The Different Brain Mechanisms of Object and Spatial Working Memory: Voxel-Based Morphometry and Resting-State Functional Connectivity
In this study, we applied a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis to investigate the relationship between the ability of object and spatial working memory (WM), and regional gray matter density (GMD), as well as intrinsic functional connectivity. The VBM analysis showed a positive correlation between the individual difference of object WM and GMD in the right middle occipital gyrus (MOG) and the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which are responsible for coding object information and processing the shape of an object. The individual difference of the spatial WM w...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Variation in Performance Strategies of a Hand Mental Rotation Task on Elderly
A hand mental rotation task (HMRT) is a task wherein a person judges whether an image of a rotated hand is of the right or left hand. Two performance strategies are expected to come into play when performing these tasks: a visual imagery (VI) strategy, in which an image is mentally rotated, and a motor imagery (MI) strategy, in which the movement of a person’s own hand is simulated. Although elderly people generally take some time to perform these tasks, ability differs greatly between individuals. The present study hypothesizes that there is a relationship between differences in task performance strategy and perform...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Procedural Memory Following Moderate-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Group Performance and Individual Differences on the Rotary Pursuit Task
The impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on procedural memory has received significantly less attention than declarative memory. Although to date studies on procedural memory have yielded mixed findings, many rehabilitation protocols (e.g., errorless learning) rely on the procedural memory system, and assume that it is relatively intact. The aim of the current study was to determine whether individuals with TBI are impaired on a task of procedural memory as a group, and to examine the presence of individual differences in performance. We administered to a sample of 36 individuals with moderate-severe TBI and 40 healthy c...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Throwing Revisited: Sensorimotor Coordination in a Virtual Ball Aiming Task
Numerous studies have demonstrated that boys throw balls faster, farther and more accurately than girls. This is largely due to well-known anatomical and muscle physiological differences that play a central role in overarm throwing. With the objective to understand the potential contribution of coordinative aspects in this gender difference, this large cross-sectional study examined a simplified forearm throw that eliminated the physical advantages of male individuals. As hypothesized, the gender disparity disappeared, but only in the age groups younger than 20 years. Two fine-grained spatiotemporal metrics displayed a sim...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cathodal Occipital tDCS Is Unable to Modulate the Sound Induced Flash Illusion in Migraine
Migraine is a highly disabling disease characterized by recurrent pain.Despite an intensive effort, mechanisms of migraine pathophysiology, still represent an unsolved issue. Evidences from both animals and humans studies suggest that migraine is characterized by hyperresponsivity or hyperexcitability of sensory cortices, especially the visual cortex. This phenomenon, in turn, may affect multisensory processing. Indeed, migraineurs present with an abnormal, reduced, perception of the Sound-induced Flash Illusion (SiFI), a crossmodal illusion that relies on optimal integration of visual and auditory stimuli by the occipital...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Current Status of Neurofeedback for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review and the Possibility of Decoded Neurofeedback
Conclusions: Although a much larger number of participants will be needed in future, DecNef could be a promising therapy that bypasses the unpleasantness of conscious exposure associated with conventional therapies for fear related disorders, including PTSD. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Emotion Regulation of Hippocampus Using Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback in Healthy Human
This study investigated the feasibility of NF training of healthy participants to self-regulate the activation of the hippocampus and assessed the effect of rtfMRI-NF on the hippocampus before and after training. Twenty-six right-handed healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group receiving hippocampal rtfMRI-NF (n = 13) and the control group (CG) receiving rtfMRI-NF from the intraparietal sulcus rtfMRI-NF (n = 13) and completed a total of 4 NF runs. The hippocampus and the intraparietal sulcus were defined based on the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) standard template, and NF signal was measur...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Parallel Changes in Cognitive Function and Gray Matter Volume After Multi-Component Training of Cognitive Control (MTCC) in Adolescents
This study investigated the effects of multicomponent training of cognitive control (MTCC) in order to examine whether the training enhanced adolescents' cognitive control ability and if the effects were generalizable to other cognitive domains. Cognitive control refers to the ability to adjust a series of thoughts and behaviors in correspondence to an internal goal, and involves inhibition, working memory, shifting, and dual tasking as subcomponents. The participants were middle school students (aged 11–14) and randomly assigned to either a training group or an active control group. The training group performed 30 m...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Phonological Task Enhances the Frequency-Following Response to Deviant Task-Irrelevant Speech Sounds
