Contralesional White Matter Alterations in Patients After Hemispherotomy
In this study, we applied Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to contrast the white matter status of the contralesional hemisphere of young lesioned brains with and without contralateral influences by comparing patients after hemispherotomy to those who had not undergone neurosurgery. DTI was applied to 43 healthy controls (26 females, mean age ± SD: 25.07 ± 11.33 years) and two groups of in total 51 epilepsy patients with comparable juvenile brain lesions (32 females, mean age ± SD: 25.69 ± 12.77 years) either after hemispherotomy (30 of 51 patients) or without neurosurgery (21 of 51 patients), resp...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

MRI Insights Into Adolescent Neurocircuitry —A Vision for the Future
Adolescence is the time of onset of many psychiatric disorders. Half of pediatric patients present with comorbid psychiatric disorders that complicate both their medical and psychiatric care. Currently, diagnosis and treatment decisions are based on symptoms. The field urgently needs brain-based diagnosis and personalized care. Neuroimaging can shed light on how aberrations in brain circuits might underlie psychiatric disorders and their development in adolescents. In this perspective article, we summarize recent MRI literature that provides insights into development of psychiatric disorders in adolescents. We specifically...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An International Survey of Deep Brain Stimulation Utilization in Asia and Oceania: The DBS Think Tank East
Conclusion: Appropriate referrals, access, infrastructure, and the presence of full multidisciplinary DBS teams are common limitations of DBS in Asia. Most centers in China, Japan, and India performed less than 10 cases per year and a future study is expected to address the impact on quality in centers performing such few cases. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Occupational Neuroplasticity in the Human Brain: A Critical Review and Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies
Many studies have revealed the structural or functional brain changes induced by occupational factors. However, it remains largely unknown how occupation-related connectivity shapes the brain. In this paper, we denote occupational neuroplasticity as the neuroplasticity that takes place to satisfy the occupational requirements by extensively professional training and to accommodate the long-term, professional work of daily life, and a critical review of occupational neuroplasticity related to the changes in brain structure and functional networks has been primarily presented. Furthermore, meta-analysis revealed a neurophysi...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional Analysis of Continuous, High-Resolution Measures in Aging Research: A Demonstration Using Cerebral Oxygenation Data From the Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging
Conclusions: Application of fPCA showed utility in reducing a large amount of data to a small number of parameters which summarize the inter-participant variation in TSI upon standing. A demonstration of principal component regression was provided to allow for continued use and development of data-driven approaches to high-resolution data analysis in aging research. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Acquisition of Survey Knowledge by Individuals With Down Syndrome
People with Down syndrome often exhibit deficiencies in wayfinding activities, particularly route learning (e.g., Courbois et al., 2013; Davis et al., 2014; Farran et al., 2015). Evidence concerning more sophisticated survey learning has been sparse. In the research reported here, two experiments are reported that evaluated survey learning of youth with DS and typically developing children (TD) matched on mental age. In Experiment 1, participants learned two overlapping routes consisting of three turns each through a virtual environment depicting 9 square city blocks. Following acquisition, they were tested on multiple mea...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Predicting Cognitive Load and Operational Performance in a Simulated Marksmanship Task
Modern operational environments can place significant demands on a service member's cognitive resources, increasing the risk of errors or mishaps due to overburden. The ability to monitor cognitive burden and associated performance within operational environments is critical to improving mission readiness. As a key step toward a field-ready system, we developed a simulated marksmanship scenario with an embedded working memory task in an immersive virtual reality environment. As participants performed the marksmanship task, they were instructed to remember numbered targets and recall the sequence of those targets at the end...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of Single Low Pulse Intensity of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over the Frontal Cortex for Cognitive Function
Conclusions: The results showed that low-intensity TMS can indeed effectively modulate cognitive function in DLPFC. Future research is, however, necessary to investigate the potential effects of low-intensity TMS on different brain areas to increase confidence in the observed results. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Weighted Brain Network Metrics for Decoding Action Intention Understanding Based on EEG
Conclusions: Weighted brain networks can effectively retain data information. The integrated method proposed in this study is extremely effective for investigating action intention understanding. Both the mirror neuron and mentalizing systems participate as collaborators in the process of action intention understanding. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

20 Hz Steady-State Response in Somatosensory Cortex During Induction of Tactile Perceptual Learning Through LTP-Like Sensory Stimulation
