Response to: "Management of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Intensive Care Unit: State of the art".
Response to: "Management of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Intensive Care Unit: State of the art". Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2018 May 04;: Authors: Plant AJ, Dunn A, Porter RJ PMID: 29727213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Eliminating HIV/HCV co-infection in gay and bisexual men: is it achievable through scaling up treatment?
Authors: Sacks-Davis R, Pedrana AE, Scott N, Doyle JS, Hellard ME Abstract INTRODUCTION: Broad availability of direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) raises the possibility that HCV prevalence and incidence can be reduced through scaling-up treatment, leading to the elimination of HCV. High rates of linkage to HIV care among HIV-infected gay and bisexual men may facilitate high uptake of HCV treatment, possibly making HCV elimination more achievable in this group. Areas covered: This review covers HCV elimination in HIV-infected gay and bisexual men, including epidemiology, spontaneous clearanc...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Response to: 'letter to the editor: "Management of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Intensive Care Unit: State of the art''.
Response to: 'letter to the editor: "Management of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Intensive Care Unit: State of the art''. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2018 May 03;: Authors: Maraolo AE, Cascella M, Corcione S, Cuomo A, Nappa S, Borgia G, De Rosa FG, Gentile I PMID: 29723480 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Use of whole genome sequencing in surveillance of drug resistant tuberculosis.
Authors: McNerney R, Zignol M, Clark TG Abstract INTRODUCTION: The threat of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is of global concern. Current efforts to monitor resistance rely on phenotypic testing where cultured bacteria are exposed to critical concentrations of the drugs. Capacity for such testing is low in TB endemic countries. Drug resistance is caused by mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome and whole genome sequencing to detect these mutations offers an alternative means of assessing resistance. Areas covered: The challenges of assessing TB drug resistance are discussed. Progress in elucidati...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 3, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Neurological complications of Zika virus infection.
Authors: Carod-Artal FJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis. ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Metagenomics, culturomics and the human gut microbiota.
Authors: Amrane S, Raoult D, Lagier JC PMID: 29668334 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Ongoing initiatives to improve the use of antibiotics in Botswana: University of Botswana symposium meeting report.
The objective of this meeting was to discuss ongoing initiatives in Botswana since February 2016 to improve antibiotic use. Subsequently, use the findings to refine national and local action plans. There was a high rate of antibiotic prescribing among ambulatory care patients in the public sector (42.7%) as well as for patients with URTIs in the private sector (72.9%). Prophylactic antibiotics were given to 73.3% of surgical patients to reduce surgical site infections (SSIs) in a leading tertiary hospital in Botswana; however, SSIs at 9% of patients can be reduced further with better timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. To da...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Expanding syphilis testing: A scoping review of syphilis testing interventions among key populations.
Authors: Ong JJ, Fu H, Smith MK, Tucker JD Abstract Introduction Syphilis is an important sexually transmitted infection (STI). Despite inexpensive and effective treatment, few key populations receive syphilis testing. Innovative strategies are needed to increase syphilis testing among key populations. Areas covered This scoping review focused on strategies to increase syphilis testing in key populations (men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers, people who use drugs, transgender people, and incarcerated individuals). Expert commentary We identified many promising syphilis testing strategies, particularly among...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The rise of hospitalists: An opportunity for infectious diseases investigators.
Authors: McCarthy MW, Walsh TJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite the essential role played by infectious diseases specialists in patient care, public health, cost-containment, and biomedical research, the field has a substantially higher percentage of vacant positions than other medicine sub-specialties. While much has been written about what this disturbing trend means for patient care, comparatively little attention has been focused on the dire implications for clinical research and the development of novel anti-infective therapy. Areas covered: We examine the ways that hospitalists and infectious disease specialist...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance among hospital-associated pathogens.
