A Framework for Sensor-Based Assessment of Upper-Limb Functioning in Hemiparesis
The ultimate goal of any upper-limb neurorehabilitation procedure is to improve upper-limb functioning in daily life. While clinic-based assessments provide an assessment of what a patient can do, they do not completely reflect what a patient does in his/her daily life. The use of compensatory strategies such as the use of the less affected upper-limb or excessive use of trunk in daily life is a common behavioral pattern seen in patients with hemiparesis. To this end, there has been an increasing interest in the use of wearable sensors to objectively assess upper-limb functioning. This paper presents a framework for assess...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Effect of Social Distance on Intertemporal Choice of Reward Processing: An Event-Related Potentials Study
Social factors can affect the processing of intertemporal choice, but the influence of social distance on the rewarding process of intertemporal choice is unclear. Therefore, by designing a novel cognitive resource competition paradigm for undifferentiated intertemporal choice, this article aims to explore the influence of social distance on intertemporal choice reward processing at the electrophysiological level. It was found that compared with the stranger condition, P3a is greater in the friend condition, which means social distance is evaluated in the early stage. In addition, different brain regions in the early stage...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 21, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Deep Learning-Based Approach to Video-Based Eye Tracking for Human Psychophysics
Real-time gaze tracking provides crucial input to psychophysics studies and neuromarketing applications. Many of the modern eye-tracking solutions are expensive mainly due to the high-end processing hardware specialized for processing infrared-camera pictures. Here, we introduce a deep learning-based approach which uses the video frames of low-cost web cameras. Using DeepLabCut (DLC), an open-source toolbox for extracting points of interest from videos, we obtained facial landmarks critical to gaze location and estimated the point of gaze on a computer screen via a shallow neural network. Tested for three extreme poses, th...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 21, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

In Patients With Parkinson ’s Disease in an OFF-Medication State, Does Bilateral Electrostimulation of Tibialis Anterior Improve Anticipatory Postural Adjustments During Gait Initiation?
A complete lack of bilateral activation of tibialis anterior (TA) during gait initiation (GI), along with bradykinetic anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), often occurs in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) in their OFF-medication state. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a non-pharmacological method frequently used in neurorehabilitation to optimize the effect of L-DOPA on locomotor function in this population. The present study tested the potential of bilateral application of FES on TA to improve GI in PD patients. Fourteen PD patients (OFF-medication state, Hoehn and Yahr state 2-3) participated i...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 21, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

From Visual Perception to Aesthetic Appeal: Brain Responses to Aesthetically Appealing Natural Landscape Movies
During aesthetically appealing visual experiences, visual content provides a basis for computation of affectively tinged representations of aesthetic value. How this happens in the brain is largely unexplored. Using engaging video clips of natural landscapes, we tested whether cortical regions that respond to perceptual aspects of an environment (e.g., spatial layout, object content and motion) were directly modulated by rated aesthetic appeal. Twenty-four participants watched a series of videos of natural landscapes while being scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reported both continuous ratings...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 21, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Striatal Control of Movement: A Role for New Neuronal (Sub-) Populations?