The induction of synaptic plasticity requires the presence of temporally patterned neural activity. Numerous cellular studies in animals and brain slices have demonstrated that long-term potentiation (LTP) enhances synaptic transmission, which can be evoked by high-frequency intermittent stimulation. In humans, plasticity processes underlying perceptual learning can be reliably induced by repetitive, LTP-like sensory stimulation. These protocols lead to improvement of perceptual abilities parallel to widespread remodeling of cortical processing. However, whether maintained rhythmic cortical activation induced by the LTP-li...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Aerobic Exercise Induces Functional and Structural Reorganization of CNS Networks in Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Conclusion: Increased functional connectivity of hubs contrasts a loss of structural connectivity in relapsing-remitting MS. Under an exercise condition, a further hub independent increase of functional connectivity seems to translate in higher structural connectivity of the whole brain. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Indicates That Asymmetric Right Hemispheric Activation in Mental Rotation of a Jigsaw Puzzle Decreases With Task Difficulty
Mental rotation (MR) is a cognitive skill whose neural dynamics are still a matter of debate as previous neuroimaging studies have produced controversial results. In order to investigate the underlying neurophysiology of MR, hemodynamic responses from the prefrontal cortex of 14 healthy subjects were recorded with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during a novel MR task that had three categorical difficulty levels. Hemodynamic activity strength (HAS) parameter, which reflects the ratio of brain activation during the task to the baseline activation level, was used to assess the prefrontal cortex activation local...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Closed-Loop Frontal Midline θ Neurofeedback: A Novel Approach for Training Focused-Attention Meditation
Cortical oscillations serve as an index of both sensory and cognitive processes and represent one of the most promising candidates for training and targeting the top-down mechanisms underlying executive functions. Research findings suggest that theta (θ) oscillations (3–7 Hz) recorded over frontal-midline electrodes are broadly associated with a number of higher-order cognitive processes and may serve as the mechanistic backbone for cognitive control. Frontal-midline theta (FMθ) oscillations have also been shown to inversely correlate with activity in the default mode network (DMN), a network in the brain...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Late fMRI Response Components Are Altered in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Disrupted cortical neural inhibition has been hypothesized to be a primary contributor to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This hypothesis predicts that ASD will be associated with an increase in neural responses. We tested this prediction by comparing fMRI response magnitudes to simultaneous visual, auditory, and motor stimulation in ASD and neurotypical (NT) individuals. No increases in the initial transient response in any brain region were observed in ASD, suggesting that there is no increase in overall cortical neural excitability. Most notably, there were widespread fMRI magnitude increases in t...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Developmental Differences of Structural Connectivity and Effective Connectivity in Semantic Judgments of Chinese Characters
In conclusion, our findings suggest that age-related increases in brain activation (ventral IFG and MTG), IFOF, and effective connectivity (from FG to ventral IFG) might be associated with the bottom-up influence of orthographic representations on retrieving semantic representations for processing Chinese characters. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Temporal Combination Pattern Optimization Based on Feature Selection Method for Motor Imagery BCIs
Common spatial pattern (CSP) method is widely used for spatial filtering and brain pattern extraction from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). The participant-specific time window relative to the visual cue has a significant impact on the effectiveness of the CSP. However, the time window is usually selected experientially or manually. To solve this problem, we propose a novel feature selection approach for MI-based BCIs. Specifically, multiple time segments were obtained by decomposing each EEG sample of the MI task. Furthermore, the features were extracted by C...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Current Socioeconomic Status Correlates With Brain Volumes in Healthy Children and Adolescents but Not in Children With Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
This study examined how brain volumes are related to SES in both neurotypically developing children and adolescents, and those with PAE. 3D T1-weighted MPRAGE images were acquired from 69 participants with PAE (13.0 ± 3.2 years, range 7.1–18.8 years, 49% female) and 70 neurotypical controls (12.4 ± 2.9 years, range 7.0–18.5 years, 60% female) from four scanning sites in Canada. SES scores calculated using Hollingshead’s Four-Factor Index of Social Status from current caregiver placement were not significantly different between groups, though more children with PAE had lower SES scores compar...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain Cortex Activity in Children With Anterior Open Bite: A Pilot Study
Anterior open bite (AOB) is related to functional alterations of the stomatognathic system. There are no studies concerning brain activation of the cortex comparing children with and without AOB during rest and activities such as deglutition and phonation. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the brain cortex of children with AOB at rest and during phonation and deglutition and to evaluate the association of intelligence quotient (IQ), attention (Test of Variables of Attention, known as TOVA), beats per minute (BPM), and oxygen saturation measurement (SpO2) with brain activity in subjects with AOB. Fourte...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Case Report on Deep Brain Stimulation Rescue After Suboptimal MR-Guided Focused Ultrasound Thalamotomy for Essential Tremor: A Tractography-Based Investigation