Authors: Khan A, Miller WR, Arias CA Abstract INTRODUCTION: The introduction of antibiotics revolutionized medicine in the 20th-century permitting the treatment of once incurable infections. Widespread use of antibiotics, however, has led to the development of resistant organisms, particularly in the healthcare setting. Today, the clinician is often faced with pathogens carrying a cadre of resistance determinants that severely limit therapeutic options. The genetic plasticity of microbes allows them to adapt to stressors via genetic mutations, acquisition or sharing of genetic material and modulation of genetic exp...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Risk factors associated with complications/sequelae of acute and subacute haematogenous osteomyelitis: an Italian multicenter study.
Authors: Chiappini E, Krzysztofiak A, Bozzola E, Gabiano C, Esposito S, Lo Vecchio A, Govoni MR, Vallongo C, Dodi I, Castagnola E, Rossi N, Valentini P, Cardinale F, Salvini F, Bona G, Bossi G, Olivieri AN, Russo F, Fossali E, Bottone G, Dellepiane M, de Martino M, Villani A, Galli L Abstract BACKGROUND: Acute/subacute haematogenous osteomyelitis (AHOM/SAHOM) are potentially devastating diseases. Updated information about the epidemiology, management and outcome of AHOM/SAHOM is needed to minimize the risk of complications and sequelae. METHODS: A multicenter study was performed to evaluate retrospectively the ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Emerging Gram negative resistance to last-line antimicrobial agents fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam - epidemiology, laboratory detection and treatment implications.
Authors: Sherry N, Howden B Abstract INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a major threat to human health globally. This has resulted in the "re-discovery" of some older antimicrobials and development of new agents, however resistance has also rapidly emerged to these agents. Areas Covered: Here we describe recent developments in resistance to three of the most important last-line antimicrobials for treatment of MDR and XDR Gram negatives: fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam. Expert Commentary: A key challenge for mic...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 17, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Treatment of chikungunya musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review.
Authors: Guaraldo L, Wakimoto MD, Ferreira H, Bressan C, Calvet GA, Pinheiro GC, Siqueira AM, Brasil P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chikungunya virus is amongst the fastest expanding vector transmissible diseases in recent years and has been causing massive epidemics in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Despite human infection by this virus being first described in the 1950s, there is a lack of adequate therapeutic evaluations to guide evidence-based recommendations. The current guidelines rely heavily in specialists' opinion and experience instead of using higher rated evidence. Areas covered: A systematic ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

HCV in Egypt, prevention, treatment and key barriers to elimination.
Authors: El Kassas M, Elbaz T, Elsharkawy A, Omar H, Esmat G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Currently, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are considered the ideal choice for the treatment of chronic HCV patients due to their proven efficacy (SVR> 90%), and minimal adverse effects. Egypt launched a large treatment program aimed at providing treatment coverage for Egyptian HCV- infected patients. Areas covered: This review covers the treatment and prevention efforts made by the Egyptian National Committee for the Control of Viral Hepatitis (NCCVH) with the available model of care for HCV patients in Egypt, in addition to the...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Ceftolozane/tazobactam: place in therapy.
Authors: Giacobbe DR, Bassetti M, De Rosa FG, Del Bono V, Grossi PA, Menichetti F, Pea F, Rossolini G, Tumbarello M, Viale P, Viscoli C, ISGRI-SITA (Italian Study Group on Resistant Infection of the Società Italiana Terapia Antinfettiva) Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) is a new antibiotic resulting from the combination of a novel cephalosporin, structurally similar to ceftazidime, with tazobactam, a well-known beta-lactamase inhibitor. C/T remains active against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and multi-drug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa, and has bee...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 3, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Syphilis incidence in men who have sex with men with human immunodeficiency virus comorbidity and the importance of integrating sexually transmitted infection prevention into HIV care.
Authors: Refugio ON, Klausner JD Abstract INTRODUCTION: Syphilis continues to be a growing epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly for those living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 2016, MSM accounted for 80% of primary and secondary syphilis diagnoses in men in the United States; almost half of who were also HIV-infected. The synergistic relationship between HIV and syphilis has significant implications not only for HIV patient management, but also for sexually transmitted infection (STI) control among MSM. Areas covered: We review the literature on STI screening and treatment b...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Non-traumatic neurological injury and hepatitis E infection.
