The Elephant in the Room: A Systematic Review of Stimulus Control in Neuro-Measurement Studies on Figurative Language Processing
The processing of metaphors and idioms has been the subject of neuroscientific research for several decades. However, results are often contradictory, which can be traced back to inconsistent terminology and stimulus control. In this systematic review of research methods, we analyse linguistic aspects of 116 research papers which used EEG, fMRI, PET, MEG, or NIRS to investigate the neural processing of the two figurative subtypes metaphor and idiom. We critically examine the theoretical foundations as well as stimulus control by performing a systematic literature synthesis according to the PRISMA guidelines. We explicitly ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 21, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Brief Overview of the Cerebrospinal Fluid System and Its Implications for Brain and Spinal Cord Diseases
A comprehensive understanding of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system is essential for our understanding of health and disease within the central nervous system (CNS). The system of CSF refers to all components involved in CSF production, movement, and absorption. In recent years, extensive research has resulted in vastly improved understanding of the CSF system in health and disease. Yet, several aspects remain to be fully clarified, notably along the spinal cord as the preponderance of research has focused on the brain. This review briefly summarizes the CSF system and its implications for CNS diseases and highlights the...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 21, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Exercising Brain: An Overlooked Factor Limiting the Tolerance to Physical Exertion in Major Cardiorespiratory Diseases?
“Exercise starts and ends in the brain”: this was the title of a review article authored by Dr. Bengt Kayser back in 2003. In this piece of work, the author highlights that pioneer studies have primarily focused on the cardiorespiratory-muscle axis to set the human limits to whole-body exercise tolerance. In some circumstances, however, exercise cessation may not be solely attributable to these players: the central nervous system is thought to hold a relevant role as the ultimate site of exercise termination. In fact, there has been a growing interest relative to the “brain” response to exercise in ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 21, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Action Intentions, Predictive Processing, and Mind Reading: Turning Goalkeepers Into Penalty Killers
This study provides initial evidence that, in order to read our opponent’s action intention, it helps to observe their action kinematics, and use our own forward model to predict the sensory consequences of “our” penalty kick if we were to produce these action kinematics ourselves. In sum, it takes practice as a penalty kicker to become a penalty killer. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 20, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bodily Illusions and Motor Imagery in Fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterised by chronic, continuous, widespread pain, often associated with a sense of fatigue, non-restorative sleep and physical exhaustion. Due to the nature of this condition and the absence of other neurological issues potentially able to induce disorders in body representations per se, it represents a perfect model since it provides an opportunity to study the relationship between pain and the bodily self. Corporeal illusions were investigated in 60 participants with or without a diagnosis of FM by means of an ad hoc devised interview. In addition, motor imagery was investigated and illusions re...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 20, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Women in Neuromodulation: Innovative Contributions to Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
This article aims to demonstrate the career and scientific work of some of the most important women who contributed to the development of stereotactic and functional neurosurgery. Exceptional women from all over the world, represented in this review, assisted the evolution of modern stereotactic and functional neurosurgery as neurosurgeons, neuropathologists, neurologists, neurophysiologists and occupational therapists. Fortunately, we could conclude that in the last two decades the number of female researchers has increased significantly. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 20, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Time Interaction With Two Spatial Dimensions: From Left/Right to Near/Far
In this study, we explored the time and space relationship according to two different spatial codings, namely, the left/right extension and the reachability of stimulus along a near/far dimension. Four experiments were carried out in which healthy participants performed the time and spatial bisection tasks in near/far space, before and after short or long tool-use training. Stimuli were prebisected horizontal lines of different temporal durations in which the midpoint was manipulated according to the Muller-Lyer illusion. The perceptual illusory effects emerged in spatial but not temporal judgments. We revealed that tempor...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 18, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multi-Sensor Wearable Health Device Framework for Real-Time Monitoring of Elderly Patients Using a Mobile Application and High-Resolution Parameter Estimation
