White Matter Neuroplasticity: Motor Learning Activates the Internal Capsule and Reduces Hemodynamic Response Variability
Numerous studies have noted the importance of white matter changes in motor learning, but existing literature only focuses on structural and microstructural MRI changes, as there are limited tools available for in vivo investigations of white matter function. One method that has gained recent prominence is the application of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI to white matter, with high-field scanners now being able to better detect the smaller hemodynamic changes present in this tissue type compared to those in the gray matter. However, fMRI techniques have yet to be applied to investigations of neuroplastic change w...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Relationship Between Attention Bias and Psychological Index in Individuals With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Preliminary Event-Related Potential Study
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that J-SBST, which provides a comprehensive evaluation of psychological factors, PCN with measuring of catastrophizing in the context of actual or anticipated pain, and BDI-II, can likely help identify chronic LBP patients with attention bias. For chronic LBP patients who are classified according to J-SBST or PCN pain-related outcome improvement with ABM training can be expected. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

STN Versus GPi Ddeep Brain Stimulation for Action and Rest Tremor in Parkinson ’s Disease
ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi), deep brain stimulation (DBS) on individual action tremor/postural tremor (AT) and rest tremor (RT) in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Randomized DBS studies have reported marked benefit in tremor with both GPi and STN and DBS, however, there is a paucity of information available on AT vs RT when separated by the surgical target.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the 1-year clinical outcome of PD patients treated with STN and GPi DBS at the University of Florida. We specifically selected patients with moderate to severe AT. ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain Network Oscillations During Gait in Parkinson ’s Disease
Human bipedal walking is a complex motor task that requires supraspinal control for balance and flexible coordination of timing and scaling of many muscles in different environment. Gait impairments are a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD), reflecting dysfunction of cortico-basal ganglia-brainstem circuits. Recent studies using implanted electrodes and surface electroencephalography have demonstrated gait-related brain oscillations in the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. Here, we review the physiological and pathophysiological roles of (1) basal ganglia oscillations, (2) cortical oscillations, and (3) basal gangl...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Crossed Corticospinal Facilitation Between Arm and Trunk Muscles Correlates With Trunk Control After Spinal Cord Injury
Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that crossed corticospinal facilitation in the trunk muscles can be preserved after SCI and is reflected in trunk control during functional arm movements. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Case Report of Dual-Site Neurostimulation and Chronic Recording of Cortico-Striatal Circuitry in a Patient With Treatment Refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Psychiatric disorders are increasingly understood as dysfunctions of hyper- or hypoconnectivity in distributed brain circuits. A prototypical example is obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), which has been repeatedly linked to hyper-connectivity of cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loops. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and lesions of CSTC structures have shown promise for treating both OCD and related disorders involving over-expression of automatic/habitual behaviors. Physiologically, we propose that this CSTC hyper-connectivity may be reflected in high synchrony of neural firing between loop structures, which could b...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Shared Neural Substrates Underlying Reading and Visual Matching: A Longitudinal Investigation
This study investigated the relationship between Visual Matching and reading and their shared neuroanatomical basis. Two hundred and ninety-three typically developing Mandarin-speaking children were followed in a longitudinal study from ages 4 to 11 years old. A subsample of 79 children was further followed up at 14 years old when the MRI data were collected. Results showed that the development of Visual Matching from ages 6 to 8 predicted reading accuracy at age 11. In addition, both the development of Visual Matching and reading accuracy were associated with cortical surface area of a cluster located in fusiform gyrus. T...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Do Individuals With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Share Similar Neural Mechanisms of Decision-Making Under Ambiguous Circumstances?
