Antiepileptic Efficacy and Network Connectivity Modulation of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation by Vertex Suppression
A core feature of drug-resistant epilepsy is hyperexcitability in the motor cortex, and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a suitable treatment for seizures. However, the antiepileptic effect causing network reorganization has rarely been studied. Here, we assessed the impact of rTMS on functional network connectivity (FNC) in resting functional networks (RSNs) and their relation to treatment response. Fourteen patients with medically intractable epilepsy received inhibitive rTMS with a figure-of-eight coil over the vertex for 10 days spread across two weeks. We designed a 6-week follow-up...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 13, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Occupational Injuries and Use of Benzodiazepines: A Systematic Review and Metanalysis
Conclusions: Even though benzodiazepines have the potential to increase injury rates among casual and chronic users, available evidence are insufficient to sustain this hypothesis, particularly when focusing on laboratory-based studies (i.e., studies the characterized the benzodiazepine immediately before the event). (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 13, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tapping the Potential of Multimodal Non-invasive Brain Stimulation to Elucidate the Pathophysiology of Movement Disorders
This mini-review provides a detailed outline of studies that have used multimodal approaches in non-invasive brain stimulation to investigate the pathophysiology of the three common movement disorders, namely, essential tremor, Parkinson’s disease, and dystonia. Using specific search terms and filters in the PubMed® database, we finally shortlisted 27 studies in total that were relevant to this review. While two-thirds (Brittain et al., 2013) of these studies were performed on Parkinson’s disease patients, we could find only three studies that were conducted in patients with essential tremor. We clearly sho...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 12, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Colors and Handles: How Action Primes Perception
How deeply does action influence perception? Does action performance affect the perception of object features directly related to action only? Or does it concern also object features such as colors, which are not held to directly afford action? The present study aimed at answering these questions. We asked participants to repeatedly grasp a handled mug hidden from their view before judging whether a visually presented mug was blue rather than cyan. The motor training impacted on their perceptual judgments, by speeding participants’ responses, when the handle of the presented mug was spatially aligned with the trained...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 11, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tiered Neuroscience and Mental Health Professional Development in Liberia Improves Teacher Self-Efficacy, Self-Responsibility, and Motivation
After acquiring knowledge of the neuroscience of learning, memory, stress and emotions, teachers incorporate more cognitive engagement and student-centered practices into their lessons. However, the role understanding neuroscience plays in teachers own affective and motivational competencies has not yet been investigated. The goal of this study was to investigate how learning neuroscience effected teachers’ self-efficacy, beliefs in their ability to teach effectively, self-responsibility and other components of teacher motivation. A pilot training-of-trainers program was designed and delivered in Liberia combining ba...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 11, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Values Evolution in Human Machine Relations: Grounding Computationalism and Neural Dynamics in a Physical a Priorism of Nature
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 11, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Muscle Synergies in Children Walking and Running on a Treadmill
Muscle synergies reflect the presence of a common neural input to multiple muscles. Steering small sets of synergies is commonly believed to simplify the control of complex motor tasks like walking and running. When these locomotor patterns emerge, it is likely that synergies emerge as well. We hence hypothesized that in children learning to run the number of accompanying synergies increases and that some of the synergies’ activities display a temporal shift related to a reduced stance phase as observed in adults. We investigated the development of locomotion in 23 children aged 2–9 years of age and compared th...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 10, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stochasticity, Nonlinear Value Functions, and Update Rules in Learning Aesthetic Biases
A theoretical framework for the reinforcement learning of aesthetic biases was recently proposed based on brain circuitries revealed by neuroimaging. A model grounded on that framework accounted for interesting features of human aesthetic biases. These features included individuality, cultural predispositions, stochastic dynamics of learning and aesthetic biases, and the peak-shift effect. However, despite the success in explaining these features, a potential weakness was the linearity of the value function used to predict reward. This linearity meant that the learning process employed a value function that assumed a linea...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 10, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial: Understanding the Link Between the Developing Brain and Behavior in Adolescents