Automatized scalable healthcare support solutions allow real-time 24/7 health monitoring of patients, prioritizing medical treatment according to health conditions, reducing medical appointments in clinics and hospitals, and enabling easy exchange of information among healthcare professionals. With recent health safety guidelines due to the COVID-19 pandemic, protecting the elderly has become imperative. However, state-of-the-art health wearable device platforms present limitations in hardware, parameter estimation algorithms, and software architecture. This paper proposes a complete framework for health systems composed o...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 17, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rhythm and Music-Based Interventions in Motor Rehabilitation: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives
Research in basic and clinical neuroscience of music conducted over the past decades has begun to uncover music’s high potential as a tool for rehabilitation. Advances in our understanding of how music engages parallel brain networks underpinning sensory and motor processes, arousal, reward, and affective regulation, have laid a sound neuroscientific foundation for the development of theory-driven music interventions that have been systematically tested in clinical settings. Of particular significance in the context of motor rehabilitation is the notion that musical rhythms can entrain movement patterns in patients w...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 17, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Control of Movements via Motor Gamma Oscillations
The ability to perform movements is vital for our daily life. Our actions are embedded in a complex environment where we need to deal efficiently in the face of unforeseen events. Neural oscillations play an important role in basic sensorimotor processes related to the execution and preparation of movements. In this review, I will describe the state of the art regarding the role of motor gamma oscillations in the control of movements. Experimental evidence from electrophysiological studies has shown that motor gamma oscillations accomplish a range of functions in motor control beyond merely signaling the execution of movem...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 17, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Neural Correlates of Semantic and Grammatical Encoding During Sentence Production in a Second Language: Evidence From an fMRI Study Using Structural Priming
Japanese English learners have difficulty speaking Double Object (DO; give B A) than Prepositional Object (PO; give A to B) structures which neural underpinning is unknown. In speaking, syntactic and phonological processing follow semantic encoding, conversion of non-verbal mental representation into a structure suitable for expression. To test whether DO difficulty lies in linguistic or prelinguistic process, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty participants described cartoons using DO or PO, or simply named them. Greater reaction times and error rates indicated DO difficulty. DO compared with PO sho...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 17, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Indices of Loading and Propulsive Ability in the Gait of Patients With Chronic Stroke With Equinus Foot Deviation: A Correlation Study
In this study, we analyzed the correlation between the indices of dynamic loading and propulsion ability of 40 chronic hemiparetic post-stroke patients with equinus foot deviation and a set of clinical assessments of ankle joint deviations and walking ability. Ankle passive and active range of motion (ROM) and triceps surae spasticity were considered, along with walking speed and three complementary scales of walking ability focusing respectively on the need for assistance on functional mobility, including balance and transfers, and the limitation in social participation. The correlation between the ground reaction force-b...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 14, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cognitive Control Processes and Defense Mechanisms That Influence Aggressive Reactions: Toward an Integration of Socio-Cognitive and Psychodynamic Models of Aggression
Research on cognitive processes has primarily focused on cognitive control and inhibitory processes to the detriment of other psychological processes, such as defense mechanisms (DMs), which can be used to modify aggressive impulses as well as self/other images during interpersonal conflicts. First, we conducted an in-depth theoretical analysis of three socio-cognitive models and three psychodynamic models and compared main propositions regarding the source of aggression and processes that influence its enactment. Second, 32 participants completed the Hostile Expectancy Violation Paradigm (HEVP) in which scenarios describe...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 14, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stabilometric Correlates of Motor and Motor Imagery Expertise
Motor Imagery (MI) reproduces cognitive operations associated with the actual motor preparation and execution. Postural recordings during MI reflect somatic motor commands targeting peripheral effectors involved in balance control. However, how these relate to the actual motor expertise and may vary along with the MI modality remains debated. In the present experiment, two groups of expert and non-expert gymnasts underwent stabilometric assessments while performing physically and mentally a balance skill. We implemented psychometric measures of MI ability, while stabilometric variables were calculated from the center of pr...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 13, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