Authors: Ripellino P, Norton B, van Eijk J, Dalton HR PMID: 29486136 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Latent tuberculosis in childhood: tolerability of two different therapeutic approaches.
CONCLUSIONS: Both regimens resulted safe. Hepatotoxicity occurred rarely and within the first month. For this reason, it may be appropriate to perform liver function tests after about one month from the beginning of therapy to avoid diagnostic delays. PMID: 29465259 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 22, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Murepavadin: A new antibiotic class in the pipeline.
Authors: Martin-Loeches I, Dale GE, Torres A Abstract INTRODUCTION: With the increase in multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa, antimicrobials with a novel mechanism of action are needed that can target these infections. Areas covered: Intravenous murepavadin is in Phase 3 development for the treatment of HABP/VABP due to P. aeruginosa. This paper summarizes the available information on the discovery, the in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and the clinical pharmacology of murepavadin to date. Expert commentary: P. aeruginosa has an intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics due to high cel...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 18, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The adhesins of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.
Authors: Osman KL, Jefferies JM, Woelk CH, Cleary DW, Clarke SC Abstract INTRODUCTION: Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen of the respiratory tract and the greatest contributor to invasive Haemophilus disease. Additionally, in children, NTHi is responsible for the majority of otitis media (OM) which can lead to chronic infection and hearing loss. In adults, NTHi infection in the lungs is responsible for the onset of acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Unfortunately, there is currently no vaccine available to protect against NTHi infections. Areas ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 10, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Management of chronic viral hepatitis in the hematological patient.
Authors: Nicolini LA, Zappulo E, Viscoli C, Mikulska M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Infection with HBV and HCV represents a growing challenge in the management of patients with hematological malignancies. Recently, hepatitis E (HEV) was recognized as an endemic infection in developed countries and as an emerging health problem in immunocompromised patients. Areas covered: We reviewed the current knowledge on the impact of chronic viral hepatitis in the hematological setting. Epidemiological features, screening strategies and indications for treatment and monitoring have been explored and commented. Expert commentary: Kno...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 10, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

What we know and what we don't know about perinatal Zika virus infection: A systematic review.
Authors: Soriano-Arandes A, Rivero-Calle I, Nastouli E, Espiau M, Frick MA, Alarcon A, Martinón-Torres F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has caused the most challenging worldwide infectious epidemic outbreak in recent months. ZIKV causes microcephaly and other congenital malformations. There is a need to perform updated systematic reviews on ZIKV infection periodically because this epidemic is bringing up new evidence with extraordinary speed. Areas covered: Evidence related to ZIKV infection in the gestational, perinatal, and early infant periods covering epidemiology, virology, pathogene...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 10, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Management of infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: current evidence and future prospects.
Management of infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: current evidence and future prospects. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2018 Feb 06;: Authors: Sheu CC, Lin SY, Chang YT, Lee CY, Chen YH, Hsueh PR Abstract INTRODUCTION: The spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has become a major public health threat worldwide. Area covered: A thorough systematic literature review describing the current evidence and future prospects of therapeutic options for infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Expert commentar...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Rapid molecular diagnostics for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in India.
Authors: Ramachandran R, Muniyandi M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rapid molecular diagnostic methods help in the detection of TB and Rifampicin resistance. These methods detect TB early, are accurate and play a crucial role in reducing the burden of drug resistant tuberculosis. Areas covered: This review analyses rapid molecular diagnostic tools used in the diagnosis of MDR-TB in India, such as the Line Probe Assay and GeneXpert. We have discussed the burden of MDR-TB and the impact of recent diagnostic tools on case detection and treatment outcomes. This review also discusses the costs involved in establishing these new...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of Miltefosine monotherapy and Pentoxifylline associated with Pentavalent Antimony in treating Mucosal Leishmaniasis.