Impaired decision-making is well documented in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and a range of electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging measures have begun to reveal the pathological mechanisms that underlie the decision-making process. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has core symptoms that often overlap with OCD, but similarities between these disorders at the behavioral and neurological levels are often unclear, including whether OCPD exhibits similar decision-making deficits and shared neurological dysfunction. To address these issues, we examined 24 cases of OCD, 19 cases of OCPD, and 26 mat...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

High Phase Synchronization in Alpha Band Activity in Older Subjects With High Creativity
In this study, we examined the resting-state EEG signal in 20 healthy older participants and estimated functional connectivities using the phase lag index (PLI), which evaluates the phase synchronization of EEG signals. Individual creativity was assessed using the S-A creativity test in a separate session before the EEG recording. In the analysis of associations of EEG measures with the S-A test scores, the covariate effect of the intelligence quotient was evaluated. As a result, higher individual S-A scores were significantly associated with higher node degrees, defined as the average PLI of a node (electrode) across all ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Publication of Study Exit Procedures in Clinical Trials of Deep Brain Stimulation: A Focused Literature Review
Considerable variability exists in the publication of clinical research study procedures related to study enrollment and participant exit from clinical trials. Despite recent efforts to encourage research data sharing and greater transparency regarding research outcomes, reporting of research procedures remains inconsistent. Transparency about study procedures has important implications for the interpretation of study outcomes and the consistent implementation of best practices in clinical trial design and conduct. This review of publications from clinical trials of deep brain stimulation (DBS) using the MEDLINE database e...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Commentary: Probabilistic Representation in Human Visual Cortex Reflects Uncertainty in Serial Decisions
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Impact of Medical Complications in Predicting the Rehabilitation Outcome of Patients With Disorders of Consciousness After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
In this study, we sought to assess the predictors of outcome in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during neurorehabilitation stay. In total, 96 patients with DOC (vegetative state, minimally conscious state, or emergence from minimally conscious state) were enrolled (69 males; mean age 43.6 ± 20.8 years) and the improvement of the degree of disability, as assessed by the Disability Rating Scale, was considered the main outcome measure. To define the best predictor, a series of demographical and clinical factors were modeled using a twofold approach: (1) logistic...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corrigendum: The Shape of Water Stream Induces Differences in P300 and Alpha Oscillation
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Convergent Associative Motor Cortical Plasticity Induced by Conditional Somatosensory and Motor Reaction Afferents
Conclusion: Synchronized motor reaction ipsilateral to the stimulated M1 induces associative M1 motor plasticity through the spike-timing dependent principle. MEP and ICF change could represent this kind of plasticity. The current findings provide a novel insight into designing rehabilitation programs concerning motor function. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial: Embodying Tool Use: From Cognition to Neurorehabilitation
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pancreatic Polypeptide but Not Other Members of the Neuropeptide Y Family Shows a Moderate Association With Perceived Anxiety in Obese Men
In conclusion, women suffering from morbid obesity showed greater psychological comorbidity and considerable interactions among them. Despite that we solely observed associations of PP with anxiety and age with NPY and PP in men, suggesting a possible influence of sex hormones on the NPY system. However, improvement of anxiety scores did not lead to significant changes in NPY. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Study Protocol for Teen Inflammation Glutamate Emotion Research (TIGER)
This article provides an overview of the study protocol for the Teen Inflammation Glutamate Emotion Research (TIGER) project, a longitudinal study in which we plan to recruit 60 depressed adolescents (ages 13–18 years) and 30 psychiatrically healthy controls in order to examine the inflammatory and glutamatergic pathways that contribute to the recurrence of depression in adolescents. TIGER is the first study to examine the effects of peripheral inflammation on neurodevelopmental trajectories by assessing changes in cortical glutamate in depressed adolescents. Here, we describe the scientific rationale, design, and me...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Upper Extremity Flexion Synergy Is Minimally Expressed in Young Individuals With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Following an Early Brain Injury
This study uses kinematics of a ballistic reaching task to evaluate the expression of the flexion synergy in individuals with pediatric hemiplegia (PH) ages six to seventeen years. Fifteen individuals with brain injuries before birth (n = 8) and around full-term (n = 7) and nine age-matched controls with no known neurological impairment completed a set of reaches in an admittance controlled robotic device. Descending drive, and the possible expression of the upper extremity flexion synergy, was modulated by increasing shoulder abduction loading. Individuals with early-onset PH achieved lower peak velocities when reaching w...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Brain Networks Related to Creative Thinking
