Efficacy of Ceftriaxone 1 g daily Versus 2 g daily for The Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.
Authors: Telles JP, Cieslinski J, Gasparetto J, Tuon FF Abstract Introduction: Ceftriaxone has been recommended as a first-line treatment for various infections; however, the doses for pneumonia have not been a consensus in randomized clinical trials. To compare ceftriaxone 1 g daily efficacy to other ceftriaxone dosing regimens in community-acquired pneumonia. Area covered: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and LILACS. Randomized controlled trials of ceftriaxone in community-acquired pneumonia were included. Outcomes included clinical cure in modified intention-t...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - June 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Utility of a clinical scoring system in prioritizing TB investigations - a systematic review.
Authors: Jensen SB, Rudolf F, Wejse C Abstract Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is among the ten most common causes of death worldwide and it is the leading cause of mortality in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Clinical scoring systems have the potential to improve case finding and to prioritize patients for TB testing. Areas covered: This systematic review investigated the utility of prediction models to improve pulmonary tuberculosis (pTB) case finding. Studies were searched through PubMed until 15th of August 2018 and 20 studies were eligible according to the inclusion criteria. Data on study popu...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - June 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The clinical management of invasive mold infection in children with cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Authors: Lehrnbecher T Abstract Introduction: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a significant cause for morbidity and mortality in children receiving chemotherapy or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). As compared to adults, children may differ from adults in specific aspects regarding epidemiology, diagnosis and management of IFD. Areas covered: The review provides an overview over the epidemiology of IFD in children with cancer or undergoing HSCT, diagnostic tools, preventive and therapeutic strategies. Expert opinion: Whereas the risk for IFD is highest in children with acute myeloid leukem...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - June 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Quantitative assessment of the activity of antituberculosis drugs and regimens.
This report is a review of the quantitative methods currently used on clinical data sets to identify drug exposure targets and optimal drug combinations for tuberculosis treatment. A high-level summary of the methods, including the strengths and weaknesses of each method and potential methodological improvements is presented. Methods incorporating data generated from multiple sources such as in vitro and clinical studies, and their potential to provide better estimates of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) targets, are discussed. PK/PD relationships identified are compared between different studies and data analysis m...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - June 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Knowledge, attitude, and practice of self-medication with antibiotics among community residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Conclusions: Respondents have inadequate knowledge and inappropriate practice toward rational use of antibiotics. Policies such as restricting the purchase of antibiotics without a medical prescription and educating appropriate use of antibiotics are urgently needed. PMID: 31122087 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Relationship between nasopharyngeal microbiota and patient's susceptibility to viral infection.
We describe the evolution of the normal nasopharyngeal microbiota composition over time, especially during the first year of life. We aimed to resume the changes of the nasopharyngeal microbiota during viral respiratory infections. We also develop how nasopharyngeal microbiota could contribute to the acquisition of respiratory viral infections. We finally provide the potential therapeutic perspectives deriving from these findings. Expert opinion: Prospective studies focusing on children have identified that nasopharyngeal microbiota composition is associated with predisposition to acute respiratory illness and bronchioliti...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Screening, diagnosis and risks associated with Hepatitis E virus infection.
Authors: Lhomme S, Legrand-Abravanel F, Kamar N, Izopet J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main cause of hepatitis worldwide. Our knowledge of this single-strand positive-sense RNA virus, discovered in the 1980s, has improved greatly in recent years. Areas covered: We review the most recent information on diagnostic tools, including serological and molecular assays, the recommended diagnostic algorithm, and the clinical manifestations of HEV infections. Expert opinion: The performance of serological and molecular assays has improved greatly in recent years and the availability of a WHO standard...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Self-reported beta-lactam intolerance: not a class effect, dangerous to patients, and rarely allergy.
Authors: Vyles D, Macy E Abstract INTRODUCTION: About 8% of the United States population carries an unconfirmed penicillin "allergy" in their medical record. Many physicians needlessly avoid other beta-lactam use in individuals with unconfirmed penicillin allergies. There is a significantly increased risk of developing serious antibiotic-resistant infections, and increased morbidity and mortality in those who report penicillin allergy. Areas covered: Within this study we reviewed the relevant literature on self-reported beta-lactam allergy. We discuss how the myth of serious allergy to penicillin develope...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Curing HIV by 'kick and kill': from theory to practice?
