct chronological order of various social and non-social stories depicted in cartoons or sentences. Our...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modulatory Effects of Prediction Accuracy on Electroencephalographic Brain Activity During Prediction
Prediction is essential for the efficiency of many cognitive processes; however, this process is not always perfect. Predictive coding theory suggests that the brain generates and updates a prediction to respond to an upcoming event. Although an electrophysiological index of prediction, the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN), has been reported, it remains unknown whether the SPN reflects the prediction accuracy, or whether it is associated with the prediction error, which corresponds to a mismatch between a prediction and an actual input. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate this question using electroencephalogra...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How Can We Prove the Causality of Interbrain Synchronization?
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multimodal Assessment of Precentral Anodal TDCS: Individual Rise in Supplementary Motor Activity Scales With Increase in Corticospinal Excitability
ConclusionFunctional aftereffects of classical bipolar anodal TDCS of M1-HAND on the motor system vary substantially across individuals. Physiological features upstream from the primary motor cortex may determine how anodal TDCS changes corticospinal excitability. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Event-Related Potential Correlates of Valence, Arousal, and Subjective Significance in Processing of an Emotional Stroop Task
This study also demonstrated that exploratory event-related potential analysis provides additional information beyond the classical component-based analysis. The obtained results show that cognitive control effects in the EST may be altered by manipulation in the subjective significance dimension. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Structural and Functional Changes Are Related to Cognitive Status in Wilson ’s Disease
Patients with Wilson’s disease (WD) suffer from prospective memory (PM) impairment, and some of patients develop cognitive impairment. However, very little is known about how brain structure and function changes effect PM in WD. Here, we employed multimodal neuroimaging data acquired from 22 WD patients and 26 healthy controls (HC) who underwent three-dimensional T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). We investigated gray matter (GM) volumes with voxel-based morphometry, DTI metrics using the fiber tractography method, and RS-fMRI using the seed...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Examining Different Motor Learning Paradigms for Improving Balance Recovery Abilities Among Older Adults, Random vs. Block Training —Study Protocol of a Randomized Non-inferiority Controlled Trial
This study aims to investigate the effect of the practice schedule (i.e., contextual interference) on reactive balance function and its transfer to proactive balance function (i.e., voluntary step execution test and Berg balance test). Our primary hypothesis is that improvements in reactive balance control following block PBBT will be not inferior to the improvements following random PBBT.Methods and Analysis: This is a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Fifty community-dwelling older adults (over 70 years) will be recruited and randomly allocated to a random PBBT group (n = 25) or a block PBBT group (n = 25). The r...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Infantile Iron Deficiency Affects Brain Development in Monkeys Even After Treatment of Anemia
A high percent of oxidative energy metabolism is needed to support brain growth during infancy. Unhealthy diets and limited nutrition, as well as other environmental insults, can compromise these essential developmental processes. In particular, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has been found to undermine both normal brain growth and neurobehavioral development. Even moderate ID may affect neural maturation because when iron is limited, it is prioritized first to red blood cells over the brain. A primate model was used to investigate the neural effects of a transient ID and if deficits would persist after iron treatment. The l...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 24, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cognitive Impairment in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder With Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Evidence Based on Multi-indicator ERPs
The lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents is reported to be as high as 20%; thus, MDD constitutes a significant social and public health burden. MDD is often associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) behavior, but the contributing factors including cognitive function have not been investigated in detail. To this end, the present study evaluated cognitive impairment and psychosocial factors in associated with MDD with NSSI behavior. Eighteen and 21 drug-naïve patients with first-episode MDD with or without NSSI (NSSI+/– group) and 24 healthy control subjects (HC) were enrolled...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 24, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Epileptic High-Frequency Oscillations in Intracranial EEG Are Not Confounded by Cognitive Tasks
Conclusion: Our prospective definition of an epileptic HFO, the FRandR, is not confounded by physiological HFOs that might be elicited by our cognitive tasks. This is reassuring for the clinical use of FRandR as a biomarker of the EZ. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 24, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in Patients ’ Desired Control of Their Deep Brain Stimulation and Subjective Global Control Over the Course of Deep Brain Stimulation
Conclusions: There are few empirical data documenting patients’ desire for stimulation control throughout neuromodulation and how stimulation control is related to other aspects of control despite the growing application of neuromodulation devices to treat a variety of disorders. Our data highlight distinctions in different types of control and have implications for the development of patient-controlled neurostimulation devices. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 24, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Semantic Grounding of Novel Spoken Words in the Primary Visual Cortex
Embodied theories of grounded semantics postulate that, when word meaning is first acquired, a link is established between symbol (word form) and corresponding semantic information present in modality-specific—including primary—sensorimotor cortices of the brain. Direct experimental evidence documenting the emergence of such a link (i.e., showing that presentation of a previously unknown, meaningless word sound induces, after learning, category-specific reactivation of relevant primary sensory or motor brain areas), however, is still missing. Here, we present new neuroimaging results that provide such evidence....