Human creative thinking is unique and capable of generating novel and valuable ideas. Recent research has clarified the contribution of different brain networks (default mode network, DN; executive control network; salience network) to creative thinking. However, the effects of brain stimulation on brain networks during creative thinking and on creative performance have not been clarified. The present study was designed to examine the changes in functional connectivity (FC) and effective connectivity (EC) of the large-scale brain network, and the ensuing changes in creative performance, induced by transcranial direct curre...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Myelin Water Imaging Demonstrates Lower Brain Myelination in Children and Adolescents With Poor Reading Ability
In this study, MWF MRI, intelligence, and reading assessments were acquired in 20 participants aged 10–18 years with a wide range of reading ability to investigate the relationship between reading ability and myelination. Group comparisons showed markedly lower MWF by 16–69% in poor readers relative to good readers in the left and right thalamus, as well as the left posterior limb of the internal capsule, left/right anterior limb of the internal capsule, left/right centrum semiovale, and splenium of the corpus callosum. MWF over the entire group also correlated positively with three different reading scores in ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mental Effort When Playing, Listening, and Imagining Music in One Pianist ’s Eyes and Brain
We investigated “musical effort” with an internationally renowned, classical, pianist while playing, listening, and imagining music. We used pupillometry as an objective measure of mental effort and fMRI as an exploratory method of effort with the same musical pieces. We also compared a group of non-professional pianists and non-musicians by the use of pupillometry and a small group of non-musicians with fMRI. This combined approach of psychophysiology and neuroimaging revealed the cognitive work during different musical activities. We found that pupil diameters were largest when “playing” (regardle...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial: Wayfinding and Navigation: Strengths and Weaknesses in Atypical and Clinical Populations
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Working Memory: Change in Functional Connectivity Between the Dorsal Attention, Default Mode, and Fronto-Parietal Networks
In this study, we investigated the changes in the brain network involved in WM after SD. Twenty-two healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while in a state of resting wakefulness and again after 36 h of total SD and performed a WM task before each scanning session. Nineteen main nodes of the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), fronto-parietal network (FPN), salience network (SN), and other networks were selected for functional analysis of brain network connections. Functional connectivity measures were computed between seed areas for region of interest (ROI)-to-ROI ana...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Variance and Scale-Free Properties of Resting-State Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Signal After Fear Memory Acquisition and Extinction
In this study, we aimed to explore the changes in the variance and scale-free properties of the brain’s blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during the resting-state sessions before and after fear learning and fear memory extinction. During a 1-h break between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, 23 healthy, right-handed volunteers experienced a fear extinction procedure, followed by Pavlovian fear conditioning that included partial reinforcement using mild electrical stimulation. We extracted the average time course of the BOLD signal from 245 regions of interest (ROIs) taken from the resting-state ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Decoding the Temporal Dynamics of Covert Spatial Attention Using Multivariate EEG Analysis: Contributions of Raw Amplitude and Alpha Power
Attention can be oriented in space covertly without the need of eye movements. We used multivariate pattern classification analyses (MVPA) to investigate whether the time course of the deployment of covert spatial attention leading up to the observer’s perceptual decision can be decoded from both EEG alpha power and raw activity traces. Decoding attention from these signals can help determine whether raw EEG signals and alpha power reflect the same or distinct features of attentional selection. Using a classical cueing task, we showed that the orientation of covert spatial attention can be decoded by both signals. Ho...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mapping the Scene and Object Processing Networks by Intracranial EEG
Human perception and cognition are based predominantly on visual information processing. Much of the information regarding neuronal correlates of visual processing has been derived from functional imaging studies, which have identified a variety of brain areas contributing to visual analysis, recognition, and processing of objects and scenes. However, only two of these areas, namely the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and the lateral occipital complex (LOC), were verified and further characterized by intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG). iEEG is a unique measurement technique that samples a local neuronal population w...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sensory-to-Motor Overflow: Cooling Foot Soles Impedes Squat Jump Performance