Authors: Ventin F, Cincurá C, Machado PRL Abstract Introduction Mucosal Leishmaniasis (ML) is a difficult to treat and severe form of Leishmaniasis. In general, more than 40% of subjects with ML have therapeutic failure upon the use of pentavalent antimony (Sbv) at 20mg/kg/day during 30 days. Additionally, Sbv is a toxic drug that requires parenteral administration, and many patients will need several courses to be cured. In cases that cannot be treated or cured by Sbv, the alternative is amphotericin B, another toxic and parenteral drug. As a consequence, many ML patients will be cured only after years of d...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Do tetracyclines have the potential to reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile infection?
Authors: Khanna S PMID: 29375022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Clostridium difficile control measures: current and future methods for prevention.
Authors: Dubberke ER, Mejia-Chew C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of healthcare associated infection, and C. difficile infection (CDI) is associated with significant costs, morbidity, and mortality. One obstacle to preventing CDI is lack of high quality data on interventions to prevent CDI. This has led some to focus on areas, such as method of hand hygiene, unlikely to impact CDI incidence as much as others, such as contact precautions. In addition, existing strategies, although effective, do have limitations. Another challenge is the ability to rapidly, and accurately, diagn...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 23, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Where are we with injectables against HIV infection and what are the remaining challenges?"
Where are we with injectables against HIV infection and what are the remaining challenges?" Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2018 Jan 19;: Authors: Hassounah SA, Mesplède T Abstract INTRODUCTION: Drug adherence has been a recurring issue in the field of HIV treatment, and low treatment adherence is typically associated with emergence of drug resistance, treatment failure and increased risks of transmission. Injectable antiretroviral drugs offer a unique opportunity to counter this issue for the treatment of HIV-positive individuals. In addition, injectables offer a remarkable opportunity to red...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 21, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) treatment of HBV, what are the unanswered questions?
Authors: Viganò M, Loglio A, Grossi G, Lampertico P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an ester prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), is one of the recommended drugs for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, reduced kidney function and loss of bone mineral density have been reported in some CHB patients treated with TDF. Consequent to these safety issues, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) [Vemlidy®], a phosphonate prodrug of TFV, was developed for the treatment of CHB patients. Areas covered: The favourable pharmacological profile of TAF allows a marked reduction in dosage (25 mg/day) thu...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Novel β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors versus alternative antibiotics for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infection and complicated urinary tract infection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
CONCLUSIONS: Novel BL/BLIs are not inferior to other available antibiotics for the treatment of cIAI, and they have advantages in patients with cUTI. Simultaneously, they are sensitive to Gram-negative pathogens, especially E.coli and K.pneumoniae. PMID: 29343141 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The role of metabolomic markers for patients with infectious diseases: implications for risk stratification and therapeutic modulation.
Authors: Zurfluh S, Baumgartner T, Meier MA, Ottiger M, Voegeli A, Bernasconi L, Neyer P, Mueller B, Schuetz P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Metabolomics is a rapidly growing area of research. Metabolomic markers can provide information about the interaction of different organ systems, and thereby improve the understanding of physio-pathological processes, disease risk, prognosis and therapy responsiveness in a variety of diseases. Areas covered: In this narrative review of recent clinical studies investigating metabolomic markers in adult patients presenting with acute infectious disease, we mainly focused on patients wi...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Non-prescription use of antibiotics among children in urban China: A cross-sectional survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices.
CONCLUSIONS: There was a high proportion of primary caregivers self-medicate antibiotics for children in urban China, despite their insufficient knowledge about antibiotic use. Public health initiatives are needed such as public education campaigns and stricter government regulation of antibiotic use and availability in community pharmacies. PMID: 29310469 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Therapies for multidrug resistant and extensively drug-resistant non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial infections: a perilous journey toward "molecularly targeted" therapy.