In EEG measurements, processing of periodic sounds in the ascending auditory pathway generates the frequency-following response (FFR) phase-locked to the fundamental frequency (F0) and its harmonics of a sound. We measured FFRs to the steady-state (vowel) part of syllables /ba/ and /aw/ occurring in binaural rapid streams of speech sounds as frequently repeating standard syllables or as infrequent (p = .2) deviant syllables among standard /wa/ syllables. Our aim was to study whether concurrent active phonological processing affects early processing of irrelevant speech sounds reflected by FFRs to these sounds. To this end,...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Building Memory Representations for Exemplar-Based Judgment: A Role for Ventral Precuneus
The brain networks underlying human multiple-cue judgment, the judgment of a continuous criterion based on multiple cues, have been examined in a few recent studies, and the ventral precuneus has been found to be a key region. Specifically, activation differences in ventral precuneus (as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) has been linked to an exemplar-based judgment process, where judgments are based on memory for previous similar cases. What aspects of exemplar-based judgment ventral precuneus supports is however poorly understood. Ventral precuneus is a brain region important for various episodic...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Top-Down Predictions of Familiarity and Congruency in Audio-Visual Speech Perception at Neural Level
During speech perception listeners rely on multimodal input and make use of both auditory and visual information. When presented with speech, for example syllables, the differences in brain responses to distinct stimuli are not, however, caused merely by the acoustic or visual features of the stimuli. The congruency of the auditory and visual information and the familiarity of a syllable, that is, whether it appears in the listener’s native language or not, also modulates brain responses. We investigated how the congruency and familiarity of the presented stimuli affect brain responses to audio-visual (AV) speech in ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Topological Modification of Brain Networks Organization in Children With High Intelligence Quotient: A Resting-State fMRI Study
The idea that intelligence is embedded not only in a single brain network, but instead in a complex, well-optimized system of complementary networks, has led to the development of whole brain network analysis. Using graph theory to analyze resting-state functional MRI data, we investigated the brain graph networks (or brain networks) of high intelligence quotient (HIQ) children. To this end, we computed the “hub disruption index κ”, an index sensitive to graph network modifications. We found significant topological differences in the integration and segregation properties of brain networks in HIQ compared...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Binocular Summation and Suppression of Contrast Sensitivity in Strabismus, Fusion and Amblyopia
Purpose: Amblyopia and strabismus affect 2-5% of the population and cause a broad range of visual deficits. The response to treatment is generally assessed using visual acuity, which is relatively insensitive to binocular vision gains and may therefore underestimate binocular vision deficits in these patients. The contrast sensitivity function (CSF) generally takes longer to assess than visual acuity, but it is better correlated with improvement in a range of visual tasks and, notably, with improvements in binocular vision. The present study aims to assess monocular and binocular CSFs in amblyopia and strabismus patients. ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Touching! An Augmented Reality System for Unveiling Face Topography in Very Young Children
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How Long Is Too Long: An Individual Time-Window for Motor Planning
Human motor response time is determined by the matureness of the preceding neural motor preparation process. In the current study, we characterize the optimal temporal boundaries required for the motor preparation process, and its impact on the overall motor response time. In particular, we contrasted short and long preparation durations by measuring the resulting differences in motor response times, in an attempt to find whether an optimal preparation time exists. Using a “Timed Response” paradigm, we presented participants with varying planning intervals prior to a requested motor response, and studied their ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Efficacy and Brain Imaging Correlates of an Immersive Motor Imagery BCI-Driven VR System for Upper Limb Motor Rehabilitation: A Clinical Case Report
This study expands on the current body of evidence as more data are needed on the effect of this type of interventions not only on functional improvement but also through brain imaging to study the effect of the intervention on plasticity. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Activation of Mirror Neuron Regions Is Altered in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) –Neurophysiological Evidence Using an Action Observation Paradigm