Evidence from recent studies on animals and humans suggest that neural overflow from the primary sensory cortex (S1) to the primary motor cortex (M1) may play a critical role in motor control. However, it is unclear if whole-body maximal motor tasks are also governed by this mechanism. Maximum vertical squat jumps were performed by 15 young adults before cooling, then immediately following a 15-min cooling period using an ice-water bath for the foot soles, and finally immediately following a 15-min period of natural recovery from cooling. Jump heights were, on average, 3.1 cm lower immediately following cooling compared to...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prefrontal Responses to Odors in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Functional NIRS Measurement Combined With a Fragrance Pulse Ejection System
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are impaired not only in social competencies but also in sensory perception, particularly olfaction. The olfactory ability of individuals with ASD has been examined in several psychophysical studies, but the results have been highly variable, which might be primarily due to methodological difficulties in the control of odor stimuli (e.g., the problem of lingering scents). In addition, the neural correlates of olfactory specificities in individuals with ASD remain largely unknown. To date, only one study has investigated this issue using functional magnetic resonance imaging ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Children With Autism Produce a Unique Pattern of EEG Microstates During an Eyes Closed Resting-State Condition
Although fMRI studies have produced considerable evidence for differences in the spatial connectivity of resting-state brain networks in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relative to typically developing (TD) peers, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these brain networks in ASD. The aim of this study was to examine the EEG microstate architecture in children with ASD as compared to TD at rest in two separate conditions – eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO). EEG microstate analysis was performed on resting-state data of 13 ASD and 13 TD children matched on age, gender, and IQ. We found that child...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Predicting Stimulus Modality and Working Memory Load During Visual- and Audiovisual-Acquired Equivalence Learning
Scholars have extensively studied the electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of associative working memory (WM) load. However, the effect of stimulus modality on EEG patterns within this process is less understood. To fill this research gap, the present study re-analyzed EEG datasets recorded during visual and audiovisual equivalence learning tasks from earlier studies. The number of associations required to be maintained (WM load) in WM was increased using the staircase method during the acquisition phase of the tasks. The support vector machine algorithm was employed to predict WM load and stimulus modality using the po...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain Responses to Food Odors Associated With BMI Change at 2-Year Follow-Up
The understanding of food cue associated neural activations that predict future weight variability may guide the design of effective prevention programs and treatments for overeating and obesity. The current study investigated the association between brain response to different food odors with varied energy density and individual changes of body mass index (BMI) over 2 years. Twenty-five participants received high-fat (chocolate and peanut), low-fat (bread and peach) food odors, and a nonfood odor (rose) while the brain activation was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). BMIs were calculated with pa...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pitch Processing Can Indicate Cognitive Alterations in Chronic Liver Disease: An fNIRS Study
Early detection and evaluation of cognitive alteration in chronic liver disease is important for predicting the subsequent development of hepatic encephalopathy. While visuomotor tasks have been rigorously employed for cognitive evaluation in chronic liver disease, there is a paucity of auditory processing task. Here we focused on auditory perception and examined behavioral and haemodynamic responses to a melodic contour identification task (CIT) to compare cognitive abilities in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD, N = 30) and healthy controls (N = 25). Further, we used support vector machines to examine the optimal ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Auditory Processing Differences Correlate With Autistic Traits in Males
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has high prevalence among males compared to females but mechanisms underlying the differences between sexes are poorly investigated. Moreover, autistic symptoms show a continuity in the general population and are referred to as autistic traits in people without an ASD diagnosis. One of the symptoms of ASD is sensory processing differences both in sensitivity and perception. To investigate sensory processing differences in autistic traits, we examined auditory and visual processing in a healthy population. We recruited 75 individuals (39 females and 36 males, mean age = 23.01 years, SD = 3.23 ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural Correlates of Smartphone Dependence in Adolescents