General Psychopathology, Cognition, and the Cerebral Cortex in 10-Year-Old Children: Insights From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study
General psychopathology and cognition are likely to have a bidirectional influence on each other. Yet, the relationship between brain structure, psychopathology, and cognition remains unclear. This brief report investigates the association between structural properties of the cerebral cortex [surface area, cortical thickness, intracortical myelination indexed by the T1w/T2w ratio, and neurite density assessed by restriction spectrum imaging (RSI)] with general psychopathology and cognition in a sample of children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Higher levels of psychopathology and lower levels...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 13, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Cerebellar Tremor Compared to Non-Cerebellar Tremor Using a Wearable Device in a Patient With Multiple Sclerosis: Case Report
Tremor of the upper extremity is a significant cause of disability in some patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The MS tremor is complex because it contains an ataxic intentional tremor component due to the involvement of the cerebellum and cerebellar outflow pathways by MS plaques, which makes the MS tremor, in general, less responsive to medications or deep brain stimulation (DBS) than those associated with essential tremor or Parkinson's disease. The cerebellar component has been thought to be the main reason for making DBS less effective, although it is not clear whether it is due to the lack of suppression of the at...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 13, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Effects of Virtual Height Exposure on Postural Control and Psychophysiological Stress Are Moderated by Individual Height Intolerance
Virtual reality (VR) enables individuals to be exposed to naturalistic environments in laboratory settings, offering new possibilities for research in human neuroscience and treatment of mental disorders. We used VR to study psychological, autonomic and postural reactions to heights in individuals with varying intensity of fear of heights. Study participants (N = 42) were immersed in a VR of an unprotected open-air elevator platform in an urban area, while standing on an unstable ground. Virtual elevation of the platform (up to 40 m above the ground level) elicited robust and reliable psychophysiological activation includi...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 12, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adaptation in Gait to Lunar and Martian Gravity Unloading During Long-Term Isolation in the Ground-Based Space Station Model
The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the adaptive responses of biomechanical and electromyographic parameters to vertical unloading (Lunar—0.15 G and Martian—0.35 G) when walking during the 4-month isolation experiment SIRIUS-19 in the ground-based space station model (GBI). The study involved 6 healthy international crew members of the SIRIUS-19 project aged 34 ± 6.2 years (3 women and 3 men). Body Weight Unloading (BWU) conditions was created by the h/p/cosmos airwalk system. The locomotor test included walking (3.5 ± 0.3 km/h) with a sequential change of BWU modes: 5-min walking with 0% BW...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 12, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparison of Shod and Unshod Gait in Patients With Parkinson's Disease With Subthalamic and Nigral Stimulation
Conclusion: The PD gait disorder is a multifactorial symptom, impacted by environmental factors as footwear and modulated by DBS. DBS effects on gait were specific depending on the gait task, with the most obvious effects with STN+SN DBS during gait with increased cognitive load. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 12, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contact Heat Evoked Potentials in China: Normal Values and Reproducibility
Background: Contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) is used to diagnose small fiber neuropathy (SFN). We established the normal values of CHEPs parameters in Chinese adults, optimized the test technique, and determined its reproducibility.Methods: We recruited 151 healthy adults (80 men; mean age, 37 ± 14 years). CHEPs was performed on the right forearm to determine the optimal number of stimuli, and then conducted at different sites to establish normal values, determine the effects of demographic characteristics and baseline temperature, and assess the short- (30 min) and long-term (1 year) reproducibility. N2 laten...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 11, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Resting-State Functional Connectivity in the Dorsal Attention Network Relates to Behavioral Performance in Spatial Attention Tasks and May Show Task-Related Adaptation
Between-subject variability in cognitive performance has been related to inter-individual differences in functional brain networks. Targeting the dorsal attention network (DAN) we questioned (i) whether resting-state functional connectivity (FC) within the DAN can predict individual performance in spatial attention tasks and (ii) whether there is short-term adaptation of DAN-FC in response to task engagement. Twenty-seven participants first underwent resting-state fMRI (PRE run), they subsequently performed different tasks of spatial attention [including visual search (VS)] and immediately afterwards received another rs-fM...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 10, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Thinking on Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Reading Interventions: Recommendations for Future Research Directions