Authors: Pace M, Frater J PMID: 31071275 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Cefiderocol: a promising antibiotic against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
Authors: Jean SS, Hsueh SC, Lee WS, Hsueh PR PMID: 31055983 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Recent advances in antibacterial applications of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and metal nanocomposites (MNCs) against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria.
Authors: Alavi M, Rai M Abstract INTRODUCTION: In recent years, multidrug-resistance in bacteria has drastically increased and has posed a great threat to the human health. This problem has generated an urgent need to search alternatives for the treatment of MDR bacteria. It has been proved that metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and nanocomposites (MNCs) possess remarkable antimicrobial potential, and hence can be used in alternative therapy. Areas covered: This review is aimed to discuss recent reports on antibacterial activities of MNPs and MNCs against MDR bacteria. Expert opinion: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aure...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Staphylococcus aureus nasal decolonization strategies: a review.
Authors: Sakr A, Brégeon F, Rolain JM, Blin O Abstract INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections are associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health-care costs. Persistent nasal carriage of S. aureus found in 10-30% of the general population, constitutes a risk factor for these infections. Nasal decolonization is one of the used strategies to prevent this risk in some situations. Areas covered: Mupirocin nasal ointment has been used for the nasal decolonization and prevention of staphylococcal infections in various settings like surgeries. However, rising rates of resistance to mup...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Developments on antibiotics for multidrug resistant bacterial Gram-negative infections.
Authors: Voulgaris GL, Voulgari ML, Falagas ME Abstract INTRODUCTION: The constantly increasing spread of severe infections due to multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is a critical threat to the global medical community. After a long period of antibiotic pipeline pause, new antibiotic compounds are commercially available or are at late stages of clinical evaluation, promising to augment the therapeutic armamentarium of clinicians against deadly pathogens. Areas covered: This review summarizes available data regarding agents with potent activity against critical MDR Gram-negative pathogens, which...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Updates in the epidemiology and management of Candidemia and Clostridioides difficile coinfection.
Authors: Falcone M, Tiseo G, Venditti M, Menichetti F Abstract INTRODUCTION: In recent years, more and more studies have focused on the association between candidemia and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), highlighting the risk of subsequent candidemia in patients with CDI. However, a more recent model focuses on the Candida- Clostridioides coinfection as a clinical entity in which candidemia could occur before or after the CDI episode. Areas covered: In this review we analyzed the physio-pathological mechanisms underlying the Candida- Clostridioides coinfection, both in case of candidemia preceding or follo...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The direct and indirect effects of vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonization in liver transplant candidates and recipients.
Authors: Belga S, Chiang D, Kabbani D, Abraldes JG, Cervera C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonization and subsequent infection results in increased morbidity, mortality and use of healthcare resources. The burden of VRE colonization in liver transplant candidates and recipients is significant. VRE colonization is a marker of gut dysbiosis and its impact on the microbiota-liver axis, may negatively affect graft function and result in negative outcomes pre- and post-transplantation. Areas covered: In this article we describe the epidemiology of VRE colonization, risk factors for VRE...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Shifting to the long view: engagement of pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV in lifelong antiretroviral therapy services.
Authors: Phillips TK, Myer L Abstract INTRODUCTION: The advent of policies promoting lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV has shifted focus from short-term prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) to lifelong engagement in ART services. However, disengagement from care threatens the long-term treatment and prevention benefits of lifelong ART. Areas covered: A framework for considering the unique aspects of ART for pregnant and postpartum women is presented along with a review of the literature on maternal engagement in care in sub Saharan Africa and a...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Strategies for the improvement of HCV testing and diagnosis.
Authors: Chevaliez S Abstract INTRODUCTION: The improvement of number of people diagnosed with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are crucial to reach the WHO objectives for eliminating viral hepatitis by 2030. Alternatives to classical HCV virological tests using serum or plasma taken from venous puncture including point-of-care (POC) tests and dried blood spot (DBS) are being considering for HCV screening, diagnosis and monitoring. Reflex nucleic acid testing and HCV core antigen test have the potential to simplify diagnostic algorithm, increase diagnosis and facilitate linkage to care. Areas covered: This review ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Detection and treatment of Candida auris in an outbreak situation: risk factors for developing colonization and candidemia by this new species in critically ill patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Predictor conditions to C. auris colonization/candidemia are similar to other Candida species. C. auris colonizes multiple patient's environment surfaces. All isolates are resistant to fluconazole and had significant reduced susceptibility to voriconazole. PMID: 30922129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 31, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Spectrum of candidate molecules against Chikungunya virus - an insight into the antiviral screening platforms.