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 7, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A New Statistical Approach for fNIRS Hyperscanning to Predict Brain Activity of Preschoolers ’ Using Teacher’s
In this study, we propose a novel methodological approach that is developed for fNIRS multi-brain analysis. Our method uses support vector regression (SVR) to predict one brain activity time series using another as the predictor. We applied the proposed methodology to explore the teacher-student interaction, which plays a critical role in the formal learning process. In an illustrative application, we collected fNIRS data of the teacher and preschoolers’ dyads performing an interaction task. The teacher explained to the child how to add two numbers in the context of a game. The Prefrontal cortex and temporal-parietal...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 7, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Phase-Dependent Crossed Inhibition Mediating Coordination of Anti-phase Bilateral Rhythmic Movement: A Mini Review
The activity of the left and right central pattern generators (CPGs) is efficiently coordinated during locomotion. To achieve this coordination, the interplay between the CPG controlling one leg and that controlling another must be present. Previous findings in aquatic vertebrates and mammalians suggest that the alternate activation of the left and right CPGs is mediated by the commissural interneurons crossing the midline of the spinal cord. Especially, V0 commissural interneurons mediate crossed inhibition during the alternative activity of the left and right CPGs. Even in humans, phase-dependent modulation of the crosse...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Use of Quantitative Sensation Testing to Identify the Physiological Differences Between the Median and Ulnar Nerves
ConclusionThe study confirmed the differences in the physiological sensory perception between the median and ulnar nerves. The median nerve is more sensitive to temperature stimulation than the ulnar nerve, but simultaneously less sensitive to pain-inducing temperature stimuli. These findings should be considered during the examination of hand nerve pathology. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Principal Components Analysis Using Data Collected From Healthy Individuals on Two Robotic Assessment Platforms Yields Similar Behavioral Patterns
ConclusionPCA of Kinarm robotic assessment appears to capture similar relationships between kinematic features in healthy individuals and is agnostic to the robotic platform used for collection. Further work is needed to investigate the use of PCA-based data reduction for the characterization of neurological deficits in clinical populations. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Again, No Evidence for or Against the Existence of Ego Depletion: Opinion on “A Multi-Site Preregistered Paradigmatic Test of the Ego Depletion Effect”
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evaluation of Response Processes to the Danish Version of the Dutch Multifactor Fatigue Scale in Stroke Using the Three-Step Test-Interview
Validated self-report measures of post-stroke fatigue are lacking. The Dutch Multifactor Fatigue Scale (DMFS) was translated into Danish, and response process evidence of validity was evaluated. DMFS consists of 38 Likert-rated items distributed on five subscales: Impact of fatigue (11 items), Signs and direct consequences of fatigue (9), Mental fatigue (7), Physical fatigue (6), and Coping with fatigue (5). Response processes to DMFS were investigated using a Three-Step Test-Interview (TSTI) protocol, and data were analyzed using Framework Analysis. Response processes were indexed on the following categories: (i) “c...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural Biomarkers Distinguish Severe From Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder Among High-Functioning Individuals
Several previous studies have reported atypicality in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet the relatively small effect sizes prevent us from using these characteristics for diagnostic purposes. Here, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and hierarchical clustering were used to partition the high-functioning ASD group (i.e., the ASD discovery group) into subgroups. A support vector machine (SVM) model was trained through the 10-fold strategy to predict Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores within the ASD discovery group (r = 0.30, P
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural Mechanisms of Reward-by-Cueing Interactions: ERP Evidence
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the phenomenon that a person is slower to respond to targets at a previously cued location. The present study aimed to explore whether target-reward association is subject to IOR, using event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the underlying neural mechanism. Each participant performed a localization task and a color discrimination task in an exogenous cueing paradigm, with the targets presented in colors (green/red) previously associated with high- or low-reward probability. The results of both tasks revealed that the N1, Nd, and P3 components exhibited differential amplitudes betwee...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - May 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dissociating Sensorimotor Recovery and Compensation During Exoskeleton Training Following Stroke
The quality of arm movements typically improves in the sub-acute phase of stroke affecting the upper extremity. Here, we used whole arm kinematic analysis during reaching movements to distinguish whether these improvements are due to true recovery or to compensation. Fifty-three participants with post-acute stroke performed ∼80 reaching movement tests during 4 weeks of training with the ArmeoSpring exoskeleton. All participants showed improvements in end-effector performance, as measured by movement smoothness. Four ArmeoSpring angles, shoulder horizontal (SH) rotation, shoulder elevation (SE), elbow rotation, and fore...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 30, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