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 9, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural Suppression Elicited During Motor Imagery Following the Observation of Biological Motion From Point-Light Walker Stimuli
In this study, we assessed the neural response in the form of event-related synchronization and desynchronization (ERD/S) patterns following the observation of point-light-walkers and concordant MI, as compared to MI alone.Methods: Twenty right-handed healthy participants accomplished the experimental task by observing BM stimuli and subsequently performing the same movement using kinesthetic MI (walking, cycling, and jumping conditions). We recorded an electroencephalogram (EEG) with 32 channels and performed time-frequency analysis on alpha (8–13 Hz) and beta (18–24 Hz) frequency bands during the MI task. A t...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 7, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Greater Social Competence Is Associated With Higher Interpersonal Neural Synchrony in Adolescents With Autism
This study established the feasibility of hyperscanning during real-time social interactions as an informative approach to examine social competence in autism, demonstrated that neural coordination of activity between the interacting brains may contribute to social behavior, and offered new insights into sex-related variability in social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 6, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Efficiency and Stability of Step-To Gait in Slow Walking
As humans, we constantly change our movement strategies to adapt to changes in physical functions and the external environment. We have to walk very slowly in situations with a high risk of falling, such as walking on slippery ice, carrying an overflowing cup of water, or muscle weakness owing to aging or motor deficit. However, previous studies have shown that a normal gait pattern at low speeds results in reduced efficiency and stability in comparison with those at a normal speed. Another possible strategy is to change the gait pattern from normal to step-to gait, in which the other foot is aligned with the first swing f...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 6, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Altered Structural and Functional MRI Connectivity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Related Cognitive Impairment: A Review
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment in many domains. There are several pieces of evidence that changes in neuronal neuropathies and metabolism have been observed in T2DM. Structural and functional MRI shows that abnormal connections and synchronization occur in T2DM brain circuits and related networks. Neuroplasticity and energy metabolism appear to be principal effector systems, which may be related to amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition, although there is no unified explanation that includes the complex etiology of T2DM with cognitive impairment. Herein, we assume that cognitive impairme...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 6, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mapping of Language-and-Memory Networks in Patients With Temporal Lobe Epilepsy by Using the GE2REC Protocol
Preoperative mapping of language and declarative memory functions in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients is essential since they frequently encounter deterioration of these functions and show variable degrees of cerebral reorganization. Due to growing evidence on language and declarative memory interdependence at a neural and neuropsychological level, we propose the GE2REC protocol for interactive language-and-memory network (LMN) mapping. GE2REC consists of three inter-related tasks, sentence generation with implicit encoding (GE) and two recollection (2REC) memory tasks: recognition and recall. This protocol has previo...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 6, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Local and Transient Changes of Sleep Spindle Density During Series of Prefrontal Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients With a Major Depressive Episode
The neuromodulatory effects of brain stimulation therapies notably involving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on nocturnal sleep, which is critically disturbed in major depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders, remain largely undetermined. We have previously reported in major depression patients that prefrontal rTMS sessions enhanced their slow wave activity (SWA) power, but not their sigma power which is related to sleep spindle activity, for electrodes located nearby the stimulation site. In the present study, we focused on measuring the spindle density to investigate cumulative effects of prefr...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 6, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Case Report: Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation Implantation on Different Targets for a Parkinson's Disease Patient With a Bullet in the Brain