Therapies for multidrug resistant and extensively drug-resistant non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial infections: a perilous journey toward "molecularly targeted" therapy. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2018 Jan 09;: Authors: El Chakhtoura NG, Saade E, Iovleva A, Yasmin M, Wilson B, Perez F, Bonomo RA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli are at the center of the antimicrobial resistance epidemic. Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are both designated with a threat level to human health of "serious" by the Centers for Disease C...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Kingella kingae: from oropharyngeal carriage to paediatric osteoarticular infections.
Authors: Valaikaite R, El Houmami N, Spyropoulou V, Braendle G, Ceroni D PMID: 29291633 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 3, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Clinical and virologic effects of four neuraminidase inhibitors in influenza A virus-infected children (aged 4-12 years): an open-label, randomized study in Japan.
CONCLUSIONS: The time to virus clearance was significantly shorter with peramivir than with oseltamivir. Although no clear relationship between virus dynamics and symptoms was observed, ongoing studies should clarify the situation. PMID: 29284320 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 30, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of Lyme neuroborreliosis.
Authors: Halperin JJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: The nervous system is involved in 10-15% of patients infected with B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii and B. garinii. This review will address widespread misconceptions about the clinical phenomenology, diagnostic approach and response to treatment of neuroborreliosis. Areas covered: Improvements in diagnostic testing have allowed better definition of the clinical spectrum of neuroborreliosis, with lymphocytic meningitis and uni- or multifocal inflammation of peripheral/cranial nerves predominating. Despite widespread concern that post-treatment cognitive/behavioral symptoms migh...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Ongoing initiatives in Azerbaijan to improve the use of antibiotics; findings and implications.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiple interventions in Azerbaijan in recent years appear to have resulted in low use of antibiotics when compared with similar countries. However, there are some concerns especially with third generation cephalosporins. There needs to be a closer look at indications to further improve antibiotic use. PMID: 29251001 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Clinical management of women with listeriosis risk during pregnancy: a review of national guidelines.
Authors: Pucci L, Massacesi M, Liuzzi G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Listeriosis is an uncommon foodborne infection that may cause moderate maternal illness, but can be extremely serious for the fetus and the newborn. Several guidelines have been elaborated in order to help clinicians on the care of pregnant women with known or suspected exposure to Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of this review is to collect, assess and summarize them, in order to provide a comprehensive overlook and to highlight the grey areas in the guidance that could result in failure to detect some infected but asymptomatic women. AREAS COVERED...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Modern management of diabetic foot osteomyelitis. The when, how and why of conservative approaches.
Authors: Aragón-Sánchez J, Lipsky BA Abstract Introduction Diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) has long been considered a complex infection that is both difficult to diagnose and treat, and is associated with a high rate of relapse and limb loss. Areas covered DFO can usually be diagnosed by a combination of clinical evaluation, serum inflammatory markers and plain X-ray. When the results of these procedures are negative or contradictory, advanced imaging tests or bone biopsy may be necessary. Staphylococcus aureus remains the most frequent microorganism isolated from bone specimens, but infection is of...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 14, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Biofilm-related disease.
Authors: Del Pozo JL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Biofilm formation represents a protected mode of growth that renders bacterial cells less susceptible to antimicrobials and to killing by host immune effector mechanisms and so enables the pathogens to survive in hostile environments and also to disperse and colonize new niches. Biofilm disease includes device-related infections, chronic infections in the absence of a foreign body, and even malfunction of medical devices. Areas covered: This review puts forward a new medical entity that represents a major public health issue, which we have named "biofilm-related dise...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 14, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Is there a relation between the manipulative activity of Toxoplasma and personalized medicine?
Authors: Flegr J PMID: 29235885 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 14, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Antimicrobial therapy of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children.
Authors: Lee H, Yun KW, Lee HJ, Choi EH Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children and young adolescents. Macrolides are recommended as the first-line therapy however, macrolide resistance rates in M. pneumoniae among children have been increasing substantially. Areas covered: This review focused on clinical characteristics and treatment of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae pneumonia in children. Expert commentary: Antibiotic choice should be based on in vitro activity, clinical efficacy and in consideration of potential adverse events. Macrolide r...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Treatment-focused Ebola trials, supportive care and future of Filovirus care.
