Statin use and impact on tuberculosis risk
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2021 Mar 1:1-6. doi: 10.1080/14787210.2021.1892488. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntroduction: Tuberculosis, a chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is one of the 10 leading causes of death in the world. The current treatment is a combination antimicrobial therapy administered for 6-9 months. It is important to find therapeutic strategy to shorten the treatment during and strengthen the host immune response against MTB.Areas covered: There is evidence that MTB uses cholesterol in the host macrophage to infect and survive inside the host macrophage. Statins inhibit the s...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vincent Yi-Fong Su Sheng-Wei Pan Yung-Feng Yen Jia-Yih Feng Wei-Juin Su Yuh-Min Chen Source Type: research

Comparing intravenous peramivir with oral oseltamivir for patients with influenza: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Conclusions: The treatment of influenza with IV peramivir or oral oseltamivir had similar clinical efficacy.PMID:33641583 | DOI:10.1080/14787210.2021.1878025 (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yu-Hsing Fang Tzu-Herng Hsu Tzu-Yin Lin Chia-Hung Liu Shou-Chu Chou Jie-Ying Wu Pang-Chung Perng Source Type: research

Statin use and impact on tuberculosis risk
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2021 Mar 1:1-6. doi: 10.1080/14787210.2021.1892488. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntroduction: Tuberculosis, a chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is one of the 10 leading causes of death in the world. The current treatment is a combination antimicrobial therapy administered for 6-9 months. It is important to find therapeutic strategy to shorten the treatment during and strengthen the host immune response against MTB.Areas covered: There is evidence that MTB uses cholesterol in the host macrophage to infect and survive inside the host macrophage. Statins inhibit the s...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vincent Yi-Fong Su Sheng-Wei Pan Yung-Feng Yen Jia-Yih Feng Wei-Juin Su Yuh-Min Chen Source Type: research

Comparing intravenous peramivir with oral oseltamivir for patients with influenza: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Conclusions: The treatment of influenza with IV peramivir or oral oseltamivir had similar clinical efficacy.PMID:33641583 | DOI:10.1080/14787210.2021.1878025 (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yu-Hsing Fang Tzu-Herng Hsu Tzu-Yin Lin Chia-Hung Liu Shou-Chu Chou Jie-Ying Wu Pang-Chung Perng Source Type: research

Statin use and impact on tuberculosis risk
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2021 Mar 1:1-6. doi: 10.1080/14787210.2021.1892488. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntroduction: Tuberculosis, a chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is one of the 10 leading causes of death in the world. The current treatment is a combination antimicrobial therapy administered for 6-9 months. It is important to find therapeutic strategy to shorten the treatment during and strengthen the host immune response against MTB.Areas covered: There is evidence that MTB uses cholesterol in the host macrophage to infect and survive inside the host macrophage. Statins inhibit the s...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vincent Yi-Fong Su Sheng-Wei Pan Yung-Feng Yen Jia-Yih Feng Wei-Juin Su Yuh-Min Chen Source Type: research

Comparing intravenous peramivir with oral oseltamivir for patients with influenza: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Conclusions: The treatment of influenza with IV peramivir or oral oseltamivir had similar clinical efficacy.PMID:33641583 | DOI:10.1080/14787210.2021.1878025 (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yu-Hsing Fang Tzu-Herng Hsu Tzu-Yin Lin Chia-Hung Liu Shou-Chu Chou Jie-Ying Wu Pang-Chung Perng Source Type: research

Statin use and impact on tuberculosis risk
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2021 Mar 1:1-6. doi: 10.1080/14787210.2021.1892488. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntroduction: Tuberculosis, a chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is one of the 10 leading causes of death in the world. The current treatment is a combination antimicrobial therapy administered for 6-9 months. It is important to find therapeutic strategy to shorten the treatment during and strengthen the host immune response against MTB.Areas covered: There is evidence that MTB uses cholesterol in the host macrophage to infect and survive inside the host macrophage. Statins inhibit the s...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vincent Yi-Fong Su Sheng-Wei Pan Yung-Feng Yen Jia-Yih Feng Wei-Juin Su Yuh-Min Chen Source Type: research