Patients requiring deep brain stimulation due to intracerebral metallic foreign substances have not been reported elsewhere in the world. Additionally, the long-term effects of metallic foreign bodies on deep brain stimulation (DBS) are unknown. A 79-year-old man with a 5-year history of Parkinson's disease (PD) reported that, 40 years ago, while playing with a pistol, a metallic bullet was accidentally discharged into the left brain through the edge of the left eye, causing no discomfort other than blurry vision in the left eye. DBS was performed due to the short duration of efficacy for oral medication. Because the bulle...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 6, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Linguistic Distance on Second Language Brain Activations in Bilinguals: An Exploratory Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis
In this quantitative meta-analysis, we used the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach to address the effects of linguistic distance between first (L1) and second (L2) languages on language-related brain activations. In particular, we investigated how L2-related networks may change in response to linguistic distance from L1. Thus, we examined L2 brain activations in two groups of participants with English as L2 and either (i) a European language (European group, n = 13 studies) or (ii) Chinese (Chinese group, n = 18 studies) as L1. We further explored the modulatory effect of age of appropriation (AoA) and profici...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 6, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Like/Dislike Prediction for Sport Shoes With Electroencephalography: An Application of Neuromarketing
Neuromarketing is an emerging research field for prospective businesses on consumer’s preference. Consumer’s preference prediction based on electroencephalography (EEG) can reliably predict likes or dislikes of a product. However, the current EEG prediction and classification accuracy have yet to reach ideal level. In addition, it is still unclear how different brain region information and different features such as power spectral density, brain asymmetry, differential entropy, and Hjorth parameters affect the prediction accuracy. Our study shows that by taking footwear products as an example, the recognition a...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 6, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exploratory Investigation of Brain MRI Lesions According to Whole Sample and Visual Function Subtyping in Children With Cerebral Visual Impairment
Conclusion: This study found a spread of lesions across all regions on the brain scans in children with congenital CVI. The majority had damage in the postgeniculate visual pathways and visual cortex region suggesting this is an area of interest and potentially informative for diagnosis. However the subtyping classification did not show differences in number or region of lesions though the trend was higher toward Group B. This study confirms the complex diffuse and variable nature of brain lesions in children with congenital CVI, many of whom have other neurological impairments. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 6, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alterations in Neural Networks During Working Memory Encoding Related to Cognitive Impairment in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Conclusions: Not all patients with TLE present with cognitive impairments and alterations in the theta network were identified in TLE patients with functional cognitive deficits.Significance: The theta network may represent a sensitive measure of cognitive impairment and could predict cognitive outcomes among patients with TLE. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 5, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

If You Are Old, Videos Look Slow. The Paradoxical Effect of Age-Related Motor Decline on the Kinematic Interpretation of Visual Scenes
Perception and action are tightly coupled. However, there is still little recognition of how individual motor constraints impact perception in everyday life. Here we asked whether and how the motor slowing that accompanies aging influences the sense of visual speed. Ninety-four participants aged between 18 and 90 judged the natural speed of video clips reproducing real human or physical motion (SoS, Sense-of-Speed adjustment task). They also performed a finger tapping task and a visual search task, which estimated their motor speed and visuospatial attention speed, respectively. Remarkably, aged people judged videos to be ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 5, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural Advantages of Older Musicians Involve the Cerebellum: Implications for Healthy Aging Through Lifelong Musical Instrument Training
This study compared 30 older musicians and 30 age-matched non-musicians to investigate the association between lifelong musical instrument training and age-related cognitive decline and brain atrophy (musicians: mean age 70.8 years, musical experience 52.7 years; non-musicians: mean age 71.4 years, no or less than 3 years of musical experience). Although previous research has demonstrated that young musicians have larger gray matter volume (GMV) in the auditory-motor cortices and cerebellum than non-musicians, little is known about older musicians. Music imagery in young musicians is also known to share a neural underpinni...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 5, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Human Motor Learning Do Not Function Independently