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have difficulty performing and learning motor skills. Automatic activation of the mirror neuron system (MNS) during action observation and its coupling to the motor output system are important neurophysiological processes that underpin observational motor learning. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that MNS function is disrupted in children with DCD by using sensitive EEG-based measures of MNS activation during action observation. Specifically, we predicted reduced mu-suppression and coherence in DCD compared with typically developing children. Neural ac...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Learning of Spatial Properties of a Large-Scale Virtual City With an Interactive Map
To become acquainted with large-scale environments such as cities people combine direct experience and indirect sources such as maps. To ascertain which type of spatial knowledge is acquired by which source is difficult to evaluate. Using virtual reality enables the possibility to investigate whether knowledge is learned by direct experience or the use of a map differentially. Therefore, we designed a large virtual city, comprised of over 200 houses, and evaluated spatial knowledge acquisition after city exploration with an interactive map following one and three 30-minute exploration sessions. We tested subjects&rsq...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Performance Monitoring and Correct Response Significance in Conscientious Individuals
There is sufficient evidence to believe that variations in the error-related negativity (ERN) are linked to dispositional characteristics in individuals. However, explanations of individual differences in the amplitude of the ERN cannot be derived from functional theories of the ERN. The ERN has a counterpart that occurs after correct responses (correct-response negativity, CRN). Based on the assumption that ERN and CRN reflect an identical cognitive process, variations in CRN might be associated with dispositional characteristics as well. Higher CRN amplitudes have been found to reflect task engagement. In the present stu...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Promoting Psychological Well-Being Through an Evidence-Based Mindfulness Training Program
Psychological well-being is a core feature of mental health, and may be defined as including hedonic (enjoyment, pleasure) and eudaimonic (meaning, fulfilment) happiness, as well as resilience (coping, emotion regulation, healthy problem solving). To promote psychological well-being, it is helpful to understand the underlying mechanisms associated with this construct and then develop targeted and effective training programs. In this perspective paper, we discuss key components and potential brain-body mechanisms related to psychological well-being and propose mindfulness training as a promising way to improve it. Based on ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association of Polymorphism of Arginine-Vasopressin Receptor 1A (AVPR1a) Gene With Trust and Reciprocity
In this study, we focused on microsatellite polymorphisms in the intron of the arginine-vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) gene and examined whether the association between the repeat lengths in the intron of AVPR1a is associated with trust and reciprocity in humans. Four hundred and thirty-three participants played the trust game, answered the attitudinal trust question, and their buccal cells were collected. Results showed that men with a short form of AVPR1a tend to send more money to the opponent, even if there is a possibility of being betrayed by the opponent. Additionally, people with a short form of AVPR1a tended to ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Large-Scale, Cross-Sectional Investigation Into the Efficacy of Brain Training
Brain training is a large and expanding industry, and yet there is a recurrent and ongoing debate concerning its scientific basis or evidence for efficacy. Much of evidence for the efficacy of brain training within this debate is from small-scale studies that do not assess the type of ‘brain training’, the specificity of transfer effects, or the length of training required to achieve a generalised effect. To explore these factors, we analyse cross-sectional data from two large Internet-cohort studies (total N=60,222) to determine whether cognition differs at the population level for individuals who report that ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Learning to Look at the Bright Side of Life: Attention Bias Modification Training Enhances Optimism Bias
Identifying neurocognitive mechanisms underlying optimism bias is essential to understand its benefits for well-being and mental health. The combined cognitive biases hypothesis suggests that biases (e.g., in expectancies and attention) interact and mutually enforce each other. Whereas, in line with this hypothesis, optimistic expectancies have been shown to guide attention to positive information, reverse causal effects have not been investigated yet. Revealing such bidirectional optimism-attention interactions both on a behavioral and neural level could explain how cognitive biases contribute to a self-sustaining upward ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Applying a Women ’s Health Lens to the Study of the Aging Brain
A major challenge in neuroscience is to understand what happens to a brain as it ages. Such insights could make it possible to distinguish between individuals who will undergo typical aging and those at risk for neurodegenerative disease. Over the last quarter century, thousands of human brain imaging studies have probed the neural basis of age-related cognitive decline. “Aging” studies generally enroll adults over the age of 65, a historical precedent rooted in the average retirement age of U.S. wage-earners. A consequence of this research tradition is that it overlooks one of the most significant neuroendocri...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Age-Related Structural Alterations in Human Amygdala Networks: Reflections on Correlations Between White Matter Structure and Effective Connectivity