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 24, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stable Anatomy Detection in Multimodal Imaging Through Sparse Group Regularization: A Comparative Study of Iron Accumulation in the Aging Brain
Multimodal neuroimaging provides a rich source of data for identifying brain regions associated with disease progression and aging. However, present studies still typically analyze modalities separately or aggregate voxel-wise measurements and analyses to the structural level, thus reducing statistical power. As a central example, previous works have used two quantitative MRI parameters—R2* and quantitative susceptibility (QS)—to study changes in iron associated with aging in healthy and multiple sclerosis subjects, but failed to simultaneously account for both. In this article, we propose a unified framework t...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 23, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Eros, Beauty, and Phon-Aesthetic Judgements of Language Sound. We Like It Flat and Fast, but Not Melodious. Comparing Phonetic and Acoustic Features of 16 European Languages
This article concerns sound aesthetic preferences for European foreign languages. We investigated the phonetic-acoustic dimension of the linguistic aesthetic pleasure to describe the “music” found in European languages. The Romance languages, French, Italian, and Spanish, take a lead when people talk about melodious language – the music-like effects in the language (a.k.a., phonetic chill). On the other end of the melodiousness spectrum are German and Arabic that are often considered sounding harsh and un-attractive. Despite the public interest, limited research has been conducted on the topic of phonaest...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 23, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Development and Validation of a Dynamic Nomogram to Predict the Risk of Neonatal White Matter Damage
ConclusionThis is the first study describing the use of a nomogram and web-based calculator to predict the risk of WMD in neonates. The web-based calculator increases the applicability of the predictive model and is a convenient tool for doctors at primary hospitals and outpatient clinics, family doctors, and even parents to identify high-risk births early on and implementing appropriate interventions while avoiding excessive treatment of low-risk patients. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 23, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Optimal Model Mapping for Intravoxel Incoherent Motion MRI
This study proposed an optimal model mapping method to improve the reliability of the perfusion parameter estimation in the IVIM study. Six healthy volunteers (five males and one female; average age of 38.3 ± 7.5 years). Volunteers were examined using a 3.0 Tesla scanner. IVIM-MRI of the brain was applied at 17 b-values ranging from 0 to 2,500 s/mm2. The Gaussian model, the Kurtosis model, and the Gamma model were found to be optimal for the CSF, white matter (WM), and gray matter (GM), respectively. In the mean perfusion fraction (fp) analysis, the GM/WM ratios were 1.16 (Gaussian model), 1.80 (Kurtosis model), 1.9...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Association Between Metabolic Disturbance and Cognitive Impairments in Early-Stage Schizophrenia
In this study, we recruited 172 patients with early-stage schizophrenia. Relevant metabolic parameters were examined and cognitive function was evaluated by using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) to investigate the relationship between metabolic disorder and cognitive impairment.Results: Generally, the prevalence of cognitive impairment among patients in our study was 84.7% (144/170), which was much higher than that in the general population. Compared with the general Chinese setting, the study population presented a higher proportion of metabolic disturbance. Patients who had metabolic disturbance showed no ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Automatic Detection of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Type II in MRI: Is the Application of Surface-Based Morphometry and Machine Learning Promising?