Comparing intravenous peramivir with oral oseltamivir for patients with influenza: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Conclusions: The treatment of influenza with IV peramivir or oral oseltamivir had similar clinical efficacy.PMID:33641583 | DOI:10.1080/14787210.2021.1878025 (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yu-Hsing Fang Tzu-Herng Hsu Tzu-Yin Lin Chia-Hung Liu Shou-Chu Chou Jie-Ying Wu Pang-Chung Perng Source Type: research

COVID-19 and cardiovascular complications: an update from the underlying mechanism to consequences and possible clinical intervention
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2021 Feb 23. doi: 10.1080/14787210.2021.1893692. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus has caused significant mortality worldwide and is primarily associated with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Apart from ARDS, clinical reports have shown noticeable cardiovascular complications among the patients of COVID-19. Infection from virus, stimulation of cytokine storm, altered immune response and damage to myocardial tissue are some of the proposed mechanism of cardiovascular complications in COVID-19.AREAS COVERED: Based on the clinical reports of CVDs a...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 23, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ashif Iqubal Mohammad Kashif Iqubal Farazul Hoda Abul Kalam Najmi Syed Ehtaishamul Haque Source Type: research

Recent molecules in the treatment of severe infections caused by ESBL-producing bacteria.
Authors: Russo A, Berruti M, Giacobbe DR, Vena A, Bassetti M Abstract Introduction: The widespread increase in resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in Enterobacterales currently represents one of the main threats to human health worldwide. The primary mechanisms of resistance are the production of β-lactamase enzymes that are able to hydrolyze β-lactams. Areas covered: we summarize the most recent advances regarding the main characteristics and spectrum of activity of new available antibiotics and strategies for the treatment of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales infections. Expert opinion: ESBL-producing...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Comparative efficacy assessment of antiviral alone and antiviral-antibiotic combination in prevention of influenza-B infection associated complications.
Authors: Ishaqui A, Khan A, Sulaiman SAS, Alsultan M, Khan I Abstract OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to compare the efficacy of antiviral drug alone and antiviral-antibiotic combination in prevention of complications associated with Influenza B hospitalized patients. METHOD: Laboratory confirmed Influenza B hospitalized patients who presented in emergency room after 48 hours of symptoms onset were identified and divided into two groups; Group-1 patients were initiated on Antiviral drug (oseltamivir) while Group-2 patients were initiated on Antiviral drug (oseltamivir) in combination with Antibiotic for at least 3 d...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Antimicrobial prescribing for treatment of serious infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pediatrics: an expert review.
Authors: Avedissian SN, Rhodes NJ, Shaffer CL, Tran L, Bradley JS, Le J Abstract Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), remains a significant pathogen in children. Despite evidence of decreasing prevalence, MRSA bacteremia has been closely associated with complications, including certain infections (i.e., musculoskeletal and endovascular) linked to increased treatment failures. Areas Covered: This expert review summarized recent published literature on the role of treatment, dosing and administration of antibiotics used to combat serious S. aureus infections in childr...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Cannabis use and reduced risk of elevated fatty liver index in HIV-HCV co-infected patients: a longitudinal analysis (ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH).
Authors: Barre T, Rojas Rojas T, Lacombe K, Protopopescu C, Poizot-Martin I, Nishimwe M, Zucman D, Esterle L, Billaud E, Aumaitre H, Bouchaud O, Rey D, Piroth L, Salmon-Ceron D, Wittkop L, Sogni P, Carrieri MP, Serfaty L, Marcellin F Abstract Background: Cannabis use and elevated fatty liver index (FLI≥ 60) (a biomarker of hepatic steatosis in the general population) have been identified as predictors of HCV-related and overall mortality, respectively, in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. However, the relationship between cannabis use and the risk of elevated FLI has never been explored. Methods: Using five-year fol...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 6, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Infection-related stillbirth: an update on current knowledge and strategies for prevention.
