Correction.
Authors: PMID: 33054473 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - October 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Enhancing care for people living with HIV: current and future monitoring approaches.
Authors: Maggiolo F, Bandera A, Bonora S, Borderi M, Calcagno A, Cattelan A, Cingolani A, Gianotti N, Lichtner M, Lo Caputo S, Madeddu G, Maggi P, Marchetti GC, Maserati R, Nozza S, Rusconi S, Zazzi M, Di Biagio A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the most significant advance in the medical management of HIV-1 infection. Given the fact that HIV cannot be eradicated from the body, ART has to be indefinitely maintained. New approaches need to be defined for monitoring HIV-infected individuals (PLWHIV), including clinical, virologic, immunological parameters and also ways to collect individual poi...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - October 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

What are the origins of growing microbial resistance? Both Lamarck and Darwin were right.
Authors: Guevara Salazar JA, Morán Díaz JR, Ramírez Segura E, Trujillo Ferrara JG Abstract INTRODUCTION: Microorganisms of clinical importance frequently develop resistance to drug therapy, now a growing problem. The experience with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a representative example of increasing multi-drug resistance. To avoid reaching a crisis in which patients could be left without adequate treatment, a new strategy is needed. Anti-microbial therapy has historically targeted the mechanisms rather than origin of drug resistance, thus allowing microorganisms to adapt and survive. AREAS...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - October 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Benznidazole for the treatment of Chagas disease.
Authors: Losada I, Alonso-Padilla J, Cortés-Serra N, Alonso-Vega C, Brustenga JG, Pinazo MJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease affects 6 - 7 million people, mainly in the Americas, and benznidazole is one of the two therapeutic options available. Trypanocide treatment aims to eliminate the parasite from the body to prevent the establishment or progression of visceral damage, mainly cardiac and/or digestive. Remarkably, it helps interrupt vertical transmission when administered to women of childbearing age. AREAS COVERED: we discuss the basic and scarce data regarding chemical, pharmacokinetic and phar...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - October 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Novel corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic: current status and possible strategies for detection and treatment of the disease.
This report was constructed by following a systematic literature search of bibliographic databases of published reports of relevance until 1st September 2020. EXPERT OPINION: Currently, the countries are opening businesses despite a spike in the number of COVID-19 cases. The pharmaceutical industries are developing clinical diagnostic kits, medicines, and vaccines. They target different approaches, including repurposing the already approved diagnosis and treatment options for similar CoVs. At present, over ~200 vaccine candidates are being developed against COVID-19. Future research may unravel the genetic variations o...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - October 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Could bacteriophages be the answer to the COVID-19 crisis?
Authors: Martinecz A, Wojewodzic MW PMID: 33047989 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - October 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Streptogramins for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens.
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - October 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Azithromycin in the treatment of rectogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections: end of an era?
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - October 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Role of the inflammatory response in community-acquired pneumonia: clinical implications.
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - October 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

A multicentre point prevalence survey of hospital antibiotic prescribing and quality indices in the Kurdistan Regional Government of Northern Iraq: The need for urgent action.
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - October 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Medicinal plants consumption against urinary tract infections: a narrative review of the current evidence.
Authors: Poulios E, Vasios GK, Psara E, Giaginis C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are usual diseases caused by different strains of microorganisms. Many antibiotics have been applied for the treatment of these infections. However, the development of multidrug-resistant strains is a major problem in these treatments. As alternative complementary agents, several medicinal plants are often used to prevent and/or treat these diseases. AREAS COVERED: This review summarized the current evidence about the efficacy of medicinal plants' consumption to prevent and/or co-treat UTIs. The most precis...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - October 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