The striatum is a very heterogenous brain area, composed of different domains and compartments, albeit lacking visible anatomical demarcations. Two populations of striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) build the so-called direct and indirect pathway of the basal ganglia, whose coordinated activity is essential to control locomotion. Dysfunction of striatal SPNs is part of many movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. In this mini review article, I will highlight recent studies utilizing single-cell RNA sequencing to investigate the transcriptional profiles of striatal neur...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Children With Dyscalculia Show Hippocampal Hyperactivity During Symbolic Number Perception
Dyscalculia is a learning disability affecting the acquisition of arithmetical skills in children with normal intelligence and age-appropriate education. Two hypotheses attempt to explain the main cause of dyscalculia. The first hypothesis suggests that a problem with the core mechanisms of perceiving (non-symbolic) quantities is the cause of dyscalculia (core deficit hypothesis), while the alternative hypothesis suggests that dyscalculics have problems only with the processing of numerical symbols (access deficit hypothesis). In the present study, the symbolic and non-symbolic numerosity processing of typically developing...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Visuospatial Attention Allocation as an Indicator of Cognitive Deficit in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is defined by changes in brain function resulting from external forces acting on the brain and is typically characterized by a host of physiological and functional changes such as cognitive deficits including attention problems. In the present study, we focused on the effect of TBI on the ability to allocate attention in vision (i.e., the use of endogenous and exogenous visual cues) by systematically reviewing previous literature on the topic. We conducted quantitative synthesis of 16 selected studies of visual attention following TBI, calculating 80 effect size estimates. The combined effect s...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Emotional Modulation of Frontal Alpha Asymmetry - a Novel Biomarker of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
In conclusion, FAA pattern previously linked with vulnerability to depression, was observed in patients with previous MTBI. Furthermore, eFAA has potential as a biomarker of altered affective brain functions in MTBI. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional MRI of Native and Non-native Speech Sound Production in Sequential German-English Bilinguals
Bilingualism and multilingualism are highly prevalent. Non-invasive brain imaging has been used to study the neural correlates of native and non-native speech and language production, mainly on the lexical and syntactic level. Here, we acquired continuous fast event-related FMRI during visually cued overt production of exclusively German and English vowels and syllables. We analyzed data from 13 university students, native speakers of German and sequential English bilinguals. The production of non-native English sounds was associated with increased activity of the left primary sensorimotor cortex, bilateral cerebellar hemi...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 19, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging in the Diffusion Imaging in Python Project
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) measurements and models provide information about brain connectivity and are sensitive to the physical properties of tissue microstructure. Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) quantifies the degree of non-Gaussian diffusion in biological tissue from dMRI. These estimates are of interest because they were shown to be more sensitive to microstructural alterations in health and diseases than measures based on the total anisotropy of diffusion which are highly confounded by tissue dispersion and fiber crossings. In this work, we implemented DKI in the Diffusion in Python (DIP...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 19, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An Open Source-Based BCI Application for Virtual World Tour and Its Usability Evaluation
In this study, we introduce a BCI application for users to experience a virtual world tour. This software was built on three open-source environments and is publicly available through the GitHub repository. For a usability test, 10 healthy subjects participated in an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment and evaluated the system through a questionnaire. As a result, all the participants successfully played the BCI application with 96.6% accuracy with 20 blinks from two sessions and gave opinions on its usability (e.g., controllability, completeness, comfort, and enjoyment) through the questionnaire. We believe that this ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 19, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mood Regulatory Actions of Active and Sham Nucleus Accumbens Deep Brain Stimulation in Antidepressant Resistant Rats
The antidepressant actions of deep brain stimulation (DBS) are associated with progressive neuroadaptations within the mood network, modulated in part, by neurotrophic mechanisms. We investigated the antidepressant-like effects of chronic nucleus accumbens (NAc) DBS and its association with change in glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression in the infralimbic cortex (IL), and the dorsal (dHIP) and ventral (vHIP) subregions of the hippocampus of antidepressant resistant rats. Antidepressant resistance was induced via daily injection of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 100 μg...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 19, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Determination of Dynamic Brain Connectivity via Spectral Analysis