Human motor learning is governed by a suite of interacting mechanisms each one of which modifies behavior in distinct ways and rely on different neural circuits. In recent years, much attention has been given to one type of motor learning, called motor adaptation. Here, the field has generally focused on the interactions of three mechanisms: sensory prediction error SPE-driven, explicit (strategy-based), and reinforcement learning. Studies of these mechanisms have largely treated them as modular, aiming to model how the outputs of each are combined in the production of overt behavior. However, when examined closely the res...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 4, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

EEG Delta/Theta Ratio and Microstate Analysis Originating Novel Biomarkers for Malnutrition-Inflammation Complex Syndrome in ESRD Patients
The Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS) was initially proposed to evaluate malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Although MICS should be routinely evaluated to reduce the hospitalization and mortality rate of ESRD patients, the inconvenience of the MIS might limit its use. Cerebral complications in ESRD, possibly induced by MICS, were previously assessed by using spectral electroencephalography (EEG) via the delta/theta ratio and microstate analysis. Correspondingly, EEG could be used to directly assess MICS in ESRD patients, but the relationships among MICS and the...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 4, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Competition, Conflict and Change of Mind: A Role of GABAergic Inhibition in the Primary Motor Cortex
Deciding between different voluntary movements implies a continuous control of the competition between potential actions. Many theories postulate a leading role of prefrontal cortices in this executive function, but strong evidence exists that a motor region like the primary motor cortex (M1) is also involved, possibly via inhibitory mechanisms. This was already shown during the pre-movement decision period, but not after movement onset. For this pilot experiment we designed a new task compatible with the dynamics of post-onset control to study the silent period (SP) duration, a pause in electromyographic activity after si...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 4, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Individual Optimal Attentional Strategy in Motor Learning Tasks Characterized by Steady-State Somatosensory and Visual Evoked Potentials
Focus of attention is one of the most influential factors facilitating motor performance. Previous evidence supports that the external focus (EF) strategy, which directs attention to movement outcomes, is associated with better motor performance than the internal focus (IF) strategy, which directs attention to body movements. However, recent studies have reported that the EF strategy is not effective for some individuals. Furthermore, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the frontal and parietal areas characterize individual optimal attentional strategies for motor tasks. However, whether the sensory cortices are al...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 4, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

High Flow Nasal Cannula Decreased Pulmonary Complications in Neurologically Critically Ill Patients
Conclusion: HFNC decreased pulmonary complications in neurologically critically ill patients and improved recovery of neurological function and neurological prognosis. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 4, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurodevelopmental Trajectories Following Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) interferes with neurodevelopment. The brain is particularly susceptible to the adverse consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, and numerous studies have documented changes to brain anatomy and function, as well as consequences for cognition, behavior, and mental health. Studies in typically developing individuals have shown that the brain undergoes dynamic developmental processes over an individual’s lifespan. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in other neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders have shown that their developmental trajectories differ from the ty...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 4, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Electrophysiological Signatures of Numerosity Encoding in a Delayed Match-to-Sample Task
The number of elements in a small set of items is appraised in a fast and exact manner, a phenomenon called subitizing. In contrast, humans provide imprecise responses when comparing larger numerosities, with decreasing precision as the number of elements increases. Estimation is thought to rely on a dedicated system for the approximate representation of numerosity. While previous behavioral and neuroimaging studies associate subitizing to a domain-general system related to object tracking and identification, the nature of small numerosity processing is still debated. We investigated the neural processing of numerosity acr...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 4, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of Walking Adaptability on an Uneven Surface by a Stepping Pattern on Walking Activity After Stroke
We examined the association between the difference in parameter measurements between the two surface properties and walking activity (number of steps per day). Walking activity significantly and positively correlated with the difference in paretic step length under the conditions of different surface properties in the poststroke patients (r = 0.65, p = 0.012) and step width in the healthy controls (r = 0.68, p = 0.015). The strategy of increasing the paretic step length, but not step width, on an uneven surface may lead to a larger base of support, which maintains stability during gait on an uneven surface in poststroke pa...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 4, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Closed-Loop Transcutaneous Auricular Vagal Nerve Stimulation: Current Situation and Future Possibilities