Authors: Bhat SM, Mudgal PP, N S, Arunkumar G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chikungunya disease has undergone a phenomenal transition in its status from being recognized as a sporadic infection to acquiring a global prominence over the last couple of decades. The causative agent behind the explosive worldwide epidemics is the re-emerging pathogen, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Areas covered: The current review discusses all the possible avenues of antiviral research towards combating CHIKV infection. Aspects of antiviral drug discovery such as antiviral targets, candidate molecules screened, and the various criteria to be a ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The use of predictive scores in the management of patients with carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection.
Authors: Giannella M, Pascale R, Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez B, Cano A, Viale P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. A therapeutic approach based on the patient risk stratification could improve outcome and avoid antibiotic misuse. Area covered: English literature search, from 2008 to 2018, was done using PubMed database. Risk factors for developing CR-KP infection in several settings were reviewed. Since, rectal carriage was a main risk factor for developing infection, we revised in deep clinical score to ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C in the current era of direct-acting antiviral agents.
Authors: Wei L, Huang YH Abstract INTRODUCTION: Within the past decade, antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has evolved from interferon (IFN)-based regimens to IFN-free oral direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). However, data on long-term outcomes in HCV patients treated by DAAs are limited and complex. This review summarizes the literature on long-term outcomes in patients with chronic HCV infection who received IFN-based and DAA treatment. Areas covered: Original studies and meta-analyses reporting data on the impacts of IFN- and DAA-based treatments on late relapse, liver fibrosis/...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Hand, foot and mouth disease associated with coxsackievirus A10: more serious than it seems.
Authors: Bian L, Gao F, Mao Q, Sun S, Wu X, Liu S, Yang X, Liang Z Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral childhood illness, that has been a severe public health concern worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. According to epidemiological data of HFMD during the past decade, the most prevalent causal viruses were enterovirus (EV)-A71, coxsackievirus (CV)-A16, CV-A6 and CV-A10. The public health burden of CV-A10-related diseases has been underestimated as their incidence was lower than that of EV-A71 and CV-A16 in most HFMD outbreaks. However, cases of CV-A10 infect...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Accuracy of presepsin in neonatal sepsis: systematic review and meta-analysis.
This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of presepsin (P-SEP) for neonatal sepsis. Areas covered: A systematic review of literature was performed on Medline and EMBASE. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and summary receiver operating characteristic of P-SEP for neonatal sepsis. Eight studies were included, involving 636 neonates. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.90 and 0.90, respectively. The pooled DOR was 120.94 and the Area Under Curve (AUC) was 0.968, indicating a high level of diagnostic accuracy. Using cut-off values 600 ng/L,...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

A multicenter point prevalence survey of antibiotic use in Punjab, Pakistan: findings and implications.
CONCLUSIONS: Study concluded that unnecessary prophylactic antibiotic use is extremely high, and broad-spectrum prescribing is common. There is a considerable need to work on a national action plan of Pakistan on antibiotic resistance. PMID: 30755077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

A cross-sectional study evaluating the knowledge and beliefs about, and the use of antibiotics amongst medical students in Malaysia.
This study aimed to assess university students' knowledge and beliefs about and their use of antibiotics. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among medical and non-medical students of the National Defence University of Malaysia. A universal and convenience sampling method was applied for medical students and non-medical students respectively. The data was collected using a validated questionnaire and analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 24 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Frequencies and percentages were used to describe the knowledge and beliefs about and use of antibiotics, and the MANOVA test ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Non-antibiotic therapies for sepsis: an update.
Authors: Vincent JL, Mongkolpun W Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sepsis, defined as infection plus some degree of organ dysfunction, is still associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. Management focuses on three key areas: infection control, hemodynamic stabilization and organ support, and modulation of the sepsis response. Areas covered: This review will not cover infection control. Hemodynamic stabilization essentially involves use of adequate fluid resuscitation and vasopressors. Fluid and vasopressor choices and targets are discussed, and the need to adapt these to the individual patient is stressed. No drugs...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis for children with chronic lung disease: have we got the criteria right?