The amygdala, which is involved in human social information processing and social emotional response neuronal circuits, is segmented into three subregions that are responsible for perception, affiliation, and aversion. Though there is different functional and effective connectivity (EC) among these networks, age-related structural changes and associations between structure and function within the amygdala remain unclear. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data (106 participants) to investigate age-related structural changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) of amygdalar subregions. We also examined the relationship b...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Influence of the Consumer Ethnocentrism and Cultural Familiarity on Brand Preference: Evidence of Event-Related Potential (ERP)
This study aims at identifying the behavioral and neural correlates of Consumer Ethnocentrism in the field of brand preference by using Event-Related Potential (ERP). We sampled subjects from two ethnic groups, the Chinese ethnic group and the sub-Sahara black Africans group from the Zhejiang University. The subjects faced two sequential stimuli, S1 followed by S2. The S1 consisted of 40 pictures of 20 Chinese and 20 Africans black peoples wearing traditional clothes, and S2 consisted of 40 fake brand-logos which were divided randomly into two groups of 20 each. The subjects were informed that the people in the S1 purchase...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Learning to Expect: Predicting Sounds During Movement Is Related to Sensorimotor Association During Listening
Sensory experiences, such as sound, often result from our motor actions. Over time, repeated sound-producing performance can generate sensorimotor associations. However, it is not clear how sensory and motor information are associated. Here, we explore if sensory prediction is associated with the formation of sensorimotor associations during a learning task. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants produced index and little finger-swipes on a bespoke device, generating novel sounds. ERPs were also obtained as participants heard those sounds played back. Peak suppression was compared to assess sensory ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Language, Memory, and Mental Time Travel: An Evolutionary Perspective
Language could not exist without memory, in all its forms: working memory for sequential production and understanding, implicit memory for grammatical rules, semantic memory for knowledge, and episodic memory for communicating personal experience. Episodic memory is part of a more general capacity for mental travel both forward and backward in time, and even into fantasy and stories. I argue that the generativity of mental time travel underlies the generativity of language itself, and could be the basis of what Chomsky calls I-language, or universal grammar, a capacity for recursive thought independent of communicative lan...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Explicit Control of Step Timing During Split-Belt Walking Reveals Interdependent Recalibration of Movements in Space and Time
In this study, we explicitly altered subjects’ limb motion in either space or time during split-belt walking to determine its impact on the adaptation of the other domain. Interestingly, we observed that motor adaptation in the spatial domain was susceptible to altering the temporal domain, whereas motor adaptation in the temporal domain was resilient to modifying the spatial domain. This nonreciprocal relation suggests a hierarchical organization such that the control of timing in locomotion has an effect on the control of limb position. This is of translational interest because clinical populations often have a gre...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cross-Domain Associations Between Motor Ability, Independent Exploration, and Large-Scale Spatial Navigation; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Williams Syndrome, and Typical Development
In typical infants, the achievement of independent locomotion has a positive impact on the development of both small-scale and large-scale spatial cognition. Here we investigated whether this association between the motor and spatial domain: 1) persists into childhood and 2) is detrimental to the development of spatial cognition in individuals with motor deficits, namely, individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Despite evidence of a co-occurring motor impairment in many individuals with ADHD, little is known about the developmental consequences of this i...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Individual Differences in Math Ability Determine Neurocognitive Processing of Arithmetic Complexity: A Combined fNIRS-EEG Study
This study addresses the question of whether this leads to an interaction of math ability and arithmetic complexity for multiplication and division on behavioral and neural levels. Previously screened individuals with high and low math ability solved multiplication and division problems in a written production paradigm while brain activation was assessed by combined functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG). Arithmetic complexity was manipulated by using single-digit operands for simple multiplication problems and operands between 2 and 19 for complex multiplication problems and the cor...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial: Motor Control of Gait and the Underlying Neural Network in Pediatric Neurology