Authors: Keshtkar-Jahromi M, Martins KAO, Cardile A, Reisler R, Christopher GW, Bavari S Abstract INTRODUCTION: During the 2014-2016 Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak, several candidate therapeutics were used in EBOV-infected patients in clinical trials and under expanded access for emergency use. This review will focus briefly on medications used during the outbreak. We will discuss current therapeutic candidates and their status and will then turn to a related and essential topic: supportive care and the standard of care for filovirus infected patients. Potential benefits and pitfalls of combination therapies for filovi...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 7, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Combination therapy for extensively-drug resistant gram-negative bacteria.
Authors: Karaiskos I, Antoniadou A, Giamarellou H Abstract INTRODUCTION: The ongoing crisis and emergence of extensively-drug resistant (XDR) gram-negative pathogens in the nosocomial setting is worrisome. The limited armamentarium in combination with the increasing resistance rates of last resort antibiotics has led clinicians to re-exploit existing antibiotic classes. Areas covered: Current state of evidence concerning the administration of monotherapy versus combination therapy for the treatment of XDR gram-negative microorganism as well as salvage treatment are presented. Herein, the current knowledge concernin...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - November 29, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Towards re-purposing BH3-mimetics in Legionella and viral infections.
Authors: Naderer T PMID: 29166790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - November 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Use of 1,3- β-D-glucan in invasive fungal diseases in hematology patients.
Use of 1,3-β-D-glucan in invasive fungal diseases in hematology patients. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2017 Nov 10;: Authors: Giacobbe DR, Del Bono V, Viscoli C, Mikulska M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hematology patients. Within a diagnostic-driven approach, the use of the serum (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) test represents a valid tool for the early diagnosis and treatment of IFD. Areas covered: The available literature on the use of BDG in hematology patients was systematically retrieved. Then, it was reviewed and disc...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - November 12, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Novel approaches to surgical site infections: What recommendations can be made?
Authors: Aghdassi SJS, Gastmeier P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infections (SSI) are one of the most frequent healthcare-associated infections worldwide, representing a substantial burden on the healthcare system and the individual patient. Various risk factors for SSI have been identified, which can be separated into patient-related, procedure-related and other risk factors. Areas covered: Other risk factors relevant for SSI are the season in which surgery is performed, the volume of surgeries in a department, the working atmosphere in the operating room and the indications for surgery. Overall, the risk o...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - November 12, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes infections associated with implantable devices.
Authors: Gharamti AA, Kanafani ZA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes), a Gram-positive biofilm-forming rod implicated in acne vulgaris, is increasingly recognized for its role in implant-associated infections. The diagnosis of C. acnes implant-associated infections remains challenging. The optimal treatment is a combination of both surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy. Areas Covered: In this review, we discuss the different types of implant-associated infections caused by C. acnes. We also highlight the clinical manifestations pertaining to the various sites of infection, and identify seve...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - November 12, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Containment strategies to address the expanding threat of multidrug-resistant Candida auris.
Authors: McCarthy MW, Walsh TJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Candida auris is an emerging multidrug resistant human yeast pathogen associated with nosocomial transmission and high mortality. The organism can be a challenge to diagnose, may be even more difficult to treat, and continues to pose an expanding threat to patients. Areas covered: Our medical center and others in the surrounding area have seen a concerning rise in confirmed cases of C. auris infection and substantial resources have been dedicated to containment measures. We draw on our in vitro and in vivo work with this organism to examine the most effective wa...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - November 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Management of osseous cystic echinococcosis.
Authors: Monge-Maillo B, Chamorro Tojeiro S, López-Vélez R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Osseous cystic echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most complicated and devastating conditions caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Its management is difficult and there is scant literature about it. Areas covered: A literature review was performed to provide an update on its diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Expert commentary: In most cases diagnosis of osseous CE can only be confirmed by surgery. Osseous CE should be managed by experienced physicians and addressed as a chronic disease with therapies must be aimed at cont...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - November 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research