Increases in depressive and suicide-related symptoms among United States adolescents have been recently linked to increased use of smartphones. Understanding of the brain mechanisms that underlie the potential smartphone dependence may help develop interventions to address this important problem. In this exploratory study, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying potential smartphone dependence in a sample of 19 adolescent volunteers who completed self-assessments of their smartphone dependence, depressive symptoms, and sleep problems. All 19 adolescents underwent diffusion MRI that allowed for assessment of white ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Electrophysiological and Behavioral Correlates of Valence, Arousal and Subjective Significance in the Lexical Decision Task
In this study, we wanted to search for the consequences of valence, arousal, and subjective significance for the involuntary processing of verbal stimuli meaning indexed by both behavioral measures (reaction latencies) and electrophysiological measures (Event-Related Potentials: ERPs). We expected subjective significance, as the reflective form of activation, to shorten response latencies in LDT. We also expected subjective significance to modulate the amplitude of the ERP FN400 component, reducing the negative-going deflection of the potential. We expected valence to shape the LPC component amplitude, differentiating betw...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

β-Amyloid Plaque Reduction in the Hippocampus After Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood–Brain Barrier Opening in Alzheimer’s Disease
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) limits therapeutic delivery in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders. Animal models have demonstrated safe BBB opening and reduction in β-amyloid plaque with focused ultrasound (FUS). We recently demonstrated the feasibility, safety, and reversibility of FUS-induced BBB opening in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in six participants with early AD. We now report the effect of BBB opening with FUS treatment on β-amyloid plaque. Six participants underwent 18F-Florbetaben PET scan at baseline and 1 week after the completion of the third FUS treatment ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Robust EEG-Based Decoding of Auditory Attention With High-RMS-Level Speech Segments in Noisy Conditions
This study also showed that with the modulation of auditory attention, attended speech can be decoded more robustly from neural activity than from behavioral measures under a wide range of SNR. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sensory Prediction of Limb Movement Is Critical for Automatic Online Control
Fast, online control of movement is an essential component of human motor skills, as it allows automatic correction of inaccurate planning. The present study explores the role of two types of concurrent signals in error correction: predicted visual reafferences coming from an internal representation of the hand, and actual visual feedback from the hand. While the role of sensory feedback in these corrections is well-established, much less is known about sensory prediction. The relative contributions of these two types of signals remain a subject of debate, as they are naturally interconnected. We address the issue in a stu...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Does Cardiorespiratory Fitness Influence the Effect of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Executive Function?
ConclusionFindings further clarify the neurophysiological processes of acute exercise-induced changes in cognitive performance as they suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor which influences changes in brain activation patterns in response to acute aerobic exercises. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contraction Phase and Force Differentially Change Motor Evoked Potential Recruitment Slope and Interhemispheric Inhibition in Young Versus Old
Interhemispheric interactions are important for arm coordination and hemispheric specialization. Unilateral voluntary static contraction is known to increase bilateral corticospinal motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude. It is unknown how increasing and decreasing contraction affect the opposite limb. Since dynamic muscle contraction is more ecologically relevant to daily activities, we studied MEP recruitment using a novel method and short interval interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) from active to resting hemisphere at 4 phases of contralateral ECR contraction: Rest, Ramp Up [increasing at 25% of maximum voluntary contrac...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Collaboration Variability in Autism Spectrum Disorder
This paper addresses how impairments in prediction in young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relate to their behavior during collaboration. To assess it, we developed a task where participants play in collaboration with a synthetic agent to maximize their score. The agent’s behavior changes during the different phases of the game, requiring participants to model the agent’s sensorimotor contingencies to play collaboratively. Our results (n = 30, 15 per group) show differences between autistic and neurotypical individuals in their behavioral adaptation to the other partner. Contrarily, there are no dif...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Diazepam on Reaction Times to Stop and Go
Conclusion: Our results confirm that a single therapeutic adult dose of diazepam can alter motor inhibition in drug naïve healthy individuals. The selective effect of diazepam on ocSSRT but not simple RT suggests that GABAergic neurons may play a critical role in movement-stopping. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reduced Frontal Nogo-N2 With Uncompromised Response Inhibition During Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation —More Efficient Cognitive Control?