Authors: Aleem S, Bhutta ZA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Infections during pregnancy are a preventable public health concern globally, with the highest burden occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Despite clear interventions to reduce these infections, their impact on preventing stillbirths is unclear, with conflicting evidence. AREAS COVERED: The purpose of this review is to discuss data regarding infectious causes of stillbirths, and interventions for the prevention and/or treatment of these infections. We discuss the limitations in evaluating the true effect of the interventions on stillbirths, and highli...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 3, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The value of infectious disease modeling and trend assessment: a public health perspective.
Authors: Ding C, Liu X, Yang S Abstract INTRODUCTION: : Disease outbreaks of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, severe acute respiratory syndrome, pandemic H1N1, H7N9, H5N1, Ebola, Zika, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and recently COVID-19 have raised the attention of the public for the past half-century. Revealing the characteristics and epidemic trends are important parts for disease control. The biological scenarios including transmission characteristics, can be constructed and translated into mathematical models, which can help to predict and gain a deeper understanding of diseases. AREAS COVERED: : Thi...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 3, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Prevalence of antibiotic self-medication behavior and related factors among children aged 0 to 5 years.
Conclusions: Health beliefs of parents were significantly associated with SMA among children. In addition to extensive health education, the Chinese government should also improve the accessibility and quality of health services to reduce the barriers of parental behavior change. PMID: 33507127 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 30, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Drug discovery for primary amebic meningoencephalitis: from screen to identification of leads.
Authors: Debnath A Abstract Introduction: Naegleria fowleri is responsible for primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) which has a fatality rate of>97%. Because of the rarity of the disease, pharmaceutical companies do not pursue new drug discovery for PAM. Yet, it is possible that the infection is underreported and finding a better drug would have an impact on people suffering from this deadly infection. Areas covered: This paper reports the efforts undertaken by different academic groups over the last 20 years to test different compounds against N. fowleri. The drug discovery research encompassed synthesis of...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 28, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Potential role of glycoprotein 340 in milder SARS-CoV-2 infection in children.
Authors: Zarei M, Bose D, Ali Akbari Ghavimi S, Nouri-Vaskeh M, Mohammadi M, Sahebkar A PMID: 33444084 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 15, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Advances in Clostridioides difficile therapeutics.
Authors: Khanna S PMID: 33427531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Elbasvir and grazoprevir for the treatment of hepatitis C.
Authors: Wang SJ, Huang CF, Yu ML Abstract INTRODUCTION: : Hepatitis C is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease. The direct-acting-antivirals has revolutionized the chronic hepatitis C treatment. DAAs can achieve a sustained virological response rate>95% in different populations. AREA COVERED: : This review summarizes the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of Elbasvir/Grazoprevir (EBR/GZR). EXPERT OPINION: : EBR/GZR is a combination of NS5A and NS3/4A inhibitors. The performance in the EBR/GZR combination's safety and tolerability is appreciated in clinical treatment. E...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

How effective are rapid diagnostic tests for Chagas disease?
Authors: Pinazo MJ, Gascon J, Alonso-Padilla J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease relies on the agreement of two conventional serological tests based on distinct antigens. These require cold to preserve reagents and samples, and equipment and trained personnel to run them. Moreover, results turnaround may be delayed for several weeks risking loss to follow-up of infected subjects, summoning major disadvantages to access diagnosis (and treatment) in many highly endemic areas. AREAS COVERED: Recent studies have shown versatility of rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of chronic Trypan...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Predictors of mortality in invasive pneumococcal disease: a meta-analysis.
Conclusions: This meta-analysis highlights important risk factors for IPD-related mortality, many of which may be targeted through preventive measures. PMID: 33382642 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