What to Expect When the Unexpected Becomes Expected: Harmonic Surprise and Preference Over Time in Popular Music
In this study we assess that assumption and establish that the relationship between harmonic surprise (as measured according to a specific time period) and music preference is not constant as time goes on. Analyses of harmonic surprise and preference from 1958 to 1991 showed increased harmonic surprise over time, and that this increase was significantly more pronounced in preferred songs. Separate analyses showed similar increases over the years from 2000 to 2019. As such, these findings provide evidence that the human perception of tonality is influenced by exposure. Baseline harmonic expectations that were developed thro...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 30, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tremor-Suppression Orthoses for the Upper Limb: Current Developments and Future Challenges
Conclusions: Our review showed an improvement in efficacy of using robotic orthoses in tremor suppression. However, significant challenges for the translations of these systems into clinical or home use remain unsolved. Future challenges include improving the wearability of the orthoses (e.g., lightweight, aesthetic, and soft structure), and user control interfaces (i.e., neural machine interface). We also suggest addressing non-technical challenges (e.g., regulatory compliance, insurance reimbursement) to make the technology more accessible. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 30, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vector Phase Analysis Approach for Sleep Stage Classification: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Passive Brain –Computer Interface
A passive brain–computer interface (BCI) based upon functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain signals is used for earlier detection of human drowsiness during driving tasks. This BCI modality acquired hemodynamic signals of 13 healthy subjects from the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DPFC) of the brain. Drowsiness activity is recorded using a continuous-wave fNIRS system and eight channels over the right DPFC. During the experiment, sleep-deprived subjects drove a vehicle in a driving simulator while their cerebral oxygen regulation (CORE) state was continuously measured. Vector phase analysis (VPA) w...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 30, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contrasting Electroencephalography-Derived Entropy and Neural Oscillations With Highly Skilled Meditators
Meditation is an umbrella term for a number of mental training practices designed to improve the monitoring and regulation of attention and emotion. Some forms of meditation are now being used for clinical intervention. To accompany the increased clinical interest in meditation, research investigating the neural basis of these practices is needed. A central hypothesis of contemplative neuroscience is that meditative states, which are unique on a phenomenological level, differ on a neurophysiological level. To identify the electrophysiological correlates of meditation practice, the electrical brain activity of highly skille...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 30, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) Does Not Affect Sports People ’s Explosive Power: A Pilot Study
Conclusions: Gamma-tACS applied before the physical performance fails to improve explosive power in sport subjects. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 29, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Early Life Stress and the Fate of Kynurenine Pathway Metabolites
Early life stress (ELS) precedes alterations to neuro-immune activation, which may mediate an increased risk for stress-related psychiatric disorders, potentially through alterations of central kynurenine pathway (KP) metabolites, the latter being relatively unexplored. We hypothesized that ELS in a non-human primate model would lead to a reduction of neuroprotective and increases of neurotoxic KP metabolites. Twelve adult female bonnet macaques reared under conditions of maternal variable foraging demand (VFD) were compared to 27 age- and weight-matched non-VFD-exposed female controls. Baseline behavioral observations of ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 29, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Re-experiencing Symptoms Between Husbands and Wives Who Lost Their Only Child in China: A Resting-State Functional Connectivity Study of Hippocampal Subfields
Conclusion: Wives without PTSD who lost their only child had worse re-experiencing symptoms relative to their husbands, which was associated with the FC alteration between the hippocampal subregions and the thalamus. Importantly, the low level of the RCA3-RT FC may play a potentially protective role against the development of PTSD in wives who have lost their only child. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 28, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Decoding Multiple Sound-Categories in the Auditory Cortex by Neural Networks: An fNIRS Study