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Response to Commentary: Efficacy and Safety of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation as an Add-on Treatment for Bipolar Depression: A Randomized Clinical Trial
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Levodopa Modulates Functional Connectivity in the Upper Beta Band Between Subthalamic Nucleus and Muscle Activity in Tonic and Phasic Motor Activity Patterns in Parkinson ’s Disease
Discussion: L-Dopa medication may normalize functional connectivity between remote structures of the motor system with increased upper beta coherence reflecting a physiological restriction of the amount of information conveyed between remote structures. This may be necessary to maintain simple movements like isometric contraction. Our study adds dynamic properties to the complex interplay between STN spectral beta power and the nucleus’ functional connectivity to remote structures of the motor system as a function of movement and dopaminergic state. This may help to identify markers of neuronal activity relevant for ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Gender Identification of Human Cortical 3-D Morphology Using Hierarchical Sparsity
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Effects of Different Stages of Mindfulness Meditation Training on Emotion Regulation
This study examined mood enhancement effects from four-week focusing attention (FA) meditation and four-week open monitoring (OM) meditation in an eight-week mindfulness training program designed ¬for ordinary individuals. 40 participants were randomly assigned to a training or a control group. All participants were asked to perform cognitive tasks and subjective scale tests at three-time points (pre-, mid, and post-tests). Compared with the participants in the control group, the meditation training group showed significantly decreased anxiety, depression and emotional rumination scores, significantly increased mindful...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Background Music Dependent Reduction of Aversive Perception and Its Relation to P3 Amplitude Reduction and Increased Heart Rate
Music is commonly used to modify mood and has attracted attention as a potential therapeutic intervention. Despite the well-recognized effects of music on mood, changes in affective perception due to music remain majorly unknown. Here, we examined if the perception of aversive stimuli could be altered by mood-changing background music. Using subjective scoring data from 17 healthy volunteers, we assessed the effect of relaxing background music, busy background music, or no background music conditions on response to aversive white noise stimulation. Interestingly, affective response to the white noise was selectively allevi...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contribution of the Cerebellum to Predictive Motor Control and Its Evaluation in Ataxic Patients
Goal-directed movements are predictive and multimodal in nature, especially for moving targets. For instance, during a reaching movement for a moving target, humans need to predict both motion of the target and movement of the limb. Recent computational studies show that the cerebellum predicts current and future states of the body and its environment using internal forward models. Sensory feedback signals from the periphery have delays in reaching the central nervous system, ranging between tens to hundreds of milliseconds. It is well known in engineering that feedback control based on time-delayed inputs can result in os...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An MRI Study of the Metabolic and Structural Abnormalities in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric illness characterized by obsessions and/or compulsions. Its pathophysiology is still not well understood but it's known that the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuitry plays an important role. Here we used a multi-method MRI approach combining proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H1-MRS) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) techniques to investigate both the metabolic and the microstructural white matter changes of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in OCD patients as compared to healthy controls. Twenty-three OCD patients and 21 age, sex, and educati...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroplastic Effects in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury After Music-Supported Therapy
We present significant evidence for a qualitative increase of social interaction in the patient group and normalization of activation in orbitofrontal cortex after intervention. We propose a causal relationship between the training of piano playing and neuroplastic changes in orbitofrontal cortex followed by improved social functioning and enhanced cognitive performance. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Analysis of Perceptual Expertise in Radiology – Current Knowledge and a New Perspective
Radiologists rely principally on visual inspection to detect, describe, and classify findings in medical images. As most interpretive errors in radiology are perceptual in nature, understanding the path to radiologic expertise during image analysis is essential to educate future generations of radiologists. We review the perceptual tasks and challenges in radiologic diagnosis, discuss models of radiologic image perception, consider the application of perceptual learning methods in medical training, and suggest a new approach to understanding perceptional expertise. Specific principled enhancements to educational practices ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How Conventional Visual Representations of Time-Frequency Analyses Bias Our Perception of EEG/MEG Signals and What to Do About It