Spectral analysis based on neural field theory is used to analyze dynamic connectivity via methods based on the physical eigenmodes that are the building blocks of brain dynamics. These approaches integrate over space instead of averaging over time and thereby greatly reduce or remove the temporal averaging effects, windowing artifacts, and noise at fine spatial scales that have bedeviled the analysis of dynamical functional connectivity (FC). The dependences of FC on dynamics at various timescales, and on windowing, are clarified and the results are demonstrated on simple test cases, demonstrating how modes provide direct...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 17, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Decreased Functional Connectivity of Vermis-Ventral Prefrontal Cortex in Bipolar Disorder
Conclusions: These rsFC differences of vermis-VPFC between groups may contribute to the BD mood regulation. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 16, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain Functional Changes in Stroke Following Rehabilitation Using Brain-Computer Interface-Assisted Motor Imagery With and Without tDCS: A Pilot Study
This study investigated brain functional activity and connectivity changes after a 2 week MI-BCI and tDCS combined intervention in 19 chronic subcortical stroke patients. Patients were randomized into MI-BCI with tDCS group and MI-BCI only group who underwent 10 sessions of 20 min real or sham tDCS followed by 1 h MI-BCI training with robotic feedback. We derived amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and functional connectivity (FC) from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, stroke patients had lower ALFF in the ipsiles...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 16, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Early Blindness Limits the Head-Trunk Coordination Development for Horizontal Reorientation
During locomotion, goal-directed orientation movements in the horizontal plane require a high degree of head-trunk coordination. This coordination is acquired during childhood. Since early visual loss is linked to motor control deficits, we hypothesize that it may also affect the development of head-trunk coordination for horizontal rotations. However, no direct evidence exists about such a deficit. To assess this hypothesis, we tested early blind and sighted individuals on dynamic sound alignment through a head-pointing task with sounds delivered in acoustic virtual reality. Participants could perform the head-pointing wi...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 16, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prediction of Second Language Proficiency Based on Electroencephalographic Signals Measured While Listening to Natural Speech
This study had two goals: to clarify the relationship between electroencephalographic (EEG) features estimated while non-native speakers listened to a second language (L2) and their proficiency in L2 determined by a conventional paper test and to provide a predictive model for L2 proficiency based on EEG features. We measured EEG signals from 205 native Japanese speakers, who varied widely in English proficiency while they listened to natural speech in English. Following the EEG measurement, they completed a conventional English listening test for Japanese speakers. We estimated multivariate temporal response functions sep...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 16, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurobehavioral, Neuromotor, and Neurocognitive Effects in Agricultural Workers and Their Children Exposed to Pyrethroid Pesticides: A Review
In recent years, pyrethroids have emerged as a less toxic alternative to eliminate insect pests. However, some animal studies and studies with children show that these pesticides are toxic and lead to neurobehavioral effects similar to other pesticides, such as organophosphates. The purpose of this review was to systematize the epidemiological scientific evidence about the neurobehavioral, neuromotor, and neurocognitive effects in agricultural workers and their children exposed to pyrethroid pesticides. We conducted two searches (with different terms) in PubMed and Scopus databases, including articles in Spanish and Englis...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 16, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Computerized Dual-Task Testing of Gait Visuomotor and Cognitive Functions in Parkinson ’s Disease: Test-Retest Reliability and Validity
ConclusionThe high to moderate ICC values along with the lack of systematic errors in the measures indicate that this tool has the ability to repeatedly record reliable DT interference (DTI) effects over time. The use of interactive digital media provides a flexible method to produce and evaluate DTI for a wide range of executive cognitive activities. This also proves to be a sensitive tool for tracking disease progression.Clinical Trial Registrationwww.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03232996. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 15, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional Cortical Connectivity Related to Postural Control in Patients Six Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Whereas initial findings have already identified cortical patterns accompanying proprioceptive deficiencies in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), little is known about compensatory sensorimotor mechanisms for re-establishing postural control. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore leg dependent patterns of cortical contributions to postural control in patients 6 weeks following ACLR. A total of 12 patients after ACLR (25.1 ± 3.2 years, 178.1 ± 9.7 cm, 77.5 ± 14.4 kg) and another 12 gender, age, and activity matched healthy controls participated in this stud...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 15, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adaptation of the Compensatory Stepping Response Following Predictable and Unpredictable Perturbation Training
ConclusionUnpredicted and predicted PBT improve step characteristics during backward stepping against unpredictable perturbations. Moreover, the unpredictable PBT and PBT with direction-predictable perturbations enhance the feedback postural control reflected as the postural stability at step contact. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 15, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interbrain Synchrony of Team Collaborative Decision-Making: An fNIRS Hyperscanning Study