Authors: Paes B, Carbonell-Estrany X Abstract INTRODUCTION: The use of palivizumab for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus-related hospitalization is well-established and has been adopted universally in pediatric position statements. Areas covered: The definition of chronic lung disease (CLD, bronchopulmonary dysplasia) has evolved over time and has significantly impacted the reported incidence of the condition, and the description of mild, moderate and severe disease in published studies. We reviewed lung function in infancy, childhood and adulthood of healthy preterm infants and those with CLD and how a...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Bridging the digital health divide: toward equitable global access to mobile health interventions for people living with HIV.
Authors: Campbell BR, Ingersoll KS, Flickinger TE, Dillingham R PMID: 30721103 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Strategies to enhance access to diagnosis and treatment for Chagas disease patients in Latin America.
Authors: Alonso-Padilla J, Cortés-Serra N, Pinazo MJ, Bottazzi ME, Abril M, Barreira F, Sosa-Estani S, Hotez PJ, Gascón J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease, caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, represents a huge public health problem in the Americas, where millions of people are affected. Despite the availability of two drugs against the infection (benznidazole and nifurtimox), multiple factors impede their effective usage: 1) gaps in patient and healthcare provider awareness; 2) lack of access to diagnosis; 3) drug toxicity and absence of treatment algorithms to address advers...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection: elimination with mass drug administration.
Authors: Wolle M, West S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the causative agent for trachoma, is responsible for 1.9 million cases of visual loss world-wide. Mass Drug Administration (MDA) with azithromycin to entire trachoma-endemic districts is part of the World Health Organization's public health strategy for trachoma elimination. Areas covered: Background on C. trachomatis and the epidemiology of trachoma are presented, followed by a review of the antibiotics for treatment and the need for a public health approach to trachoma elimination. The effectiveness of mass drug administration...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Management of febrile neutropenia in special consideration of the role of antimicrobial de-escalation.
Authors: Schmidt-Hieber M, Teschner D, Maschmeyer G, Schalk E Abstract INTRODUCTION: Infections are among the most frequent complications in patients with hematological and oncological diseases. They might be classified as fever of unknown origin, and microbiologically or clinically documented infections. Optimal duration of antimicrobial treatment is still unclear in these patients. Areas covered: We provide an overview on the management of febrile neutropenia in the perspective of antimicrobial de-escalation and discontinuation. Expert opinion: Patients with febrile high-risk neutropenia should be treated empiric...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Ozenoxacin: a review of preclinical and clinical efficacy.
This article reviews the microbiology, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of ozenoxacin, and its clinical and microbiological efficacy in impetigo. Expert opinion: In an environment of increasing antimicrobial resistance and concurrent slowdown in antimicrobial development, the introduction of a new agent is a major event. Ozenoxacin is characterized by simultaneous affinity for DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, appears to be impervious to certain efflux pumps that confer bacterial resistance to other quinolones, shows low selection of resistance mutants, and has a mutant prevention concentration below its conce...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Antibiotic stewardship in sepsis management: toward a balanced use of antibiotics for the severely ill patient.
Authors: De Waele JJ, Dhaese S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Severe infections in critically ill patients carry a high morbidity and mortality rate. Given the impact of early and broad-spectrum empirical therapy in several studies and the emphasis on this in international guidelines, there is a low threshold for initiating antibiotics in many patients with suspected infection. This has led to the widespread use of antibiotics in critically ill patients, which is often unnecessary or inappropriate. Areas covered: Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) attempts to reduce antibiotic exposure while improving outcomes and may intuiti...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Intravenous fosfomycin for the treatment of multidrug resistant pathogens: what is the evidence on dosing regimens?
Authors: Dimopoulos G, Koulenti D, Parker SL, Roberts JA, Arvaniti K, Poulakou G Abstract INTRODUCTION: The intravenous (IV) formulation of fosfomycin has been re-introduced lately in clinical practice mainly to overcome treatment failures against multi drug-resistant (MDR), bacterial strains. However, appropriate dosing schedules of the IV formulation of the drug have not yet been established. Areas covered: The mechanism of action and resistance development, commercial IV formulations, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) properties, IV dosing regimens commonly used for the treatment of MDR infections along w...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Late-onset sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacteria in very low birth weight infants: a systematic review.