We present a tractography-based investigation on a case of DBS rescue for medically refractory ET that was treated with MRgFUS that was interrupted due to the development of dysarthria during the procedure. After initial improvement, her hand tremor started to recur within 6 months after treatment, and bilateral DBS was performed targeting the VIM 24 months after MRgFUS. DBS induced long-term tremor control with monopolar stimulation. Diffusion MRI tractography was used to reconstruct the dentatorubrothalamic (DRTT) and corticothalmic (CTT) tracts being modulated by the procedures to understand the variability in efficacy ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural Processing of Narratives: From Individual Processing to Viral Propagation
Narratives, in the form of, e.g., written stories, mouth-to-mouth accounts, audiobooks, fiction movies, and media-feeds, powerfully shape the perception of reality and widely influence human decision-making. In this review, we describe findings from recent neuroimaging studies unraveling how narratives influence the human brain, thus shaping perception, cognition, emotions, and decision-making. It appears that narrative sense-making relies on default-mode network (DMN) structures of the brain, especially precuneus. Activity in precuneus further seems to differ for fictitious vs. real narratives. Notably, high inter-subject...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Retention of Visuomotor Stepping Skills in Healthy Adults
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) paired with exercise training can enhance learning and retention of hand tasks; however, there have been few investigations of the effects of tDCS on leg skill improvements. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether tDCS paired with visuomotor step training can promote skill learning and retention. We hypothesized that pairing step training with anodal tDCS would improve skill learning and retention, evidenced by decreased step reaction times (RTs), both immediately (online skill gains) and 30 min after training (offline skill gains). Twenty healthy adults were rand...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Non-invasive Brain Stimulation of the Posterior Parietal Cortex Alters Postural Adaptation
Effective central sensory integration of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information is required to promote adaptability in response to changes in the environment during postural control. Patients with a lesion in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) have an impaired ability to form an internal representation of body position, an important factor for postural control and adaptation. Suppression of PPC excitability has also been shown to decrease postural stability in some contexts. As of yet, it is unknown whether stimulation of the PPC may influence postural adaptation. This investigation aimed to identify whether t...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Eavesdropping on Autobiographical Memory: A Naturalistic Observation Study of Older Adults ’ Memory Sharing in Daily Conversations
The retrieval of autobiographical memories is an integral part of everyday social interactions. Prior laboratory research has revealed that older age is associated with a reduction in the retrieval of autobiographical episodic memories, and the ability to elaborate these memories with episodic details. However, how age-related reductions in episodic specificity unfold in everyday social contexts remains largely unknown. Also, constraints of the laboratory-based approach have limited our understanding of how autobiographical semantic memory is linked to older age. To address these gaps in knowledge, we used a smartphone app...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multifrequency Dynamics of Cortical Neuromagnetic Activity Underlying Seizure Termination in Absence Epilepsy
ConclusionThe termination of absence seizures is associated with a dynamic neuromagnetic process. Frequency-dependent changes in the FC were observed during seizure termination, which may be involved in the process of neural network interaction. Neuromagnetic activity in different frequency bands may play different roles in the pathophysiological mechanism during absence seizures. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Secondary Worsening Following DYT1 Dystonia Deep Brain Stimulation: A Multi-country Cohort
Conclusion: Approximately 8% of patients represent a more aggressive phenotype of DYT1 dystonia characterized by younger age at onset, faster disease progression, and cranial involvement, which seems to be associated with long-term suboptimal responses to DBS (e.g., secondary worsening). This information could be useful for both clinicians and patients in clinical decision making and patient counseling before and following DBS implantations. Patients with this phenotype may have different neuroplasticity, neurogenetics, or possibly distinct neurophysiology. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Different Effects of 2 mA and 4 mA Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Muscle Activity and Torque in a Maximal Isokinetic Fatigue Task
Studies investigating the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on fatigue and muscle activity have elicited measurable improvements using stimulation intensities ≤2 mA and submaximal effort tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 2 mA and 4 mA anodal tDCS over the primary motor cortex (M1) on performance fatigability and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the leg muscles during a maximal isokinetic task in healthy young adults. A double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled crossover study design was applied. Twenty-seven active young adults completed four sessions, each space...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Positive and Detached Reappraisal of Threatening Music in Younger and Older Adults