ConclusionAnalyzing surface-based features by automated machine learning can give a quantitative and objective diagnosis of FCD lesions in presurgical assessment and improve postsurgical outcomes. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 19, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

MindLink-Eumpy: An Open-Source Python Toolbox for Multimodal Emotion Recognition
Emotion recognition plays an important role in intelligent human–computer interaction, but the related research still faces the problems of low accuracy and subject dependence. In this paper, an open-source software toolbox called MindLink-Eumpy is developed to recognize emotions by integrating electroencephalogram (EEG) and facial expression information. MindLink-Eumpy first applies a series of tools to automatically obtain physiological data from subjects and then analyzes the obtained facial expression data and EEG data, respectively, and finally fuses the two different signals at a decision level. In the detectio...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 19, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural Signatures of Performance Feedback in the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT): An ERP Study
Research on cognitive control has sparked increasing interest in recent years, as it is an important prerequisite for goal oriented human behavior. The paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT) has been used to test and train cognitive control functions. This adaptive, challenging task includes continuous performance feedback. Therefore, additional cognitive control capacities are required to process this information along with the already high task-load. The underlying neural mechanisms, however, are still unclear. To explore the neural signatures of the PASAT and particularly the processing of distractive feedback info...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 18, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Asymmetries in Accessing Vowel Representations Are Driven by Phonological and Acoustic Properties: Neural and Behavioral Evidence From Natural German Minimal Pairs
In this study, we tested and compared two of those often-discussed models, namely the Featurally Underspecified Lexicon (FUL) model (Lahiri and Reetz, 2002) and the Natural Referent Vowel (NRV) framework (Polka and Bohn, 2011). While most studies presented isolated vowels, we investigated a large stimulus set of German vowels in a more naturalistic setting within minimal pairs. We conducted an mismatch negativity (MMN) study in a passive and a reaction time study in an active oddball paradigm. In both data sets, we found directional asymmetries that can be explained by either phonological or phonetic theories. While behavi...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 18, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuronal Actions of Transspinal Stimulation on Locomotor Networks and Reflex Excitability During Walking in Humans With and Without Spinal Cord Injury
This study investigated the neuromodulatory effects of transspinal stimulation on soleus H-reflex excitability and electromyographic (EMG) activity during stepping in humans with and without spinal cord injury (SCI). Thirteen able-bodied adults and 5 individuals with SCI participated in the study. EMG activity from both legs was determined for steps without, during, and after a single-pulse or pulse train transspinal stimulation delivered during stepping randomly at different phases of the step cycle. The soleus H-reflex was recorded in both subject groups under control conditions and following single-pulse transspinal sti...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 18, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intraoperative Brain Mapping by Cortico-Cortical Evoked Potential
To preserve postoperative brain function, it is important for neurosurgeons to fully understand the brain's structure, vasculature, and function. Intraoperative high-frequency electrical stimulation during awake craniotomy is the gold standard for mapping the function of the cortices and white matter; however, this method can only map the “focal” functions and cannot monitor large-scale cortical networks in real-time. Recently, an in vivo electrophysiological method using cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs) induced by single-pulse electrical cortical stimulation has been developed in an extraoperative se...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 18, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Characterizing the Action-Observation Network Through Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: A Review
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a neuroimaging technique that has undergone tremendous growth over the last decade due to methodological advantages over other measures of brain activation. The action-observation network (AON), a system of brain structures proposed to have “mirroring” abilities (e.g., active when an individual completes an action or when they observe another complete that action), has been studied in humans through neural measures such as fMRI and electroencephalogram (EEG); however, limitations of these methods are problematic for AON paradigms. For this reason, fNIRS is propos...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 18, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Excitability of the Ipsilateral Primary Motor Cortex During Unilateral Goal-Directed Movement
DiscussionWe found that SICI in the ipsi-M1 is smaller during visual illumination-guided finger movement than during the resting condition. Our finding provides basic data for designing a rehabilitation program that modulates the M1 ipsilateral to the moving limb, for example, for post-stroke patients with severe hemiparesis. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 17, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Trajectories of Mother-Infant Communication: An Experiential Measure of the Impacts of Early Life Adversity
This study investigated the effects of MS or LB on the dam-pup relationship by quantifying pup USVs, maternal behavior, and the relationship between the two. First, we used a generalized additive model approach to establish typical developmental trajectories of USV acoustic properties and determine windows of change in MS or LB rearing. Additionally, we quantified maternal behaviors and the predictability of maternal care sequences using an entropy rate calculation. MS and LB each shifted the developmental trajectories of USV acoustic parameters and call types in a sex-specific manner. MS more often impacted male USVs, whi...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 17, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Phonological Underspecification: An Explanation for How a Rake Can Become Awake