Authors: Dong Y, Glaser K, Speer CP Abstract INTRODUCTION: Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are highly susceptible to late-onset sepsis (LOS). Compared to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria are less common to cause LOS, but are associated with a more severe clinical manifestation, higher mortality, and increased risk of neonatal morbidity. So far, the clinical picture of late-onset Gram-negative sepsis (LOGNS) in VLBW infants has not been elucidated. An up-to-date and thorough understanding of the clinical picture of LOGNS in VLBW infants is important to optimize current anti-sepsis protocols. Areas...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Cross-programmatic consultation on the role of primary care in the responsible use of medicines and the reduction of antimicrobial resistance.
Authors: Iwamoto K, Pedersen HB, Tello JE, Lo Fo Wong D, Robertson J Abstract This meeting was held from the 30 October to the 1 November 2018 in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The meeting brought together participants from 16 countries of central Asia, Caucasus, eastern Europe and expert speakers from western Europe and India. Participants discussed the analysis and use of data on antimicrobial medicines consumption, country experiences in enforcing legislation for prescription-only access to antibiotics, the role of primary health care (PHC) in tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR), strategies to improving competencies of...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The treatment of melioidosis: is there a role for repurposed drugs? A proposal and review.
Authors: Laws TR, Taylor AW, Russell P, Williamson D Abstract INTRODUCTION: Melioidosis is a significant health problem within endemic areas such as Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. The varied presentation of melioidosis and the intrinsic antibiotic resistance of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative organism, make melioidosis a difficult infection to manage. Often prolonged courses of antibiotic treatments are required with no guarantee of clinical success. Areas covered: B. pseudomallei is able to enter phagocytic cells, affect immune function, and replicate, via manipulation of the caspase system. An ex...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Monkeypox re-emergence in Africa: a call to expand the concept and practice of One Health.
Authors: Reynolds MG, Doty JB, McCollum AM, Olson VA, Nakazawa Y Abstract INTRODUCTION: Monkeypox is a re-emerging viral zoonosis that occurs naturally in heavily-forested regions of West and Central Africa. Inter-human transmission of monkeypox virus, although limited, drives outbreaks, particularly in household and healthcare settings. But the available evidence suggests that without repeated zoonotic introductions, human infections would eventually cease to occur. Therefore, interrupting virus transmission from animals to humans is key to combatting this disease. Such efforts, however, are hindered by an incompl...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Urinary antigen testing in community-acquired pneumonia in adults: an update.
Authors: Viasus D, Calatayud L, McBrown MV, Ardanuy C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila remain the major etiological agents and are responsible for a significant proportion of CAP mortality. Among diagnostic tests for CAP, urine antigen detection of S. pneumoniae and L. pneumophila is widely accepted due to the simplicity of collection and the rapidity of the test results. Areas covered: This comprehensive review outlines the urinary antigen test...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Real life experiences in HCV management in 2018.
Authors: Viganò M, Andreoni M, Perno CF, Craxì A, Aghemo A, Alberti A, Andreone P, Babudieri S, Bonora S, Brunetto MR, Bruno R, Bruno S, Calvaruso V, Caporaso N, Cartabellotta F, Ceccherini-Silberstein F, Cento V, Ciancio A, Colombatto P, Coppola N, Di Marco V, Di Perri G, Fagiuoli S, Gaeta GB, Gasbarrini A, Lampertico P, Pellicelli A, Prestileo T, Puoti M, Raimondo G, Rizzardini G, Taliani G, Zignego AL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease, with approximately 71 million chronically infected individuals worldwide. Treatment of chronic hepat...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Role of procalcitonin in bacteremic patients and its potential use in predicting infection etiology.
Authors: Bassetti M, Russo A, Righi E, Dolso E, Merelli M, D'Aurizio F, Sartor A, Curcio F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections (BSI) and their evolution to sepsis or septic shock are one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality; for this reason, a rapid recognition and diagnosis of these infections are crucial to improve patients' outcome. Area covered: Procalcitonin (PCT) is considered an important biomarker for diagnosis of infection, routinely used to identify patients developing severe bacterial infections and/or sepsis. In this scenario, management of BSI is complicated by the increasi...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of antimicrobial de-escalation as a clinical strategy.