A review on favipiravir: the properties, function, and usefulness to treat COVID-19.
Authors: Hashemian SM, Farhadi T, Velayati AA Abstract INTRODUCTION: At this time, there is no specific therapeutic or vaccine for treatment of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Hence, available drugs for treatment of other viral infections may be useful to treat COVID-19. AREAS COVERED: The focus of the current review was studying the main characteristics of favipiravir and its usefulness to treat COVID-19. An electronic search was done by using Pubmed and Google scholar. EXPERT OPINION: Based on the mechanism of action and safety of favipiravir, the drug may be a promising ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 31, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics: access, excess, and awareness in Bangladesh.
Authors: Islam MM Abstract Introduction: Antibiotic resistance is a substantial cause of mortality, morbidity burden in Bangladesh. In this perspective piece, the problem of antibiotic resistance has been analyzed by critically evaluating literature data, and based on the author's experience. Areas covered: The underlying causes of this resistance are numerous including irrational and inappropriate use of antibiotics aggravated by aggressive marketing, over-the-counter dispensing, prescribing by the unqualified providers, lack of awareness in the general population, and inadequate implementation of relevant regulat...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Repurposing therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2 infection: most promising and neoteric progress.
Authors: Hossain MJ, Rahman SMA Abstract INTRODUCTION: The pathogenic and highly transmissible etiological agent, SARS-CoV-2, has caused a serious threat COVID-19 pandemic. WHO has declared the epidemic a public health emergency of international concern owing to its high contagiosity, mortality rate, and morbidity. Till now, there is no approved vaccine or drug to combat the COVID-19 and avert this global crisis. AREAS COVERED: In this narrative review, we summarized the updated results (January to August 2020) of the most promising repurposing therapeutic candidates to treat the SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. The...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Calycosin: a Review of its Pharmacological Effects and Application Prospects.
Authors: Deng M, Chen H, Long J, Song J, Xie L, Li X Abstract Introduction: Calycosin (CA), a typical phytoestrogen extracted from root of Astragalus membranaceus. On the basis of summarizing the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic studies of CA in recent years, we hope to provide useful information for CA about treating different diseases and to make suggestions for future research. Areas covered: We collected relevant information (January 2014 to March 2020) on CA via the Internet database. Keywords searched includ pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicology, and the number of effective references was 118. CA i...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Screening for Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): a valuable antimicrobial stewardship tool?
Authors: Tillotson G, van Hise N PMID: 33331192 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Fostemsavir for the treatment of HIV.
Authors: Seval N, Frank C, Kozal M Abstract INTRODUCTION: For those with heavily treatment experienced (HTE) HIV-1 and virologic failure, therapeutic options are limited. A variety of barriers such as drug resistance, side effects, past intolerance, and administration inability contribute to the need for novel drug classes in this population. AREAS COVERED: Herein, we review the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and safety profile of fostemsavir, a first in its class attachment inhibitor recently FDA approved for use. EXPERT OPINION: Fostemsavir is a well tolerated oral medication with relatively few drug-dr...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Healthcare-associated ventriculitis: current and emerging diagnostic and treatment strategies.
Authors: Hasbun R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis occurs after neurosurgical procedures, is associated with an adverse outcome in the majority of patients and represent a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. As the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture is the cornerstone of diagnosis, obtaining CSF studies prior to starting antibiotic therapy is key. AREAS COVERED: This review will evaluate the incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, empirical intravenous antibiotic therapy, adjunctive intrathecal therapy, microbiology, prognosis and prevention of HCAVM. W...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The gene profile of Enterobacteriaceae virulence factors in relation to bacteriuria levels between the acute episodes of recurrent uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection.
CONCLUSIONS: The inter-episode period in rLUTI is associated with varying levels of bacteriuria of enterobacteria. Since enterobacteria virulent potential could be determined at all levels of bacteriuria, there is at all levels of bacteriuria a potential risk for recurrence of LUTI. PMID: 33338384 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Potential Effectiveness and Adverse Implications of Repurposing Doxycycline in COVID-19 Treatment.
Authors: Narendrakumar L, Joseph I, Thomas S Abstract INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection with no known specific drugs or vaccines has impacted mankind and has become beyond precedence. Currently, re-purposing of existing drugs is the only therapeutic option for managing COVID-19 symptoms and associated co-infections to reduce mortality. Antimicrobials as varied as anti-parasitic, anti-viral and antibiotics are under various stages of evaluation. AREAS COVERED: Recently, doxycycline, a broad spectrum antibiotic which has also reported anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties was widely investigated in clinical ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Exacerbation of antimicrobial resistance: another casualty of the covid-19 pandemic?
Authors: Razzaque MS Abstract INTRODUCTION: : The widespread use of antimicrobial drugs during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the likely emergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms is a global health concern. Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, several antimicrobial drugs have lost their efficacy and are no longer useful to treat life-threatening infections. Since the exacerbation of antimicrobial resistance is likely to be another casualty of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a pressing need to develop innovative strategies to minimize the risk of antimicrobial resistance. AREAS...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Direct acting antivirals are associated with more liver stiffness regression than pegylated interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients.
Conclusion: Treatment with DAAs is associated with fibrosis improvement more than treatment with PEG/RBV in chronic hepatitis C patients. PMID: 33307880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The immunology of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the potential antibody based treatments and vaccination strategies.
Authors: Payandeh Z, Mohammad Khani N, Nabbi M, Khalili S, Rajabibazl M, Houjaghani Z, Dadkhah M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a potentially fatal agent for a new emerging viral disease (COVID-19) is of great global public health emergency. Herein, we represented potential antibody based treatments especially monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that may exert a potential role in treatment as well as developing vaccination strategies against COVID-19. AREAS COVERED: We used PubMed, Google Scholar, and clinicaltrials.gov search strategies for relevant papers. We d...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Prevalence of antimicrobial use in a tertiary academic hospital: a venue for antimicrobial stewardship programs.
CONCLUSION: This surveillance study addressed patterns of antimicrobial usage in inpatients settings in a tertiary care hospital in Jordan. This practice is feasible and could be adopted routinely by antimicrobial stewardship programs. PMID: 33307895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