This study aims to decode the hemodynamic responses (HRs) evoked by multiple sound-categories using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The six different sounds were given as stimuli (English, non-English, annoying, nature, music, and gunshot). The oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) concentration changes are measured in both hemispheres of the auditory cortex while 18 healthy subjects listen to 10-s blocks of six sound-categories. Long short-term memory (LSTM) networks were used as a classifier. The classification accuracy was 20.38 ± 4.63% with six class classification. Though LSTM networks’ performance was a li...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 28, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial: Neuro-cognitive Architecture of Numerical Cognition and Its Development
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 28, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Negative Effects of Mobile Phone Addiction Tendency on Spontaneous Brain Microstates: Evidence From Resting-State EEG
In this study, the temporal characteristics of four resting-state electroencephalogram (RS-EEG) microstates (MS1, MS2, MS3, and MS4) related to mobile phone addiction tendency (MPAT) were investigated using the Mobile Phone Addiction Tendency Scale (MPATS). We attempted to analyze the correlation between MPAT and corresponding microstates and provide evidence to explain the brain and behavioral changes caused by MPA. The results showed that the total score of the MPATS was positively correlated with the duration of MS1, related to phonological processing and negatively correlated with the duration of MS2, related to visual...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 28, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Perceptual Asymmetries and Auditory Processing of Estonian Quantities
Similar to visual perception, auditory perception also has a clearly described “pop-out” effect, where an element with some extra feature is easier to detect among elements without an extra feature. This phenomenon is better known as auditory perceptual asymmetry. We investigated such asymmetry between shorter or longer duration, and level or falling of pitch of linguistic stimuli that carry a meaning in one language (Estonian), but not in another (Russian). For the mismatch negativity (MMN) experiment, we created four different types of stimuli by modifying the duration of the first vowel [ɑ] (170, 290 ms) an...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 28, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prognostic Factors and Models for Changes in Cognitive Performance After Multi-Domain Cognitive Training in Healthy Older Adults: A Systematic Review
Conclusion: Data on prognostic factors and models of changes after multi-domain CT are still too rare and inconsistent to draw clear conclusions due to statistical shortcomings and low reporting quality. Approaches for future research are outlined.Registration:https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, ID: CRD42020147531 (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 27, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Phonological Variations Are Compensated at the Lexical Level: Evidence From Auditory Neural Activity
This article addresses whether phonological variations introduced by assimilatory processes are compensated for at the pre-lexical or lexical level, and whether the nature of variation and the phonological context influence this process. To this end, Swedish nasal regressive place assimilation was investigated using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component. In nasal regressive assimilation, the coronal nasal assimilates to the place of articulation of a following segment, most clearly with a velar or labial place of articulation, as in utan mej “without me”> [ʉːtam mɛjː]. In a passive auditory oddball par...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 27, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Safety and Tolerability of Burst-Cycling Deep Brain Stimulation for Freezing of Gait in Parkinson ’s Disease
Conclusions: BCDBS was feasible, safe and well tolerated and it has potential to be a viable future DBS programming strategy. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Altered Inhibitory Mechanisms in Parkinson ’s Disease: Evidence From Lexical Decision and Simple Reaction Time Tasks
DiscussionMotor execution was not slowed in patients with PD either off or on medication, in comparison with controls. Regarding lexical access, patients off medication seemed to (1) have difficulty inhibiting a cognitive-linguistic process (i.e., reading) when it was not required (simple reaction time task), and (2) exhibit a specific pseudoword processing deficit in the LDT, which may have been related to impaired lateral word inhibition within the mental lexicon. These deficits seemed to be compensated by medication. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Short-Term Immobilization Promotes a Rapid Loss of Motor Evoked Potentials and Strength That Is Not Rescued by rTMS Treatment
This study aimed to determine the neurophysiologic basis of immobilization-induced skeletal muscle decline, and whether repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) could prevent any decline. Twenty-four healthy young males (20 ± 0.5 years) underwent unilateral limb immobilization for 72 h. Subjects were randomized between daily rTMS (n = 12) using six 20 Hz pulse trains of 1.5 s duration with a 60 s inter-train-interval delivered at 90% resting Motor Threshold (rMT), or Sham rTMS (n = 12) throughout immobilization. Maximal grip strength, EMG activity, arm volume, and composition were determined at 0 and 72 h...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Exercise Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Executive Function in Sedentary Females