We have previously shown invasive vagus nerve stimulation to improve attention and working memory and alter emotion-attention interaction in patients with refractory epilepsy, suggesting that VNS might be useful in the treatment of cognitive impairment. The current research focuses on whether non-invasive, transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) has similar effects to VNS. Furthermore, we aimed to assess whether tVNS has an impact on cognitive control in general or on underlying brain physiology in a task that mimics everyday life demands where multiple executive functions are engaged while encountering intervening e...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hemodynamic Scaling of Task-Induced Signal Changes in Tumor Subjects
Conclusion: Although preliminary in nature, this study suggests that the variation in hemodynamic changes can be calibrated using breath-hold in brain tumor subjects and can also be used for other clinical cases where the underlying HRF has been altered. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Methodological Problems With Online Concussion Testing
Reaction time testing is widely used in online computerized concussion assessments, and most concussion studies utilizing the metric have demonstrated varying degrees of difference between concussed and non-concussed individuals. The problem with most of these online concussion assessments is that they predominantly rely on consumer grade technology. Typical administration of these reaction time tests involves presenting a visual stimulus on a computer monitor and prompting the test subject to respond as quickly as possible via keypad or computer mouse. However, inherent delays and variabilities are introduced to the react...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exploring the Benefits of Doll Play Through Neuroscience
We examined the activation of prefrontal and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) regions using near-infrared spectroscopy while 42 4- to 8-year-old children freely played with dolls or tablet games with a social partner or by themselves. Social play activated right prefrontal regions more than solo play. Children engaged the pSTS during solo doll play but not during solo tablet play, suggesting they were rehearsing social cognitive skills more with dolls. These findings suggest social play utilizes multiple neural regions and highlight how doll play can achieve similar patterns of activation, even when children play ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Directional Local Field Potentials in the Subthalamic Nucleus During Deep Brain Implantation of Parkinson ’s Disease Patients
Segmented deep brain stimulation leads feature directional electrodes that allow for a finer spatial control of electrical stimulation compared to traditional ring-shaped electrodes. These segmented leads have demonstrated enlarged therapeutic windows and have thus the potential to improve the treatment of Parkinson’s disease patients. Moreover, they provide a unique opportunity to record directional local field potentials. Here, we investigated whether directional local field potentials can help identify the best stimulation direction to assist device programming. Four Parkinson’s disease patients underwent ro...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hippocampus and Parahippocampus Volume Reduction Associated With Impaired Olfactory Abilities in Subjects Without Evidence of Cognitive Decline
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between olfactory recognition and morphological changes in olfactory brain regions including the amygdala, hippocampus, rectus, parahippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex, and medial frontal cortex in 27 elderly subjects and 27 younger healthy controls. The specific aim of the study was to determine which brain areas are associated with the initial decline of olfaction in elderly subjects, which occurs before the onset of dementia. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging to measure anatomical brain volume and cortical thickness, and subjects were assessed using...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Competition Enhances the Effectiveness and Motivation of Attention Rehabilitation After Stroke. A Randomized Controlled Trial
This study investigated the effectiveness and motivating abilities of an intervention specifically designed to address attention deficits. This intervention combined paper-and-pencil tasks and interactive, computerized, multi-touch exercises, which were administered, either non-competitively or competitively, to a group of 43 individuals with chronic stroke. The mediating effects of competitiveness were evaluated for both intervention effectiveness and motivation. Participants were randomly sorted into two groups and underwent 20 one-hour group-based sessions, during which they either worked individually or competed with p...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The UF Deep Brain Stimulation Cognitive Rating Scale (DBS-CRS): Clinical Decision Making, Validity, and Outcomes
In this study, we evaluated the role of the DBS-CRS in clinical decisions by the interdisciplinary team to proceed to surgery, its relationship to objective neuropsychological scores, and its predictive utility for clinical outcome. We retrospectively examined 189 patients with Parkinson’s disease who were evaluated for DBS candidacy (mean age 64.8 [SD 9.2], disease duration 8.9 years [SD 5.0], UPDRS-Part III off medication 38.5 [SD 10.5], Dementia Rating Scale-II 135.4 [SD 6.0]). Approximately 19% of patients did not proceed to surgery, with neuropsychological red flags being the most commonly documented reason (57%...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - September 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research