An Update on COVID-19 Pandemic: The Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment Strategies.
Authors: Tsang HF, Chan LWC, Cho WCS, Yu ACS, Yim AKY, Chan AKC, Ng LPW, Wong YKE, Pei XM, Li MJW, Wong SCC Abstract INTRODUCTION: To date, the transmission of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is still overwhelming with the fact that numbers of confirmed cases and deaths keep increasing. As of 1 October, 2020, 33,842,281 confirmed cases and 1,010,634 confirmed deaths have been reported to the World Health Organization from 216 countries. Despite the urgent need of effective treatment strategies, there is no specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19 currently and the treatment guidelines for COVID-19 vary among c...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 12, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Triclabendazole for the treatment of human fascioliasis and the threat of treatment failures.
Authors: Marcos LA, Maco V, Terashima A Abstract INTRODUCTION: : The only drug effective against the infection caused by Fasciola hepatica or F. gigantica is triclabendazole (TCBZ), recommended by the WHO and recently approved by the FDA. Here, we describe the evolution of TCBZ regimens and the emergence of TCBZ failure to Fasciola infection. AREAS COVERED: : The present review focuses on the evidence of TCBZ for the treatment of fascioliasis. For acute fascioliasis, there is a lack of studies to measure the presence of eggs of Fasciola in stool samples on the follow-up after initial TCBZ treatment. For chronic...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

New perspectives in the antibiotic treatment of mechanically ventilated patients with infections from Gram-negatives.
Authors: Karvouniaris M, Pontikis K, Nitsotolis T, Poulakou G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common and potentially fatal complication of mechanical ventilation that is often caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). Despite the repurposing of older treatments and the novel antimicrobials, many resistance mechanisms cannot be confronted, and novel therapies are needed. AREAS COVERED: We searched the literature for keywords regarding the treatment of GNB infections in mechanically ventilated patients. This narrative review presents new data on antibiotic...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Recent progress in the repurposing of drugs/molecules for the management of COVID-19.
This article reviews the FDA approved drugs/molecules which could be repurposed in the combination or single to combat the COVID-19. EXPERT OPINION: In this focused review, we suggested the repurposing of the pathogen-centric, host-centric, dual sword (act as pathogen-centric as well as host-centric), and the combinatorial (pathogen and host-centric) drugs against COVID-19 patients. These drugs singly or in combination could be effective for the management of COVID-19. PMID: 33270490 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Bacteriophages for ESKAPE: Role in pathogenicity and measures of control.
Authors: Patil A, Banerji R, Kanojiya P, Koratkar S, Saroj S Abstract INTRODUCTION: The quest to combat bacterial infections has dreaded humankind for centuries. Infections involving ESKAPE (Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.) impose therapeutic challenges due to the emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance. Recently, investigations with bacteriophages have led to the development of novel strategies against ESKAPE infections. Also, bacteriophages have been demonstrated to be instrumental in the dissemination of vi...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