Previous research has demonstrated that regular exercise modulates motor cortical plasticity and cognitive function, but the influence of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of short-term HIIT on neuroplasticity and executive function was assessed in 32 sedentary females. Half of the participants undertook 2 weeks of HIIT. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) was used to measure motor cortical plasticity via short intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). We further adapted the Stroop task using functional near-in...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 23, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modulation of Peak Alpha Frequency Oscillations During Working Memory Is Greater in Females Than Males
Peak alpha frequency is known to vary not just between individuals, but also within an individual over time. While variance in this metric between individuals has been tied to working memory performance, less understood are how short timescale modulations of peak alpha frequency during task performance may facilitate behavior. This gap in understanding may be bridged by consideration of a key difference between individuals: sex. Inconsistent findings in the literature regarding the relationship between peak alpha frequency and cognitive performance, as well as known sex-related-differences in peak alpha frequency and its m...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 23, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modulating Frontal Networks ’ Timing-Dependent-Like Plasticity With Paired Associative Stimulation Protocols: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives
Starting from the early 2000s, paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocols have been used in humans to study brain connectivity in motor and sensory networks by exploiting the intrinsic properties of timing-dependent cortical plasticity. In the last 10 years, PAS have also been developed to investigate the plastic properties of complex cerebral systems, such as the frontal ones, with promising results. In the present work, we review the most recent advances of this technique, focusing on protocols targeting frontal cortices to investigate connectivity and its plastic properties, subtending high-order cognitive functions...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Wrist Position Sense in Two Dimensions: Between-Hand Symmetry and Anisotropic Accuracy Across the Space
A deep investigation of proprioceptive processes is necessary to understand the relationship between sensory afferent inputs and motor outcomes. In this work, we investigate whether and how perception of wrist position is influenced by the direction along which the movement occurs. Most previous studies have tested Joint Position Sense (JPS) through 1 degree of freedom (DoF) wrist movements, such as flexion/extension (FE) or radial/ulnar deviation (RUD). However, the wrist joint has 3-DoF and many activities of daily living produce combined movements, requiring at least 2-DoF wrist coordination. For this reason, in this st...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tapping Force Encodes Metrical Aspects of Rhythm
Humans possess the ability to extract highly organized perceptual structures from sequences of temporal stimuli. For instance, we can organize specific rhythmical patterns into hierarchical, or metrical, systems. Despite the evidence of a fundamental influence of the motor system in achieving this skill, few studies have attempted to investigate the organization of our motor representation of rhythm. To this aim, we studied—in musicians and non-musicians—the ability to perceive and reproduce different rhythms. In a first experiment participants performed a temporal order-judgment task, for rhythmical sequences ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Brain Alteration of Seafarer Revealed by Activated Functional Connectivity Mode in fMRI Data Analysis
As a special occupational group, the working and living environments faced by seafarers are greatly different from those of land. It is easy to affect the psychological and physiological activities of seafarers, which inevitably lead to changes in the brain functional activities of seafarers. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the neural activity rules of seafarers’ brain. In view of this, this paper studied the seafarers’ brain alteration at the activated voxel level based on functional magnetic resonance imaging technology by comparing the differences in functional connectivities (FCs) between se...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Asymmetric Influence of Vocalic Context on Mandarin Sibilants: Evidence From ERP Studies
In the present study, we examine the interactive effect of vowels on Mandarin fricative sibilants using a passive oddball paradigm to determine whether the HEIGHT features of vowels can spread on the surface and influence preceding consonants with unspecified features. The stimuli are two pairs of Mandarin words ([sa] ∼ [ʂa] and [su] ∼ [ʂu]) contrasting in vowel HEIGHT ([LOW] vs. [HIGH]). Each word in the same pair was presented both as standard and deviant, resulting in four conditions (/standard/[deviant]: /sa/[ʂa] ∼ /ʂa/[sa] and /su/[ʂu] ∼ /ʂu/[su]). In line with the Featurally Underspecified Lexic...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Methodological Review of fNIRS in Driving Research: Relevance to the Future of Autonomous Vehicles
As automobile manufacturers have begun to design, engineer, and test autonomous driving systems of the future, brain imaging with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can provide unique insights about cognitive processes associated with evolving levels of autonomy implemented in the automobile. Modern fNIRS devices provide a portable, relatively affordable, and robust form of functional neuroimaging that allows researchers to investigate brain function in real-world environments. The trend toward “naturalistic neuroscience” is evident in the growing number of studies that leverage the methodological fl...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural Mechanisms of Observational Learning: A Neural Working Model