A systematic literature review to assess the burden of herpes zoster disease in China.
Authors: Yin D, Van Oorschot D, Jiang N, Marijam A, Saha D, Wu Z, Tang H, Diaz-Decaro J, Watson P, Xie X, Ren Y, He Y, Feng Y Abstract INTRODUCTION: Herpes zoster (HZ) or shingles occurs as a result of reactivation after a primary infection with varicella zoster virus (chickenpox). The burden of HZ in older adults in China is not well understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to understand the burden of disease related to HZ, its complications, and associated costs in China. AREAS COVERED: Using publications retrieved from Chinese and English literature databases, we described incidence and preval...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - October 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections, efficiency of dalbavancin: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: Either single dose or two dose dalbavancin treatment is as clinically effective as other antibiotics such as vancomycin and linezolid for the treatment of ABSSSIs. PMID: 32981375 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Use of Hydroxychloroquine for pre-exposure prophylaxis in COVID 19: Debate and suggested future course.
Authors: Agarwal M, Ranjan P, Mittal A, Baitha U PMID: 32981388 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Adolescents and young adults with early acquired HIV infection in the united states: unique challenges in treatment and secondary prevention.
Authors: Yusuf H, Agwu A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, children who acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at an early age, either perinatally or through blood transfusion, are reaching adolescence and adulthood due to successful antiretroviral treatment (ART). While many are thriving, a significant proportion face unprecedented multilevel challenges that can affect their long-term outcomes. Specifically, longstanding and poorly controlled HIV resulting from inadequate early regimens and nonadherence, along with the toxicities of some ART agents, can predispose them to sequelae including HIV-associated com...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Addressing antimicrobial resistance in Nigerian hospitals: exploring physicians prescribing behavior, knowledge and perception of antimicrobial resistance and stewardship programs.
Authors: Babatola AO, Fadare JO, Olatunya OS, Obiako R, Enwere O, Kalungia A, Ojo TO, Sunmonu TA, Desalu O, Godman B Abstract INTRODUCTION: We assessed the knowledge of, attitude towards antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and practice of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) among physicians in Nigeria to provide future guidance to the Nigerian National Action Plan for AMR. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire-based study explored the physicians' self-reported practice of antibiotic prescribing, knowledge, attitude and practice of AMR and components of ASPs. RESULTS: The majority (217; 67.2%) of respo...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Challenges in the prevention or treatment of RSV with emerging new agents in children from low- and middle-income countries.
Authors: Carbonell-Estrany X, Rodgers-Gray BS, Paes B Abstract INTRODUCTION: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes approximately 120,000 deaths annually in children
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Knowledge, attitude, and practices of community pharmacy staff towards antimicrobial stewardship programs: a cross-sectional study from Northeastern China.
This study explores the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of pharmacy staff towards antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study among community pharmacy staff in Northeastern China, from April 1 to May 31, 2019, using a self-administered KAP questionnaire comprising 20 items. The data analysis was carried out by employing Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: A response rate of 98.5% (394/400) was obtained. The majority of participants (94.9%) demonstrated a good understanding of antimicrobial use, but they lacked an adequate understanding o...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Incidence and risk factors of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infection in intensive care units: a matched-case control study.
CONCLUSION: In this retrospective study the incidence of CRE infection was relatively elevated in patients admitted to ICU. Patients with high SOFA and NUTRIC scores, prolonged ICU LOS, previous surgery, dialysis and mechanical ventilation, prior aminoglycosides and carbapenems use, may have an increased risk of CRE infection. PMID: 32930620 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

COVID-19 and cardiac injury: clinical manifestations, biomarkers, mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment and follow up.
Authors: Tajbakhsh A, Gheibi Hayat SM, Taghizadeh H, Akbari A, Einabadi M, Savardashtaki A, Johnston TP, Sahebkar A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has the characteristics of high transmission, diverse clinical manifestations, and a long incubation period. In addition to infecting the respiratory system, COVID-19 also has adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. COVID-19 causes acute myocardial injuries, as well as chronic damage to the cardiovascular system. AREAS COVERED: The present review is aimed at providing current information on COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system. Pub...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The effect of antivirals on COVID-19: a systematic review.
The objective of this systematic review is to identify studies pertaining to antivirals, both as sole and combined therapies, in COVID-19 patients and review the clinical outcomes of these treatment methods. AREAS COVERED: A systematic review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items or Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A literature search was done on Medline, Global Health, and EMBASE using keywords and MeSH terms relevant to COVID- 19 and antivirals. Limits were put on date to obtain articles between December 2019 to May 2020 (the time at which the search was performed). 776 articles were ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Antifungal effects and potential mechanisms of lonidamine in combination with fluconazole against Candida albicans.
CONCLUSION: LND combined with FLC exhibited synergistic antifungal activity against resistant C. albicans, and the synergistic mechanisms were related to anti-biofilms and reduce virulence factors. EXPERT OPINION: The emergence of fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains poses great challenges to clinical treatment. Drug combination of non-antifungals and fluconazole has attracted a lot of attention to overcome Candida albicans drug resistance. PMID: 32924656 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Alanine transaminase and hemoglobin appear to predict the occurrence of antituberculosis medication hepatotoxicity; findings and implications in Botswana.
CONCLUSION: Overall, normal hemoglobin and elevated baseline ALT levels were significantly associated with anti-TB hepatotoxicity. Additional research is needed to explore this association further. PMID: 32909487 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Is the vaginal cleansing product industry causing harm to Women?
Authors: Jenkins A, Money D, O'Doherty K PMID: 32909859 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Public knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding antibiotics use in Punjab, Pakistan: A cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of inappropriate antibiotics use exists among the general population of Punjab. Interventions are needed to improve health literacy and supervise antibiotics sales in retail pharmacies. PMID: 32912015 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