CAR-T cell therapy and infection: a review.
Authors: Bupha-Intr O, Haeusler G, Chee L, Thursky K, Slavin M, Teh B Abstract Introduction: Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR-T cell therapy) is a novel immunotherapy with promising results in the treatment of relapsed or refractory B cell malignancies. Patients undergoing CAR-T cell therapy are at increased risk of infection due to prior immunosuppression, lymphodepleting chemotherapy, treatment of unique toxicities with tocilizumab and/or steroids, on-target effects of hypogammaglobulinaemia, and prolonged cytopenias. Areas covered: A narrative review of infections (PubMed, August 2020) occurring in ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Strategies for implementation of a multidisplinary approach to the treatment of nosocomial infections in critically ill patients.
Authors: Martin-Loeches I, Metersky M, Kalil A, Pezzani MD, Torres A Abstract INTRODUCTION: : Intensive Care Units (ICU) are among the hospital wards exhibiting the highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and resulting impact on patient outcomes. Antimicrobial resistance surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs play a pivotal role in promoting interventions tailored to optimize infection diagnosis and treatment in the final attempt to limit unnecessary antimicrobial use and development of resistance. AREAS COVERED: : A narrative review of the literature was carried out to summariz...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Lack of antibiotic knowledge and misuse of antibiotics by medical students in Mali: A cross-sectional study.
This study aimed to assess antibiotic knowledge and utilization among medical students in the Republic of Mali, and to determine the relationship between knowledge and health-seeking behavior in relation to antibiotic use. METHODS: : A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the only public medical university in Mali. The questionnaire explored knowledge about antibiotics of medical students, and health behaviors for self-limiting illness. Data were analyzed in SPSS. RESULTS: : A total of 446 medical students completed the questionnaire. The average knowledge score was 4.12 out of 10. Students with clinical experie...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Application of platelet-rich plasma in traumatic bone infections.
Authors: Tang R, Wang S, Yang J, Wu T, Fei J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Traumatic bone infection represents a clinical challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Traditional treatments include surgical debridement and antibiotic, but prolonged use of antibiotic may lead to colonization of resistant bacteria and other adverse reactions. AREAS COVERED: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a biological product extracted from the peripheral blood of patients, has been widely used in the field of tissue repair in recent years. Because if its structural and antibacterial properties, PRP is an innovative option for the prevention and trea...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - December 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Adjuvant use of combination of antibiotics in acute severe ulcerative colitis: A placebo controlled randomized trial.
CONCLUSION: Combination of intravenous ceftriaxone and metronidazole did not improve outcomes in ASUC. Acronym: AAASUC trial. Registration Number: CTRI/2019/03/018196 and NCT03794765. PMID: 33245002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - November 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

An update on endotoxin neutralization strategies in Gram-negative bacterial infections.
Authors: Brandenburg K, Schromm AB, Weindl G, Heinbockel L, Correa W, Mauss K, Martinez de Tejada G, Garidel P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Gram-negative bacterial infections represent still a severe problem of human health care, regarding the increase in multi-resistance against classical antibiotics and the lack of newly developed antimicrobials. For the fight against these germs, anti-infective agents must overcome and/or bind to the Gram-negative outer membrane consisting of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) outer leaflet and an inner leaflet from phospholipids, with additional peripheral or integral membrane pro...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - November 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research