This study provide a compelling basis and interesting perspective for future neuroscience work of TCDM behaviors. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 15, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Commentary: The Historical Roots of Visual Analog Scale in Psychology as Revealed by Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 15, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intrinsic Network Brain Dysfunction Correlates With Temporal Complexity in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder
Conclusions: More common but less specific alterations were detected in the GAD and PD groups, which implied that they might have similar state-dependent neurophysiological mechanisms and, in addition, could hopefully help us better understand their abnormal affective and cognitive performances in the clinic. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 15, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain-Computer Interfaces for Children With Complex Communication Needs and Limited Mobility: A Systematic Review
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) represent a new frontier in the effort to maximize the ability of individuals with profound motor impairments to interact and communicate. While much literature points to BCIs' promise as an alternative access pathway, there have historically been few applications involving children and young adults with severe physical disabilities. As research is emerging in this sphere, this article aims to evaluate the current state of translating BCIs to the pediatric population. A systematic review was conducted using the Scopus, PubMed, and Ovid Medline databases. Studies of children and adolescents ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 14, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural Kinesthetic Contribution to Motor Imagery of Body Parts: Tongue, Hands, and Feet
Motor imagery (MI) is assimilated to a perception-action process, which is mentally represented. Although several models suggest that MI, and its equivalent motor execution, engage very similar brain areas, the mechanisms underlying MI and their associated components are still under investigation today. Using 22 Ag/AgCl EEG electrodes, 19 healthy participants (nine males and 10 females) with an average age of 25.8 years old (sd = 3.5 years) were required to imagine moving several parts of their body (i.e., first-person perspective) one by one: left and right hand, tongue, and feet. Network connectivity analysis based on gr...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 14, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Affective and Semantic Valence Among Women
As an important dimension of emotional assessment, valence can refer to affective valence reflecting an emotional response, or semantic valence reflecting knowledge about the nature of a stimulus. A previous study has used repeated exposure to separate these two similar cognitive processes. Here, for the first time, we compared the spatiotemporal dynamics of the affective and semantic modes of valence by combining event-related potentials with repeated exposure. Forty-seven female participants were assigned to the feeling-focused and semantic-focused groups and thereafter repeatedly viewed the pictures selected for the stu...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 14, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Decoding EEG Brain Activity for Multi-Modal Natural Language Processing
We present a multi-modal machine learning architecture that learns jointly from textual input as well as from EEG features. We find that filtering the EEG signals into frequency bands is more beneficial than using the broadband signal. Moreover, for a range of word embedding types, EEG data improves binary and ternary sentiment classification and outperforms multiple baselines. For more complex tasks such as relation detection, only the contextualized BERT embeddings outperform the baselines in our experiments, which raises the need for further research. Finally, EEG data shows to be particularly promising when limited tra...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 13, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Analysis-rcs-data: Open-Source Toolbox for the Ingestion, Time-Alignment, and Visualization of Sense and Stimulation Data From the Medtronic Summit RC+S System
Closed-loop neurostimulation is a promising therapy being tested and clinically implemented in a growing number of neurological and psychiatric indications. This therapy is enabled by chronically implanted, bidirectional devices including the Medtronic Summit RC+S system. In order to successfully optimize therapy for patients implanted with these devices, analyses must be conducted offline on the recorded neural data, in order to inform optimal sense and stimulation parameters. The file format, volume, and complexity of raw data from these devices necessitate conversion, parsing, and time reconstruction ahead of time-frequ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 12, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Germ Cell Drivers: Transmission of Preconception Stress Across Generations
Exposure to stress can accelerate maturation and hasten reproduction. Although potentially adaptive, the trade-off is higher risk for morbidity and mortality. In humans, the intergenerational effects of stress have been demonstrated, but the precise mechanisms are unknown. Strikingly, even if parental stress occurs prior to conception, as adults, their offspring show worse mental and physical health. Emerging evidence primarily from preclinical models suggests that epigenetic programming may encode preconception stress exposures in germ cells, potentially impacting the phenotype of the offspring. In this narrative review, ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 12, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rate of Force Development as an Indicator of Neuromuscular Fatigue: A Scoping Review