A review of current treatment strategies for infective endocarditis.
Authors: Luque Paz D, Lakbar I, Tattevin P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Infective endocarditis is one of the most difficult-to-diagnose, and difficult-to-treat, infectious diseases, with in-hospital mortality rates plateauing at 20% in contemporary cohorts. AREAS COVERED: We restricted this review to the anti-infective treatment of the main bacteria responsible for infective endocarditis, i.e. staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, and Gram-negative bacilli, including HACEK. Specific topics of major interest for treatment strategy are covered as well, including empirical treatment, oral switch, and treatment durat...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

A review of current strategies to improve HIV prevention and treatment in sexual and gender minority Latinx (SGML) communities.
Authors: Martinez O Abstract INTRODUCTION: The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately impact sexual and gender minority Latinxs (SGML). Several syndemic conditions have been linked with HIV acquisition and transmission among SGML including immigration, discrimination, environmental racism, substance use, and mental health. AREAS COVERED: We provide a summary of biomedical, behavioral, and social/structural interventions to reduce risks for acquiring HIV and improve outcomes along the HIV care continuum among SGML. We also discuss intervention approaches and opportunities that respond at the intersection o...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Management of fever and neutropenia in the adult patient with acute myeloid leukemia.
Authors: Peseski AM, McClean M, Green SD, Beeler C, Konig H Abstract INTRODUCTION: Febrile neutropenia represents one of the most common treatment-associated complications in the management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is considered an oncologic emergency. Rapid and detailed workup as well as the initiation of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is critical to avoid sepsis and to reduce mortality. Although a definitive source of infection is frequently not identified, the severely immunosuppressed status of the AML patient undergoing cytotoxic therapy results in a high risk for a wide array of bacteria...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