Closed-loop (CL) transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (taVNS) was officially proposed in 2020. This work firstly reviewed two existing CL-taVNS forms: motor-activated auricular vagus nerve stimulation (MAAVNS) and respiratory-gated auricular vagal afferent nerve stimulation (RAVANS), and then proposed three future CL-taVNS systems: electroencephalography (EEG)-gated CL-taVNS, electrocardiography (ECG)-gated CL-taVNS, and subcutaneous humoral signals (SHS)-gated CL-taVNS. We also highlighted the mechanisms, targets, technical issues, and patterns of CL-taVNS. By reviewing, proposing, and highlighting, this work ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 4, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inhibitory Control in Children 4 –10 Years of Age: Evidence From Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Task-Based Observations
Executive function (EF) is essential to child development, with associated skills beginning to emerge in the first few years of life and continuing to develop into adolescence and adulthood. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), which follows a neurodevelopmental timeline similar to EF, plays an important role in the development of EF. However, limited research has examined prefrontal function in young children due to limitations of currently available neuroimaging techniques such as functional resonance magnetic imaging (fMRI). The current study developed and applied a multimodal Go/NoGo task to examine the EF component of inhibit...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 3, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Volume of Amygdala Subregions and Clinical Manifestations in Patients With First-Episode, Drug-Na ïve Major Depression
We examined amygdala subregion volumes in patients with a first episode of major depression (MD) and in healthy subjects. Covariate-adjusted linear regression was performed to compare the MD and healthy groups, and adjustments for age, gender, and total estimated intracranial volume showed no differences in amygdala subregion volumes between the healthy and MD groups. Within the MD group, we examined the association between amygdala subregion volume and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) score and the HAMD subscale score, and found no association in the left amygdala. In the right amygdala, however, th...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 3, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody Associated Cerebral Cortical Encephalitis: Case Reports and Review of Literature
This study reported our experience and lessons learned in the diagnosis and treatment of MOG-Ab-positive CCE and provides a systematic review of the literature to analyse this rare clinical phenotype. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 3, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Is There Any Relationship Between Biochemical Indices and Anthropometric Measurements With Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Activation Among Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment?
This study aimed to investigate the relationships between cognitive function, serum biochemical profile, and anthropometric measurements using DLPFC activation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 35 older adults (≥60 years) who experienced mild cognitive impairment (MCI). For this purpose, we distributed a comprehensive interview-based questionnaire for collecting sociodemographic information from the participants and conducting cognitive tests. Anthropometric values were measured, and fasting blood specimens were collected. We investigated their brain activation using the task-based functional MRI (fMRI; N-bac...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 3, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brenda Milner: Pioneer of the Study of the Human Frontal Lobes
Although the behavioral effects of damage to the frontal lobes date back to at least the late 19th century even midway through the 20th century very little was known about human frontal lobe function and there was a general consensus that the frontal lobe did not play a key role in cognition. This all changed when Brenda Milner published a chapter in a 1964 volume entitled: The Frontal Granular Cortex and Behavior. Milner’s chapter, “Some effects of frontal lobectomy in man,” was the first systematic study of the effect of frontal lobe excisions on cognition in human patients. Milner had access to a uniqu...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - January 3, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adaptive Feedback Control in Human Reaching Adaptation to Force Fields
Sensorimotor adaptation is a central function of the nervous system, as it allows humans and other animals to flexibly anticipate their interaction with the environment. In the context of human reaching adaptation to force fields, studies have traditionally separated feedforward (FF) and feedback (FB) processes involved in the improvement of behavior. Here, we review computational models of FF adaptation to force fields and discuss them in light of recent evidence highlighting a clear involvement of feedback control. Instead of a model in which FF and FB mechanisms adapt in parallel, we discuss how online adaptation in the...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 28, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research