Time-course gait pattern analysis in a rat model of foot drop induced by ventral root avulsion injury
Foot drop is a common clinical gait impairment characterized by the inability to raise the foot or toes during walking due to the weakness of the dorsiflexors of the foot. Lumbar spine disorders are common neurogenic causes of foot drop. The accurate prognosis and treatment protocols of foot drop are not well delineated in the scientific literature due to the heterogeneity of the underlying lumbar spine disorders, different severities, and distinct definitions of the disease. For translational purposes, the use of animal disease models could be the best way to investigate the pathogenesis of foot drop and help develop effe...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 19, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial: Innovative applications with artificial intelligence methods in neuroimaging data analysis
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 16, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A case study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for cryptococcal meningitis combined with cognitive impairment
In this study, we present the case of a woman aged 72 years with CM and severe cognitive impairment and disabilities. The cognitive assessment indicated that, although her cognitive function was impaired, especially executive function, it largely improved after receiving anti-infectious and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, which can alter the membrane potential of the cortical nerve cells by triggering long-term potentiation and depression, modulating and releasing hormones, reducing the level of neuroinflammatory and peripheral blood cytokines, promoting nerve regeneration and synaptic remodeling, and changin...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 16, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A case report: Dual-lead deep brain stimulation of the posterior subthalamic area and the thalamus was effective for Holmes tremor after unsuccessful focused ultrasound thalamotomy
In this study, we report the case of a patient with intractable Holmes tremor who underwent dual-lead deep brain stimulation (DBS) to stimulate multiple locations in the PSA and thalamus. The patient was a 77-year-old female who complained of severe tremor in her left upper extremity that developed one year after her right thalamic infarction. Vim-thalamotomy using focused ultrasound therapy (FUS) was initially performed but failed to control tremor. Subsequently, we performed DBS using two leads to stimulate four different structures. Accordingly, one lead was implanted with the aim of targeting the ventral oralis nucleus...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 15, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of voluntary contraction on the soleus H-reflex of different amplitudes in healthy young adults and in the elderly
A number of H-reflex studies used a moderate steady voluntary contraction in an attempt to keep the motoneuron pool excitability relatively constant. However, it is not clear whether the voluntary muscle activation itself represents a confounding factor for the elderly, as a few ongoing mechanisms of reflex modulation might be compromised. Further, it is well-known that the amount of either inhibition or facilitation from a given conditioning depends on the size of the test H-reflex. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of voluntary contraction over a wide range of reflex amplitudes. A significant reflex facil...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 15, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A guide for concurrent TMS-fMRI to investigate functional brain networks
We present the methodological challenges of concurrent TMS-fMRI and a guide to minimize induced artifacts in experimental design and post-processing. Our study targeted two frontal-striatal circuits: primary motor cortex (M1) projections to the putamen and lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) projections to the caudate in healthy human participants. We found that TMS parametrically increased the BOLD signal in the targeted region and subcortical projections as a function of stimulation intensity. Together, this work provides practical steps to overcome common challenges with concurrent TMS-fMRI and demonstrates how TMS-fMRI can...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 15, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Estimating effective connectivity in Alzheimer's disease progression: A dynamic causal modeling study
This study used Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) method to assess effective connectivity (EC) and investigate the changes that accompany AD progression.MethodsWe included the resting-state fMRI data of 34 AD patients, 31 late mild cognitive impairment (LMCI) patients, 34 early MCI (EMCI) patients, and 31 cognitive normal (CN) subjects selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The parametric Empirical Bayes (PEB) method was used to infer the effective connectivities and the corresponding probabilities. A linear regression analysis was carried out to test if the connection strengths could pr...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 15, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Microenvironment changes in arteriovenous malformations after stereotactic radiation
Cerebral arteriovenous malformations are dysplastic vascular tangles with aberrant vascular dynamics and can result significant morbidity and mortality. A myriad of challenges are encountered when treating these lesions and are largely based on nidal size, location, and prior hemorrhage. Currently, stereotactic radiosurgery is an accepted form of treatment for small to medium sized lesions and is especially useful in the treatment of lesions in non-surgically assessable eloquent areas of the brain. Despite overall high rates of nidal obliteration, there is relatively limited understand on the mechanisms that drive the infl...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 15, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Predicting postural control adaptation measuring EEG, EMG, and center of pressure changes: BioVRSea paradigm
Discussion: This work shows the importance and the feasibility of a quantitative evaluation in a complex postural control task and demonstrates the potential of EEG, CoP, and EMG for assessing pathological conditions. These predictive systems pave the way for developing an objective assessment of pathological behavior PC responses. This will be a first step in identifying individual disorders and treatment options. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 15, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Speech biomarkers of risk factors for vascular dementia in people with mild cognitive impairment
In this study we intend to use speech analysis to analyze the cognitive impairments caused by pathologies of vascular origin such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and heart disease, predictors of the development of vascular dementia.MethodsIn this study, 40 participants with mild cognitive impairment were asked to read while being recorded and they were inquired about their history of the aforementioned conditions. Their speech was then analyzed.ResultsWe found that some speech parameters of frequencies and syllabic rhythm vary due to these pathologies. In addition, we conducted a discriminant analysis in wh...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 15, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hyperactivity of the default mode network in schizophrenia and free energy: A dialogue between Freudian theory of psychosis and neuroscience
The economic conceptualization of Freudian metapsychology, based on an energetics model of the psyche's workings, offers remarkable commonalities with some recent discoveries in neuroscience, notably in the field of neuroenergetics. The pattern of cerebral activity at resting state and the identification of a default mode network (DMN), a network of areas whose activity is detectable at baseline conditions by neuroimaging techniques, offers a promising field of research in the dialogue between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. In this article we study one significant clinical application of this interdisciplinary dialogue b...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 14, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Audiovisual integration of the dynamic hand-held tool at different stimulus intensities in aging
Discussion: The results suggested that there was an age-related dissociation between high- and low-intensity conditions with audiovisual integration of the dynamic hand-held tool stimulus. Older adults showed greater audiovisual integration in the lower intensity condition, which may be due to the activation of compensatory mechanisms. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 14, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multibranch convolutional neural network with contrastive representation learning for decoding same limb motor imagery tasks
DiscussionDespite requiring heavy data augmentation and multiple optimization steps, resulting in a relatively long training time, this scheme is still suitable for online use. However, the trade-of between the number of base learners, training time, prediction time, and system performance should be carefully considered. (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 13, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Grasping the semantic of actions: a combined behavioral and MEG study
There is experimental evidence that the brain systems involved in action execution also play a role in action observation and understanding. Recently, it has been suggested that the sensorimotor system is also involved in language processing. Supporting results are slower response times and weaker motor-related MEG Beta band power suppression in semantic decision tasks on single action verbs labels when the stimulus and the motor response involve the same effector. Attenuated power suppression indicates decreased cortical excitability and consequent decreased readiness to act. The embodied approach forwards that the simult...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 13, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial: Early neural processing of musical melodies
(Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - December 12, 2022 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research