An overview of tecovirimat for smallpox treatment and expanded anti-orthopoxvirus applications.
Authors: Russo AT, Grosenbach DW, Chinsangaram J, Honeychurch KM, Long PG, Lovejoy C, Maiti B, Meara I, Hruby DE Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tecovirimat (TPOXX®; ST-246) was approved for the treatment of symptomatic smallpox by the USFDA in July of 2018 and has been stockpiled by the US government for use in a smallpox outbreak. While there has not been a reported case of smallpox since 1978 it is still considered a serious bioterrorism threat. AREAS COVERED: A brief history of smallpox from its proposed origins as a human disease through its eradication in the late 20th century is presented. The current smallpo...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Non-antibiotic antibacterial peptides and proteins of Escherichia coli: efficacy and potency of bacteriocins.
Authors: Bosák J, Hrala M, Micenková L, Šmajs D Abstract INTRODUCTION: The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria drives the search for alternative antimicrobial therapies. Bacteriocins represent a potential alternative to antibiotic treatment. In contrast to antibiotics, bacteriocins are peptides or proteins that have relatively narrow spectra of antibacterial activities and are produced by a wide range of bacterial species. Bacteriocins of Escherichia coli are historically classified as microcins and colicins, and, until now, more than 30 different bacteriocin...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for abdominal tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: Xpert MTB/RIF has modest sensitivity for diagnosis of peritoneal and intestinal tuberculosis but has a good specificity. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42020140545. PMID: 32845790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Azithromycin in the treatment of COVID-19: a review.
This article reviews the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and safety of azithromycin in viral infections, with emphasis on COVID-19. A literature search of PUBMED was conducted on May 30th and updated on July 28th. EXPERT OPINION: Azithromycin presents in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 and could act in different points of the viral cycle. Its immunomodulatory properties include the ability to downregulate cytokine production, maintain epithelial cell integrity or prevent lung fibrosis. In other settings, azithromycin use was associated with a reduction in mortality and ventilation-days. These prope...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Antibiotic consumption trends among acute care hospitals in Catalonia (2008-2016): Impact of different adjustments on the results.
Authors: Fondevilla E, Grau S, Echeverría-Esnal D, Gudiol F Abstract OBJECTIVES: Hospital antibiotic consumption is usually measured using defined daily doses (DDD) divided by bed-days. However, the use of other denominators as discharges could imply a more accurate interpretation of consumption. The main objective was to analyze trends of antibiotic consumption among hospitals in Catalonia during the period 2008-2016, using both DDD/100 bed-days and DDD/100 discharges. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive, and longitudinal study performed among acute care hospitals affiliated to VINCat program. Antibioti...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Antimicrobial pharmacokinetics and preclinical in vitro models to support optimized treatment approaches for uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections.
Authors: Abbott IJ, Roberts JA, Meletiadis J, Peleg AY Abstract INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are extremely common. Millions of people, particularly healthy women, are affected worldwide every year. One-in-two women will have a recurrence within 12-months of an initial UTI. Inadequate treatment risks worsening infection leading to acute pyelonephritis, bacteremia and sepsis. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to provide optimized antimicrobial treatment. AREAS COVERED: Literature was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar (up to 06/2020), examining the etiology, d...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Bacterial stress response: understanding the molecular mechanics to identify possible therapeutic targets.
Authors: Kumar A, Rahal A, Sohal JS, Gupta VK Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bacteria are ubiquitous and many of them are pathogenic in nature. Entry of bacteria in host and its recognition by host defense system induce stress in host cells. With time, bacteria have also developed strategies including drug resistance to escape from antibacterial therapy as well as host defense mechanism. AREAS COVERED: Bacterial stress initiates and promotes adaptive immune response through several integrated mechanisms. The mechanisms of bacteria to up and down regulate different pathways involved in these responses have been discusse...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Update on the epidemiology of carbapenemases in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Authors: García-Betancur JC, Appel TM, Esparza G, Gales AC, Levy-Hara G, Cornistein W, Vega S, Nuñez D, Cuellar L, Bavestrello L, Castañeda-Méndez PF, Villalobos-Vindas JM, Villegas MV Abstract INTRODUCTION: Carbapenemases are β-lactamases able to hydrolyze a wide range of β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems. Carbapenemase production in Enterobacterales, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., with and without the co-expression of other β-lactamases is a serious public health threat. Carbapenemases belong to three main classes according to the Ambler classif...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Use of Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra in extrapulmonary tuberculosis.
Authors: Park M, Kon OM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health burden. There still remains a large gap between the notified and estimated incident cases. Extrapulmonary (EP) TB represent 15% of all TB cases and the diagnosis is more challenging due to the paucity of the organism. Smear microscopy is often insensitive and culture methods are prolonged. With the introduction of Xpert MTB/RIF and more recently Xpert Ultra, this has changed TB diagnostics by providing a rapid accessible platform to diagnose TB and identify rifampicin resistance within 2 hours. AREAS COVERED: The diag...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Sepsis-associated encephalopathy and septic encephalitis: an update.
Authors: Tauber SC, Djukic M, Gossner J, Eiffert H, Brück W, Nau R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) and septic encephalitis (SE) are associated with increased mortality, long-term cognitive impairment and focal neurological deficits. AREAS COVERED: The PUBMED database was searched 2016-2020. The clinical manifestation of SAE is delirium, SE additionally is characterized by focal neurological symptoms. SAE is caused by inflammation with endothelial/microglial activation, increase of permeability of the blood-brain-barrier, hypoxia, imbalance of neurotransmitters, glial activatio...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

MATH+ protocol for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection: the scientific rationale.
Authors: Marik PE, Kory P, Varon J, Iglesias J, Meduri GU Abstract INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 disease progresses through a number of distinct phases. The management of each phase is unique and specific. The pulmonary phase of COVID-19 is characterized by an organizing pneumonia with profound immune dysregulation, activation of clotting, and a severe microvascular injury culminating in severe hypoxemia. The core treatment strategy to manage the pulmonary phase includes the combination of methylprednisolone, ascorbic acid, thiamine, and heparin (MATH+ protocol). The rationale for the MATH+ protocol is reviewed in this pa...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of dalbavancin in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) and other infections in a real-life setting: data from an Italian observational multicentric study (DALBITA study).
Authors: Bai F, Aldieri C, Cattelan A, Raumer F, Di Meco E, Moioli MC, Tordato F, Morelli P, Borghi F, Rizzi M, Van Hauwermeiren E, Castelli F, Migliorino G, Menzaghi B, Rizzardini G, Saracino A, Cascio A, Puoti M, d'Arminio Monforte A, Marchetti G Abstract OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of dalbavancin in ABSSSI and 'other sites' infections' (OTA). METHODS: Observational study involving 11 Italian hospitals including patients that received ≥1 dose of dalbavancin in 2016-2019. The outcome was end-of-treatment efficacy and safety in ABSSSI and OTA in a real-life setting. RESULTS: 206 pati...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

