Exploring the complex relationship between the lung microbiome and ventilator-associated pneumonia
Expert Rev Respir Med. 2023 Oct 23. doi: 10.1080/17476348.2023.2273424. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Understanding the presence and function of a diverse lung microbiome in acute lung infections, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), is still limited, evidencing significant gaps in our knowledge.AREAS COVERED: In this comprehensive narrative review, we aim to elucidate the contribution of the respiratory microbiome in the development of VAP by examining the current knowledge on the interactions among microorganisms. By exploring these intricate connections, we endeavor to enhance our understand...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - October 24, 2023 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ingrid G Bustos Ignacio Mart ín-Loeches Alejandro Acosta-Gonz ález Sanjay H Chotirmall Robert P Dickson Luis Felipe Reyes Source Type: research

Phenotype and endotype based treatment of preschool wheeze
Expert Rev Respir Med. 2023 Oct 24:1-12. doi: 10.1080/17476348.2023.2271832. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Preschool wheeze (PSW) is a significant public health issue, with a high presentation rate to emergency departments, recurrent symptoms, and severe exacerbations. A heterogenous condition, PSW comprises several phenotypes that may relate to a range of pathobiological mechanisms. However, treating PSW remains largely generalized to inhaled corticosteroids and a short acting beta agonist, guided by symptom-based labels that often do not reflect underlying pathways of disease.AREAS COVERED: We review the ob...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - October 24, 2023 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sormeh Salehian Louise Fleming Sejal Saglani Adnan Custovic Source Type: research

Exploring the complex relationship between the lung microbiome and ventilator-associated pneumonia
Expert Rev Respir Med. 2023 Oct 23. doi: 10.1080/17476348.2023.2273424. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Understanding the presence and function of a diverse lung microbiome in acute lung infections, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), is still limited, evidencing significant gaps in our knowledge.AREAS COVERED: In this comprehensive narrative review, we aim to elucidate the contribution of the respiratory microbiome in the development of VAP by examining the current knowledge on the interactions among microorganisms. By exploring these intricate connections, we endeavor to enhance our understand...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - October 24, 2023 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ingrid G Bustos Ignacio Mart ín-Loeches Alejandro Acosta-Gonz ález Sanjay H Chotirmall Robert P Dickson Luis Felipe Reyes Source Type: research

Phenotype and endotype based treatment of preschool wheeze
Expert Rev Respir Med. 2023 Oct 24:1-12. doi: 10.1080/17476348.2023.2271832. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Preschool wheeze (PSW) is a significant public health issue, with a high presentation rate to emergency departments, recurrent symptoms, and severe exacerbations. A heterogenous condition, PSW comprises several phenotypes that may relate to a range of pathobiological mechanisms. However, treating PSW remains largely generalized to inhaled corticosteroids and a short acting beta agonist, guided by symptom-based labels that often do not reflect underlying pathways of disease.AREAS COVERED: We review the ob...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - October 24, 2023 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sormeh Salehian Louise Fleming Sejal Saglani Adnan Custovic Source Type: research

Evaluation and management of persistent air leak
Expert Rev Respir Med. 2023 Oct 19. doi: 10.1080/17476348.2023.2272701. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Persistent air leaks (PAL) represent a challenging clinical problem for which there is not a clear consensus to guide optimal management. PAL is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and increased length of hospital stay. There are a variety of surgical and non-surgical management options available.AREAS COVERED: This narrative review describes the current evidence for PAL management including surgical approach, autologous blood patch pleurodesis, chemical pleurodesis, endobronchial valves, and on...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - October 19, 2023 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Garret Duron Elliot Backer David Feller-Kopman Source Type: research

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for COVID-19 and influenza associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review
CONCLUSION: The use of ECMO significantly reduced in-hospital mortality in COVID-19- associated ARDS, which may be related to the advances in ECMO-related techniques and the increased experience of clinicians. However, the incidence of bleeding complications remains high.PMID:37847592 | DOI:10.1080/17476348.2023.2272704 (Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine)
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - October 17, 2023 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lian Wang Dongguang Wang Tianli Zhang Ying He Hong Fan Yonggang Zhang Source Type: research

Pathogenesis and management of emphysema in people with HIV
Expert Rev Respir Med. 2023 Oct 17. doi: 10.1080/17476348.2023.2272702. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Since early in the HIV epidemic, emphysema has been identified among people with HIV (PWH) and has been associated with increased mortality. Smoking cessation is key to risk reduction. Health maintenance for PWH and emphysema should ensure appropriate vaccination and lung cancer screening. Treatment should adhere to inhaler guidelines for the general population, but inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) should be used with caution. Frontiers in treatment include targeted therapeutics. Major knowledge gaps exist in the...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - October 17, 2023 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jonah S Kreniske Robert J Kaner Marshall J Glesby Source Type: research

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for COVID-19 and influenza associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review
CONCLUSION: The use of ECMO significantly reduced in-hospital mortality in COVID-19- associated ARDS, which may be related to the advances in ECMO-related techniques and the increased experience of clinicians. However, the incidence of bleeding complications remains high.PMID:37847592 | DOI:10.1080/17476348.2023.2272704 (Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine)
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - October 17, 2023 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lian Wang Dongguang Wang Tianli Zhang Ying He Hong Fan Yonggang Zhang Source Type: research

Pathogenesis and management of emphysema in people with HIV
Expert Rev Respir Med. 2023 Oct 17. doi: 10.1080/17476348.2023.2272702. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Since early in the HIV epidemic, emphysema has been identified among people with HIV (PWH) and has been associated with increased mortality. Smoking cessation is key to risk reduction. Health maintenance for PWH and emphysema should ensure appropriate vaccination and lung cancer screening. Treatment should adhere to inhaler guidelines for the general population, but inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) should be used with caution. Frontiers in treatment include targeted therapeutics. Major knowledge gaps exist in the...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - October 17, 2023 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jonah S Kreniske Robert J Kaner Marshall J Glesby Source Type: research

Persistent respiratory symptoms associated with post-covid condition (Long covid) in children: a systematic review and analysis of current gaps and future perspectives
Expert Rev Respir Med. 2023 Oct 16. doi: 10.1080/17476348.2023.2271836. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence that also children can develop Long Covid. However, there are no specific reviews providing a clear description of reported respiratory symptoms and potential diagnostics.AREAS COVERED: we performed on Pubmed a systematic search of studies conducted on children aged less than 18 years with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection complaining about persistent respiratory symptoms; the aim of our review is to characterize the incidence, pattern and duration of respiratory symptoms after the ac...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - October 16, 2023 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Laura Martino Rosa Morello Cristina De Rose Danilo Buonsenso Source Type: research

What to do after immune-checkpoint inhibitors failure in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: an expert opinion and review
Expert Rev Respir Med. 2023 Oct 10. doi: 10.1080/17476348.2023.2268509. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (IO) have significantly improved outcomes of patients with non-oncogene-addicted non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), becoming the first-line agents for advanced disease. However, resistance remains a significant clinical challenge, limiting their effectiveness.AREAS COVERED: Hereby, we addressed standard and innovative therapeutic approaches for NSCLC patients experiencing progression after IO treatment, discussing the emerging resistance mechanisms and the ongoing efforts to over...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - October 11, 2023 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Alberto Giuseppe Agostara Laura Roazzi Federica Villa Rebecca Romano' Daniele Piscazzi Francesca Martinelli Gabriele Ciarlo Sara Oresti Francesca Travaglini Alessandro Marando Andrea Sartore Bianchi Laura Giannetta Giulio Cerea Salvatore Siena Elio Gregor Source Type: research