Past empirical studies have suggested that older adults preferentially use gaze-based mood regulation to lessen their negative experiences while watching an emotional scene. This preference for a low cognitively demanding regulatory strategy leaves open the question of whether the effortful processing of a more cognitively demanding reappraisal task is really spared from the general age-related decline. Because it does not allow perceptual attention to be redirected away from the emotional source, music provides an ideal way to address this question. The goal of our study was to examine the affective, behavioral, physiolog...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Patterns of Focal- and Large-Scale Synchronization in Cognitive Control and Inhibition: A Review
Neural synchronization patterns are involved in several complex cognitive functions and constitute a growing trend in neuroscience research. While synchrony patterns in working memory have been extensively discussed, a complete understanding of their role in cognitive control and inhibition is still elusive. Here, we provide an up-to-date review on synchronization patterns underlying behavioral inhibition, extrapolating common grounds, and dissociating features with other inhibitory functions. Moreover, we suggest a schematic conceptual framework and highlight existing gaps in the literature, current methodological challen...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interpersonal Neural Synchronization During Cooperative Behavior of Basketball Players: A fNIRS-Based Hyperscanning Study
In this study, 12 dyads of basketball players and 12 dyads of college students who had no experience of team-based sports training were asked to perform joint-drawing task and control task. During task performance, neural activities were recorded in frontal area by the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning approach. The results demonstrated that dyads of basketball players were faster to finish joint-drawing task and showed higher subjective cooperativeness than dyads of college students. Meanwhile, significant interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) was observed in the dorsolateral prefronta...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimaging and Neuropsychological Outcomes Following Clinician-Delivered Cognitive Training for Six Patients With Mild Brain Injury: A Multiple Case Study
This study adds to the growing body of literature examining the effects of cognitive training for mild TBI and ABI, and to the collection of research on the benefits of cognitive training in general.Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02918994. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tension Experience Induced By Nested Structures In Music
Tension experience is the basis for music emotion. In music, discrete elements are always organized into complex nested structures to convey emotion. However, the processing of music tension in the nested structure remains unknown. The present study investigated the tension experience induced by the nested structure and the underlying neural mechanisms, using a continuous tension rating task and electroencephalography (EEG) at the same time. Thirty musicians listened to music chorale sequences with non-nested, singly nested and doubly nested structures and were required to rate their real-time tension experience. Behaviora...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dissociable Effects of Reward on P300 and EEG Spectra Under Conditions of High vs. Low Vigilance During a Selective Visual Attention Task
The influence of motivation on selective visual attention in states of high vs. low vigilance is poorly understood. To explore the possible differences in the influence of motivation on behavioral performance and neural activity in high and low vigilance levels, we conducted a prolonged 2 h 20 min flanker task and provided monetary rewards during the 20- to 40- and 100- to 120-min intervals of task performance. Both the behavioral and electrophysiological measures were modulated by prolonged task engagement. Moreover, the effect of reward was different in high vs. low vigilance states. The monetary reward increased accurac...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modulation of Intrinsic Brain Connectivity by Implicit Electroencephalographic Neurofeedback
This study aims to describe the processes underlying implicit electroencephalographic neurofeedback. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to a single session of infra-low frequency neurofeedback or sham neurofeedback, with electrodes over the right middle temporal gyrus and the right inferior parietal lobule. They observed a moving rocket, the speed of which was modulated by the waveform derived from a band-limited infra-low frequency filter. Immediately before and after the session, the participants underwent a resting-state fMRI. Network-based statistical analysis was applied, comparing post- vs. pre-sessi...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The “Who” System of the Human Brain: A System for Social Cognition About the Self and Others
Neuroscientists are fond of talking about brain systems for the processing of “what” and “where” information about objects and their locations. What is critically missing is the concept of a “who” system dedicated to the neural processing of information about social agents—both the self and others—and their interactions. I propose here the characterization of such a system, one that functions not only in perception but in production as well, such as when recounting stories about oneself and others. The most human-specific features of the “who” system are two compl...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cognitive Enhancement via Neuromodulation and Video Games: Synergistic Effects?