Because rate of force development (RFD) is an emerging outcome measure for the assessment of neuromuscular function in unfatigued conditions, and it represents a valid alternative/complement to the classical evaluation of pure maximal strength, this scoping review aimed to map the available evidence regarding RFD as an indicator of neuromuscular fatigue. Thus, following a general overview of the main studies published on this topic, we arbitrarily compared the amount of neuromuscular fatigue between the “gold standard” measure (maximal voluntary force, MVF) and peak, early (≤100 ms) and late (>100 ms) RFD...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 9, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Auditory Pattern Representations Under Conditions of Uncertainty —An ERP Study
The auditory system is able to recognize auditory objects and is thought to form predictive models of them even though the acoustic information arriving at our ears is often imperfect, intermixed, or distorted. We investigated implicit regularity extraction for acoustically intact versus disrupted six-tone sound patterns via event-related potentials (ERPs). In an exact-repetition condition, identical patterns were repeated; in two distorted-repetition conditions, one randomly chosen segment in each sound pattern was replaced either by white noise or by a wrong pitch. In a roving-standard paradigm, sound patterns were repea...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 9, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Resting State EEG Related to Mathematical Improvement After Spatial Training in Children
Spatial cognitive abilities, including mental rotation (MR) and visuo-spatial working memory (vsWM) are correlated with mathematical performance, and several studies have shown that training of these abilities can enhance mathematical performance. Here, we investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of MR and vsWM training combined with number line (NL) training. Fifty-seven children, aged 6–7, performed 25 days of NL training combined with either vsWM or MR and participated in an Electroencephalography (EEG)-session in school to measure resting state activity and steady-state visual evoked potentials during a ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Overfitting the Literature to One Set of Stimuli and Data
A large number of papers in Computational Cognitive Neuroscience are developing and testing novel analysis methods using one specific neuroimaging dataset and problematic experimental stimuli. Publication bias and confirmatory exploration will result in overfitting to the limited available data. We highlight the problems with this specific dataset and argue for the need to collect more good quality open neuroimaging data using a variety of experimental stimuli, in order to test the generalisability of current published results, and allow for more robust results in future work. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bridging the Gap: Parent and Child Perspectives of Living With Cerebral Visual Impairments
Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) is an umbrella term which includes abnormalities in visual acuity, or contrast sensitivity or colour; ocular motility; visual field and the conscious and unconscious filtering or processing of visual input. Children with CVI have specific needs and problems relating to their development from infancy to adulthood which can impact on their wellbeing. Recent research indicates the complexities of living with CVI but there remains limited information of the full impact of CVI on families’ everyday lives. The qualitative interviews reported here explored families’ experiences to disc...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation and Neurofeedback on Alpha (EEG) Dynamics: A Review
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) and neurofeedback (NFB) are two different types of non-invasive neuromodulation techniques, which can modulate brain activity and improve brain functioning. In this review, we compared the current state of knowledge related to the mechanisms of tACS and NFB and their effects on electroencephalogram (EEG) activity (online period/stimulation period) and on aftereffects (offline period/post/stimulation period), including the duration of their persistence and potential behavioral benefits. Since alpha bandwidth has been broadly studied in NFB and in tACS research, the studies...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Electrophysiological Proxy of Cognitive Reserve Index
Cognitive reserve (CR) postulates that individual differences in task performance can be attributed to differences in the brain’s ability to recruit additional networks or adopt alternative cognitive strategies. Variables that are descriptive of lifetime experience such as socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and leisure activity are common proxies of CR. CR is mostly studied using neuroimaging techniques such as functional MRI (fMRI) in which case individuals with a higher CR were observed to activate a smaller brain network compared to individuals with a lower CR, when performing a task equally effectively...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Potential Role of fNIRS in Evaluating Levels of Consciousness
Over the last few decades, neuroimaging techniques have transformed our understanding of the brain and the effect of neurological conditions on brain function. More recently, light-based modalities such as functional near-infrared spectroscopy have gained popularity as tools to study brain function at the bedside. A recent application is to assess residual awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness, as some patients retain awareness albeit lacking all behavioural response to commands. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy can play a vital role in identifying these patients by assessing command-driven brain activ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Lightweight Multi-Scale Convolutional Neural Network for P300 Decoding: Analysis of Training Strategies and Uncovering of Network Decision
This study, by specifically addressing the aspects of lightweight design, transfer learning, and interpretability, can contribute to advance the development of deep learning algorithms for P300-based BCIs. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rhythmic Neural Patterns During Empathy to Vicarious Pain: Beyond the Affective-Cognitive Empathy Dichotomy