COVID -19 corollary: the changing role of a hospital epidemiologist in the new world.
Authors: Chopra T, Levy P, Tillotson G, Sobel J PMID: 32799575 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Recent innovations and new applications of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy.
Authors: Farmer ECW, Seaton RA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is safe and effective for selected patients managed within an organised clinical service. Service configurations however are evolving, patient populations are changing and new evidence is emerging which challenges traditional OPAT practice. AREAS COVERED: This review will discuss evolving OPAT service delivery from the traditional model of infusion centre towards non-specialist, community and remotely delivered OPAT and the challenges this represents. We consider new patient populations including those with ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Antibiotics in the first hour: is there new evidence?
Authors: Dupuis C, Timsit JF Abstract INTRODUCTION: International guidelines have recommended for many years to start antimicrobials as early as possible in sepsis and shock. This concept has been challenged by the controversial results of experimental studies and clinical cohorts and resulted in intense debate in the literature. This review aims to summarize the available knowledge on early antimicrobial therapy and to consider perspectives. AREAS COVERED: First, after a research using MEDLINE, we reviewed the studies that advocated the implementation of early antimicrobial therapy. We then discussed the drawb...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Experience of Ceftazidime/avibactam in a UK tertiary cardiopulmonary specialist center.
Authors: Nw.wo L, Butt Z, Schelenz S Abstract OBJECTIVES: Antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to public health. New drugs such as Ceftazidime/avibactam have been developed for the treatment of Multi-Drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. Susceptibility can be variable and inappropriate use can add a financial strain on the National Health Service (NHS). There is a pressing need to ensure these new and invaluable antimicrobials are preserved and used effectively. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective observational study to assess the use of Ceftazidime/avibactam and evaluated prescribing against applied standard...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Functionalized carbon-based nanomaterials and quantum dots with antibacterial activity: a review.
Authors: Alavi M, Jabari E, Jabbari E Abstract INTRODUCTION: Emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a complicated issue, especially when treating infectious immunodeficiency related diseases. In recent years, when compared to bulk materials, nanomaterials (NMs) with specific antibacterial activities have played a novel role in treating bacterial infections. Among NMs, quantum dots (QDs), specifically carbon containing QDs including graphene oxide QD (GOQD), graphene QD (GQD), and carbon QD (CQD), have demonstrated bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities via photodynamic (PD) effects against antibiotic...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Quorum quenching enzymes and their effects on virulence, biofilm, and microbiomes: a review of recent advances.
Authors: Sikdar R, Elias M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Numerous bacterial behaviors are regulated by a cell-density dependent mechanism known as Quorum Sensing (QS). QS relies on communication between bacterial cells using diffusible signaling molecules known as autoinducers. QS regulates physiological processes such as metabolism, virulence, and biofilm formation. Quorum Quenching (QQ) is the inhibition of QS using chemical or enzymatic means to counteract behaviors regulated by QS. AREAS COVERED: We examine the main, diverse QS mechanisms present in bacterial species, with a special emphasis on AHL-mediated QS. We...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Resolution of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Authors: Habas K, Nganwuchu C, Shahzad F, Gopalan R, Haque M, Rahman S, Majumder AA, Nasim T Abstract INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in China in December, 2019, and declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. The current management of COVID-19 is based generally on supportive therapy and treatment to prevent respiratory failure. The effective option of antiviral therapy and vaccination are currently under evaluation and development. AREAS COVERED: A literature search was performed using PubMed between December 1, 2019-June 23, 2020. This...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Ophthalmic and psychosocial sequelae in Ebola virus disease survivors: ongoing need for health systems strengthening across disciplines.
Authors: Canady D, Weil NC, Miller C, Shantha JG, Bastien G, Yeh S PMID: 32772594 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Diagnosis of clinical malaria in endemic settings.
Authors: Varo R, Balanza N, Mayor A, Bassat Q Abstract INTRODUCTION: Malaria continues to be a major global health problem, with over 228 million cases and 405,000 deaths estimated to occur annually. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential to decrease the burden and impact of this disease, particularly in children. We aimed to review the main available techniques for the diagnosis of clinical malaria in endemic settings and explore possible future options to improve its rapid recognition. AREAS COVERED: literature relevant to malaria diagnosis was identified through electronic searches in Pubmed, w...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Transmission dynamics of dengue and chikungunya in a changing climate: do we understand the eco-evolutionary response?
Authors: Tozan Y, Sjödin H, Muñoz ÁG, Rocklöv J Abstract INTRODUCTION: We are witnessing an alarming increase in the burden and range of mosquito-borne arboviral diseases. The transmission dynamics of arboviral diseases is highly sensitive to climate and weather and is further affected by non-climatic factors such as human mobility, urbanization, and disease control. As evidence also suggests, climate-driven changes in species interactions may trigger evolutionary responses in both vectors and pathogens with important consequences for disease transmission patterns. AREAS COVERED: Focusin...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - August 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research