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique able to modulate cortical excitability. This modulation may influence areas and networks responsible for specific cognitive processes, and the repetition of the induced temporary changes can produce long-lasting effects. TMS effectiveness may be enhanced when used in conjunction with cognitive training focused on specific cognitive functions. Playing video games can be an optimal cognitive training since it involves different cognitive components and high levels of engagement and motivation. The goal of this study is to assess the synergi...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of tDCS Over the Right Inferior Parietal Lobule on Mind-Wandering Propensity
Mind-wandering is associated with switching our attention to internally directed thoughts and is by definition an intrinsic, self-generated cognitive function. Interestingly, previous research showed that it may be possible to modulate its propensity externally, with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting different regions in the default mode and executive control networks (ECNs). However, these studies used highly heterogeneous montages (targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL), or both concurrently), often showed contradicting results, and in many ca...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dissociable Networks of the Lateral/Medial Mammillary Body in the Human Brain
The mammillary body (MB) has been thought to implement mnemonic functions. Although recent animal studies have revealed dissociable roles of the lateral and medial parts of the MB, the dissociable roles of the lateral/medial MB in the human brain is still unclear. Functional connectivity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a unique opportunity to noninvasively inspect the intricate functional organization of the human MB with a high degree of spatial resolution. The present study divided the human MB into lateral and medial parts and examined their functional connectivity with the hipp...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of Short-Term Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS) on Brain Processing of Food Cues: An Electrophysiological Study
Conclusion: Our study demonstrates tVNS’ impact on visual processing. Since the effects were similar between food and object stimuli, a general effect on visual perceptual processing can be assumed. More detailed investigations of these effects and their relationship with food intake and metabolism seem reasonable for future studies. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural Signatures of Gender Differences in Interpersonal Trust
In conclusion, our results imply that women are more sensitive to social risk while trusting, which has implications for financial interactions, interpersonal relationships, and social involvement. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation Over the Suprahyoid Muscles Motor Cortex Facilitates Increased Degree Centrality in Healthy Subjects
Theta-burst stimulation (TBS), a variant of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), can potentially benefit the treatment of swallowing disorders. However, the after-effects of TBS on the swallowing motor cortex remain uncertain. The newly developed graph-based analysis of the centrality approach has been increasingly used to explore brain networks. The purpose of this study was to identify degree centrality (DC) alterations in the brain network after different TBS protocols were performed over the suprahyoid muscles motor cortex in healthy subjects. A total of 40 right-handed healthy subjects (mean age: 23.73...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of Vestibular Rehabilitation on Spontaneous Brain Activity in Patients With Vestibular Migraine: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study
Previous studies have shown that vestibular migraine (VM) is a cerebral disease with recurrent vertigo. Vestibular rehabilitation (VR) is an effective type of physical therapy for minimizing vestibular symptoms, as it improves vestibular compensation in patients with VM. Currently, the cerebral regions that are associated with the pathogenesis of VM are largely unknown. To further understand the underlying mechanisms of VM, we performed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after 1 month of VR in 14 patients with VM. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), the 36-Item Short-Form Health Surve...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Commentary: Decoding across sensory modalities reveals common supramodal signatures of conscious perception
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How Much Do Strategy Reports Tell About the Outcomes of Neurofeedback Training? A Study on the Voluntary Up-Regulation of the Sensorimotor Rhythm
The core learning mechanisms of neurofeedback (NF) training are associative, implicit, and, consequently, largely impervious to consciousness. Many other aspects of training that determine training outcomes, however, are accessible to conscious processing. The outcomes of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) up-regulation training are related to the strategies reported by participants. The classification methods of individual strategies employed hitherto were possibly under influence of the idiosyncratic interpretation of the rater. To measure and possibly overcome this limitation, we employed independent raters to analyze strategies...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Assess Brain Activation Evoked by Guilt and Shame