Authors: Mathieu C, Pastene B, Cassir N, Martin-Loeches I, Leone M Abstract INTRODUCTION: De-escalation is a widely recommended strategy in regard to guidelines, with an associated adherence to guidelines being around 50%. This review discusses data supporting de-escalation and possible obstacles for its implementation. Areas covered: Although it does not have a consensual definition, de-escalation consists of reducing the spectrum of empirical antimicrobial treatment based on the microbiological findings. Many observational studies have suggested that this strategy is likely safe and efficient for treating various...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 22, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Improving the rates of Aspergillus detection: an update on current diagnostic strategies.
Authors: Jenks JD, Salzer HJF, Hoenigl M Abstract INTRODUCTION: The spectrum of disease caused by Aspergillus spp. is dependent on the immune system of the host, and ranges from invasive aspergillosis (IA) to chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Early and reliable diagnosis of Aspergillus disease is important to decrease associated morbidity and mortality. Areas covered: The following review will give an update on current diagnostic strategies for the diagnosis of IA and CPA. Expert commentary: Several new diagnostics for IA (including point-of-care tests) are now available to complement galactomannan testing. In...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae: a new public health threat.
Authors: Marr CM, Russo TA PMID: 30501374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Oxfendazole: a promising agent for the treatment and control of helminth infections in humans.
Authors: Gonzalez AE, Codd EE, Horton J, Garcia HH, Gilman RH Abstract INTRODUCTION: Oxfendazole (methyl [5-(phenylsulphinyl)-1H benzimidazole- 2-yl] carbamate) has a particularly long metabolic half-life in ruminants, and its metabolite fenbendazole also has anthelminthic action. A very limited number of drugs are available for the treatment of some zoonotic helminth infections, such as neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. More recent work has expanded oxfendazole's non-clinical safety profile and demonstrated its safety and bioavailability in healthy human volunteers, thus advancing the possibility of a new and...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Current research towards optimizing dosing of first-line antituberculosis treatment.
Authors: McIlleron H, Chirehwa MT Abstract INTRODUCTION: Drug concentrations in tuberculosis patients on standard regimens vary widely with clinically important consequences. Areas covered: We review the available literature identifying factors correlated with pharmacokinetic variability of antituberculosis drugs. Based on population pharmacokinetic models and the weight, height and sex distributions in a large data base of African tuberculosis patients, we propose simplified weight-based doses of the available fixed dose combination(FDC) for adults with drug susceptible tuberculosis. Emerging studies will support ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Management of bacterial skin and skin structure infections with polymicrobial aetiology.
Authors: Esposito S, Ascione T, Pagliano P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Skin and Soft Tissue Infections (SSTIs) are some of the most commonly occurring bacterial infections, with a wide range of possible aetiological pathogens and a considerable variety of clinical presentations and severity; from mild to severe life-threatening infections. Several classifications have been proposed based on a specific variable, such as anatomical localization, skin extension, progression rate, clinical presentation, severity and etiological agent. Areas covered: The last criteria allows the differentiation of SSTIs as mono-microbial and...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Lefamulin: a promising new pleuromutilin antibiotic in the pipeline.
Authors: Dillon C, Guarascio AJ, Covvey JR Abstract INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) represents a significant clinical and financial burden within infectious disease. In the advent of increasing resistance from bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae to available antibiotic therapies, there is a need for new drugs with novel mechanisms to treat such infections. Areas covered: Lefamulin, the first semi-synthetic pleuromutilin for systemic administration, is nearing completion of phase III studies for CABP; the manufacturer plans to file for a new drug application (NDA) in fourth-quarter ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Understanding the economic impact of leishmaniasis on households in endemic countries: a systematic review.
The objective of this review is to evaluate illness costs associated with leishmaniasis across different settings (Asia, Africa, and Latin America) and the consequences to households. Areas covered: Through a systematic review of cost-of-illness studies, we documented the distribution of costs, the health-seeking behavior, and the consequences of leishmaniasis. We discuss the value of cost-of-illness studies for leishmaniasis. Expert commentary: Despite the free provision of diagnostics and treatment in the public health care sector, out-of-pocket payments remain substantial. There has been progress in addressing the econo...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Teixobactin: A novel anti-infective agent.
Authors: McCarthy MW PMID: 30449226 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - November 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research