Empathy is often split into an affective facet for embodied simulation or sometimes sensorial processing, and a cognitive facet for mentalizing and perspective-taking. However, a recent neurophenomenological framework proposes a graded view on empathy (i.e., “Graded Empathy”) that extends this dichotomy and considers multiple levels while integrating complex neural patterns and representations of subjective experience. In the current magnetoencephalography study, we conducted a multidimensional investigation of neural oscillatory modulations and their cortical sources in 44 subjects while observing stimuli that...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 7, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Increased Functional Connectivity of the Angular Gyrus During Imagined Music Performance
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 7, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exploring the Interaction Between Handedness and Body Parts Ownership by Means of the Implicit Association Test
The experience of owning a body is built upon the integration of exteroceptive, interoceptive, and proprioceptive signals. Recently, it has been suggested that motor signals could be particularly important in producing the feeling of body part ownership. One thus may hypothesize that the strength of this feeling may not be spatially uniform; rather, it could vary as a function of the degree by which different body parts are involved in motor behavior. Given that our dominant hand plays a leading role in our motor behavior, we hypothesized that it could be more strongly associated with one’s self compared to its non-d...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 7, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dynamic Functional Connectivity Predicts Treatment Response to Electroconvulsive Therapy in Major Depressive Disorder
Conclusion: Our finding suggests that dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) features, estimated from CCN and DMN, show promise as a predictive biomarker of the ECT outcome of DEP patients. Also, this study identifies a possible underlying mechanism associated with the ECT effect on DEP patients. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 7, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cerebral White Matter Myelination and Relations to Age, Gender, and Cognition: A Selective Review
White matter makes up about fifty percent of the human brain. Maturation of white matter accompanies biological development and undergoes the most dramatic changes during childhood and adolescence. Despite the advances in neuroimaging techniques, controversy concerning spatial, and temporal patterns of myelination, as well as the degree to which the microstructural characteristics of white matter can vary in a healthy brain as a function of age, gender and cognitive abilities still exists. In a selective review we describe methods of assessing myelination and evaluate effects of age and gender in nine major fiber tracts, h...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How Action Shapes Body Ownership Momentarily and Throughout the Lifespan
Objects which a human agent controls by efferent activities (such as real or virtual tools) can be perceived by the agent as belonging to his or her body. This suggests that what an agent counts as “body” is plastic, depending on what she or he controls. Yet there are possible limitations for such momentary plasticity. One of these limitations is that sensations stemming from the body (e.g., proprioception) and sensations stemming from objects outside the body (e.g., vision) are not integrated if they do not sufficiently “match”. What “matches” and what does not is conceivably determined...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional Brain Connectivity During Narrative Processing Relates to Transportation and Story Influence
In this study, we aimed to explore the AI’s and PMC’s role in narrative processing by measuring their functional connectivity with the rest of the brain during story listening, and how connectivity changes as a function of narrative transportation and the persuasiveness of the story. We analyzed data from 36 right-handed subjects who listened to two stories, obtained from podcasts, inside the fMRI scanner. After the scan, subjects were asked a series of questions, including a measure of how transported into the story they felt, how likely they would be to donate to causes related to the messages of the stories....
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Presurgical Evaluation of Epilepsy Using Resting-State MEG Functional Connectivity
In conclusion, resting-state MEG functional connectivity has made a substantial progress toward serving as a candidate biomarker included in epileptic presurgical evaluations. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of Aerobic Exercise on White Matter Tract Microstructure in Young and Middle-Aged Healthy Adults
Recent evidence suggests that being physically active can mitigate age-related white matter (WM) changes. In a randomized clinical trial, the effect of 6-month aerobic exercise (AE) or stretching/toning interventions on measures of WM microstructure (WMM) was assessed in a sample of 74 adults aged 20–67 years. Major WM pathways were reconstructed. No significant group-level change in WM tract microstructure following an AE training was observed. Without adjustment for multiple comparisons, an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) and a decrease in mean diffusivity (MD) of the uncinate fasciculus were observed post-i...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Connectivity Measures Differentiate Cortical and Subcortical Sub-Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients
Brain lesions caused by cerebral ischemia lead to network disturbances in both hemispheres, causing a subsequent reorganization of functional connectivity both locally and remotely with respect to the injury. Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) methods have long been used for exploring brain electrical activity and functional connectivity modifications after stroke. However, results obtained so far are not univocal. Here, we used basic and advanced EEG methods to characterize how brain activity and functional connectivity change after stroke. Thirty-three unilateral post stroke patients in the sub-acute phase and te...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - July 1, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research