We presented the participants with guilt and shame context to evoke emotional responses and measured the brain activity by using fNIRS. The univariate general linear model analysis showed significant activations for both emotions in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and middle temporal gyrus, and specific activation for guilt in the right temporoparietal junction. The multivariate classification analysis showed an overall recognition accuracy of 52.50%, which was significantly higher than the chance level in classifying the guilt, shame, and neutral emotions. These results suggested the feasibility ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Aberrant Gray Matter Networks in Non-comorbid Medication-Naive Patients With Major Depressive Disorder and Those With Social Anxiety Disorder
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are among the most prevalent and frequently co-occurring psychiatric disorders in adults and may have, at least in part, a common etiology. However, the unique and the shared neuroanatomical characteristics of the two disorders have not been fully identified. The aim of this study was to compare the topological organization of gray matter networks between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid medication-naive SAD patient...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of Directional Deep Brain Stimulation on Sensory Thresholds in Parkinson ’s Disease
ObjectivePrevious studies showed that deep brain stimulation (DBS) relieves pain symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD) patients when programmed for motor-symptom relief. One factor involved in pain processing is sensory perception of stimuli. With the advent of directional leads, we explore whether directional DBS affects quantitative sensory testing (QST) metrics acutely.MethodsPD patients with subthalamic (STN) DBS and directional leads were tested in 5 settings (DBS-OFF, DBS-ON with omnidirectional stimulation, and DBS-ON) for each of three directional segments of contact used for clinical programming. The Unified Parkinso...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Identifying the Epileptogenic Zone With the Relative Strength of High-Frequency Oscillation: A Stereoelectroencephalography Study
BackgroundHigh-frequency oscillation (HFO) represents a promising biomarker of epileptogenicity. However, the significant interindividual differences among patients limit its application in clinical practice. Here, we applied and evaluated an individualized, frequency-based approach of HFO analysis in stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) data for localizing the epileptogenic zones (EZs).MethodsClinical and SEEG data of 19 patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy were retrospectively analyzed. The individualized spectral power of all signals recorded by electrode array, i.e., the relative strength of HFO, was computed wit...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuro-Immunity Controls Obesity-Induced Pain
The prevalence of obesity skyrocketed over the past decades to become a significant public health problem. Obesity is recognized as a low-grade inflammatory disease and is linked with several comorbidities such as diabetes, circulatory disease, common neurodegenerative diseases, as well as chronic pain. Adipocytes are a major neuroendocrine organ that continually, and systemically, releases pro-inflammatory factors. While the exact mechanisms driving obesity-induced pain remain poorly defined, nociceptor hypersensitivity may result from the systemic state of inflammation characteristic of obesity as well as weight surplus-...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Independent Low-Rank Matrix Analysis-Based Automatic Artifact Reduction Technique Applied to Three BCI Paradigms
Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can potentially enable people to non-invasively and directly communicate with others using brain activities. Artifacts generated from body activities (e.g., eyeblinks and teeth clenches) often contaminate EEGs and make EEG-based classification/identification hard. Although independent component analysis (ICA) is the gold-standard technique for attenuating the effects of such contamination, the estimated independent components are still mixed with artifactual and neuronal information because ICA relies only on the independence assumption. The same problem occ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Association Between Experimentally Induced Stress, Performance Monitoring, and Response Inhibition: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Analysis
Psychological stress is increasingly associated with alterations in performance and affect. Yet, the relationship between experimentally induced psychological stress and neural indices of performance monitoring and error processing, as well as response inhibition, are unclear. Using scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs), we tested the relationship between experimental stress, using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and the error-related negativity (ERN), error positivity (Pe), and N2 ERP components. A final sample of 71 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to go through the TSST (n = 36; 18 female) or ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - June 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research