Neural markers, such as the mismatch negativity (MMN), have been used to examine the phonological underspecification of English feature contrasts using the Featurally Underspecified Lexicon (FUL) model. However, neural indices have not been examined within the approximant phoneme class, even though there is evidence suggesting processing asymmetries between liquid (e.g., /ɹ/) and glide (e.g., /w/) phonemes. The goal of this study was to determine whether glide phonemes elicit electrophysiological asymmetries related to [consonantal] underspecification when contrasted with liquid phonemes in adult English speakers. Specifi...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 17, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

No Impact of Stochastic Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation on Arterial Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in the Elderly Population
ConclusionnGVS may not affect the AP and RRIV during static position and whole-body tilting or cause pain, vertigo/dizziness, and discomfort in the elderly. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 17, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preserving Right Pre-motor and Posterior Prefrontal Cortices Contribute to Maintaining Overall Basic Emotion
Basic emotions such as happiness, sadness, and anger are universal, regardless of the human species, and are governed by specific brain regions. A recent report revealed that mentalizing, which is the ability to estimate other individuals’ emotional states via facial expressions, can be preserved with the help of awake surgery. However, it is still questionable whether we can maintain the ability to understand others’ emotions by preserving the positive mapping sites of intraoperative assessment. Here, we demonstrated the cortical regions related to basic emotions via awake surgery for patients with frontal gli...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 16, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Altered Frequency-Dependent Brain Activation and White Matter Integrity Associated With Cognition in Characterizing Preclinical Alzheimer ’s Disease Stages
ConclusionsSCD shares structurally and functionally deteriorative characteristics with aMCI and naMCI, and tends to convert to either of them. Furthermore, abnormalities in white matter fibers may be the structural basis of abnormal brain activation in preclinical AD stages. Combined together, it suggests that structural and functional integration may characterize the preclinical AD progression. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 16, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Common and Specific Alterations of Amygdala Subregions in Major Depressive Disorder With and Without Anxiety: A Combined Structural and Resting-State Functional MRI Study
Anxious major depressive disorder is a common subtype of major depressive disorder; however, its unique neural mechanism is not well-understood currently. Using multimodal MRI data, this study examined common and specific alterations of amygdala subregions between patients with and without anxiety. No alterations were observed in the gray matter volume or intra-region functional integration in either patient group. Compared with the controls, both patient groups showed decreased functional connectivity between the left superficial amygdala and the left putamen, and between the right superficial amygdala and the bilateral a...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 15, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

“Mickey Mousing” in the Brain: Motion-Sound Synesthesia and the Subcortical Substrate of Audio-Visual Integration
Motion-sound synesthesia is characterized by illusory auditory sensations linked to the pattern and rhythms of motion (dubbed “Mickey Mousing” as in cinema) of visually experienced but soundless object, like an optical flow array, a ball bouncing or a horse galloping. In an MRI study with a group of three synesthetes and a group of eighteen control participants, we found structural changes in the brains of synesthetes in the subcortical multisensory areas of the superior and inferior colliculi. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging data showed activity in motion-sensitive regions, as well as tempor...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 15, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Maternal Distress and Offspring Neurodevelopment: Challenges and Opportunities for Pre-clinical Research Models
Pre-natal exposure to acute maternal trauma or chronic maternal distress can confer increased risk for psychiatric disorders in later life. Acute maternal trauma is the result of unforeseen environmental or personal catastrophes, while chronic maternal distress is associated with anxiety or depression. Animal studies investigating the effects of pre-natal stress have largely used brief stress exposures during pregnancy to identify critical periods of fetal vulnerability, a paradigm which holds face validity to acute maternal trauma in humans. While understanding these effects is undoubtably important, the literature sugges...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 12, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Study on the Effect of Mental Practice Using Motor Evoked Potential-Based Neurofeedback
This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of mental practice (motor imagery training) can be enhanced by providing neurofeedback based on transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced motor evoked potentials (MEP). Twenty-four healthy, right-handed subjects were enrolled in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: a group that was given correct TMS feedback (Real-FB group) and a group that was given randomized false TMS feedback (Sham-FB group). The subjects imagined pushing the switch with just timing, when the target circle overlapped a cross at the center of the computer monitor. In t...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 12, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Personalized Virtual Reality Human-Computer Interaction for Psychiatric and Neurological Illnesses: A Dynamically Adaptive Virtual Reality Environment That Changes According to Real-Time Feedback From Electrophysiological Signal Responses
In this study, we present a VR system that can recognize the individual differences and readjust the VR scenarios during the simulation according to the treatment aims. To investigate and present this dynamically adaptive VR system we employ an Anxiety Disorder condition as a case study, namely arachnophobia. This system consists of distinct anxiety states, aiming to dynamically modify the VR environment in such a way that it can keep the individual within a controlled, and appropriate for the therapy needs, anxiety state, which will be called “desired states” for the study. This happens by adjusting the VR sti...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 12, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Enlarged Area of Mesencephalic Iron Deposits in Adults Who Stutter
DiscussionThe results demonstrate a motor deficit in AWS linked to dopaminergic dysfunction and extending beyond speech. Since iron deposits evolve in childhood and shrink thereafter, ME might serve as an easily quantifiable biomarker helping to predict the risk of persistency in children who stutter. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - February 11, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research