Humans and some animal species are able to learn stimulus-response (S-R) associations by observing others' behavior. It saves energy and time and avoids the danger of trying the wrong actions. Observational learning (OL) depends on the capability of mapping the actions of others into our own behaviors, processing outcomes, and combining this knowledge to serve our goals. Observational learning plays a central role in the learning of social skills, cultural knowledge, and tool use. Thus, it is one of the fundamental processes in which infants learn about and from adults (Byrne and Russon, 1998). In this paper, we review cur...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Intersection of Offline Learning and Rehabilitation
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 21, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lost in Translation: Simple Steps in Experimental Design of Neurorehabilitation-Based Research Interventions to Promote Motor Recovery Post-Stroke
Stroke continues to be a leading cause of disability. Basic neurorehabilitation research is necessary to inform the neuropathophysiology of impaired motor control, and to develop targeted interventions with potential to remediate disability post-stroke. Despite knowledge gained from basic research studies, the effectiveness of research-based interventions for reducing motor impairment has been no greater than standard of practice interventions. In this perspective, we offer suggestions for overcoming translational barriers integral to experimental design, to augment traditional protocols, and re-route the rehabilitation tr...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ventral Striatal Activation During Reward Anticipation of Different Reward Probabilities in Adolescents and Adults
Adolescence has been linked to an enhanced tolerance of uncertainty and risky behavior and is possibly connected to an increased response toward rewards. However, previous research has produced inconsistent findings. To investigate whether these findings are due to different reward probabilities used in the experimental design, we extended a monetary incentive delay (MID) task by including three different reward probabilities. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, 25 healthy adolescents and 22 adults were studied during anticipation of rewards in the VS. Differently colored cue stimuli indicated either a monetary or...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

BCCT: A GUI Toolkit for Brain Structural Covariance Connectivity Analysis on MATLAB
Brain structural covariance network (SCN) can delineate the brain synchronized alterations in a long-range time period. It has been used in the research of cognition or neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, causal analysis of structural covariance network (CaSCN), winner-take-all and cortex–subcortex covariance network (WTA-CSSCN), and modulation analysis of structural covariance network (MOD-SCN) have expended the technology breadth of SCN. However, the lack of user-friendly software limited the further application of SCN for the research. In this work, we developed the graphical user interface (GUI) toolkit of brai...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pathophysiological Bases of Comorbidity in Migraine
Despite that it is commonly accepted that migraine is a disorder of the nervous system with a prominent genetic basis, it is comorbid with a plethora of medical conditions. Several studies have found bidirectional comorbidity between migraine and different disorders including neurological, psychiatric, cardio- and cerebrovascular, gastrointestinal, metaboloendocrine, and immunological conditions. Each of these has its own genetic load and shares some common characteristics with migraine. The bidirectional mechanisms that are likely to underlie this extensive comorbidity between migraine and other diseases are manifold. Com...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: Advances in Optogenetics, Ethical Issues Affecting DBS Research, Neuromodulatory Approaches for Depression, Adaptive Neurostimulation, and Emerging DBS Technologies
We estimate that 208,000 deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices have been implanted to address neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders worldwide. DBS Think Tank presenters pooled data and determined that DBS expanded in its scope and has been applied to multiple brain disorders in an effort to modulate neural circuitry. The DBS Think Tank was founded in 2012 providing a space where clinicians, engineers, researchers from industry and academia discuss current and emerging DBS technologies and logistical and ethical issues facing the field. The emphasis is on cutting edge research and collaboration aimed to advance the DBS...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 19, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Perturbation Velocity, Direction, Background Muscle Activation, and Task Instruction on Long-Latency Responses Measured From Forearm Muscles
The central nervous system uses feedback processes that occur at multiple time scales to control interactions with the environment. The long-latency response (LLR) is the fastest process that directly involves cortical areas, with a motoneuron response measurable 50 ms following an imposed limb displacement. Several behavioral factors concerning perturbation mechanics and the active role of muscles prior or during the perturbation can modulate the long-latency response amplitude (LLRa) in the upper limbs, but the interactions among many of these factors had not been systematically studied before. We conducted a behavioral ...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 16, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research