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Neural Correlate Difference Between Positive and Negative Awe
In this study, we investigated the structural neural basis of positive and negative awe underlying individual differences among 62 young healthy adults. Specifically, we assessed the association between regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and the two different variants of awe using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A partial correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between rGMV and behavioral positive and negative awe, while controlling for sex, age and total GMV. VBM indicated that positive awe was positively correlated with GMV in the precuneus, and negatively correlated with GMV in the left fusifor...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cultural Attachment: From Behavior to Computational Neuroscience
Cultural attachment (CA) refers to processes that allow culture and its symbols to provide psychological security when facing threat. Epistemologically, although we currently have an adequate predictivist model of CA, it is necessary to prepare for a mechanistic approach that will not only predict, but also explain CA phenomena. Towards that direction, we first examine the concepts and mechanisms that are the building blocks of both prototypical maternal attachment and CA. Based on existing robust neuroscience models we associate these concepts and mechanisms with bona fide neurobiological functions to advance an integrati...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Commentary: Preliminary Evidence for Training-Induced Changes of Morphology and Phantom Limb Pain
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of a Brain-Computer Interface With Virtual Reality (VR) Neurofeedback: A Pilot Study in Chronic Stroke Patients
Rehabilitation for stroke patients with severe motor impairments is burdensome and demanding because most of the current rehabilitation options require some volitional movement to train the affected side. However, research has shown that survivors of severe stroke may receive modest benefits from action observation, virtual reality (VR), and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). These approaches have shown some success in strengthening key motor pathways thought to support motor recovery after stroke. The purpose of this study was to combine the principles of action observation, VR, and BCI in a platform called REINVENT and as...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interpreting Prefrontal Recruitment During Walking After Stroke: Influence of Individual Differences in Mobility and Cognitive Function
Conclusions: Poor mobility function predicted higher prefrontal recruitment during typical walking, consistent with compensatory over-recruitment. Poor cognitive function predicted lower prefrontal recruitment during dual-task walking, consistent with a recruitment ceiling effect. These findings indicate that interpretation of prefrontal recruitment should carefully consider the characteristics of the person and demands of the task. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Decoding P300 Variability Using Convolutional Neural Networks
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have previously been shown to be useful tools for signal decoding and analysis in a variety of complex domains, such as image processing and speech recognition. By learning from large amounts of data, the representations encoded by these deep networks are often invariant to moderate changes in the underlying feature spaces. Recently, we proposed a CNN architecture that could be applied to electroencephalogram (EEG) decoding and analysis. In this article, we train our CNN model using data from prior experiments in order to later decode the P300 evoked response from an unseen, hold-ou...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Characterizing and Predicting Autism Spectrum Disorder by Performing Resting-State Functional Network Community Pattern Analysis
In this study, we present a novel analysis technique to identify alterations in community patterns in functional networks under ASD. In addition, we design machine learning classifiers to predict the clinical class of patients with ASD and controls by using only community pattern quality metrics as features. Analyses conducted on six publicly available datasets from 235 subjects, including patients with ASD and age-matched controls revealed that the modular structure is significantly disturbed in patients with ASD. Machine learning algorithms showed that the predictive power of our five metrics is relatively high (~85.16 p...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Semantic Processing in Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence of Language Dependency
In this study, we explored the effect of brain damage on semantic processing by comparing the performance of bilingual individuals with aphasia on tasks involving semantic control during word production and comprehension. Furthermore, we explored whether semantic deficits are related to domain-general (EC) deficits. First, we investigated the naming performance of Catalan-Spanish bilinguals with fluent aphasia and age-matched healthy controls on a semantically blocked cyclic naming task in each of their two languages. This task measured semantic interference in terms of the difference in naming latencies between pictures...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research