The potential for CXCL13 in CSF as a differential diagnostic tool in central nervous system infection.
Authors: Masouris I, Klein M, Ködel U Abstract INTRODUCTION: Central nervous system (CNS) infections can be life-threatening and are often associated with disabling sequelae. One important factor in most CNS infections is a timely pathogen-specific treatment. The diagnostic methods available, however, do not always reach a satisfying sensitivity and specificity. In these cases, there is need for additional diagnostic biomarkers. Chemokines represent potential candidates as biomarkers, since they are an important pillar of the host immune response. The aim of this review is to discuss the diagnostic potential o...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - June 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Does adipose tissue have a role in tuberculosis?
Authors: PrayGod G PMID: 32450048 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Efflux pump inhibitors as a promising adjunct therapy against drug resistant tuberculosis: a new strategy to revisit mycobacterial targets and repurpose old drugs.
Authors: Rodrigues L, Cravo P, Viveiros M Abstract Introduction: In 2018, an estimated 377,000 people developed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), urging for new effective treatments. In the last years, it has been accepted that efflux pumps play an important role in the evolution of drug resistance. Strategies are required to mitigate the consequences of the activity of efflux pumps.Areas covered: Based upon the literature available in PubMed, up to February 2020, on the diversity of efflux pumps in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their association with drug resistance, studies that identified efflux inhibi...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Diagnostic imaging in infective endocarditis: a contemporary perspective.
Authors: Castillo Almeida NE, Gurram P, Esquer Garrigos Z, Mahmood M, Baddour LM, Sohail MR Abstract INTRODUCTION: Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a diagnostic challenge. Prompt diagnosis is essential for accurate risk stratification and appropriate therapeutic decisions and surgical management. In recent years, use of multimodal imaging has had a transformative effect on the diagnostic approach of IE in selected patients. AREAS COVERED: This review assesses published literature on different imaging modalities for the diagnosis of IE published between January 1, 2009 and February 1, 2020. We illustrate the ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Old and re-purposed drugs for the treatment of COVID-19.
Authors: Jean SS, Hsueh PR Abstract Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has developed since December 2019. It has caused a global pandemic with more than three hundred thousand case fatalities. However, apart from supportive care by respirators, no standard medical therapy is validated.Areas covered: This paper presents old drugs with potential in vitro efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. The in vitro database, adverse effects, and potential toxicities of these drugs are reviewed regarding their feasibility of clinical presc...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Value of IFNL3 genetic polymorphism in the prediction of HCV treatment response to direct-acting antiviral drugs versus interferon therapy.
Conclusion: This study recommended IFNL3 genotyping to be a prerequisite before stratifying treatment for HCV-4a Egyptians. PMID: 32419526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Intravenous fosfomycin for the treatment of patients with central nervous system infections: evaluation of the published evidence.
The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the available data regarding the effectiveness and safety of intravenous fosfomycin for the treatment of CNS infections. Thirty-two relevant publications were identified. Data from 224 patients who received intravenous fosfomycin as treatment for CNS infections were evaluated. Overall, 93.8% of patients were cured from the infection. Staphylococcus was the most frequent pathogen; Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and several other microbial agents, including multi-drug resistant and extensively drug-resistant bacteria, were also implicated. Fosfomycin was given...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Role of Ribavirin in the Era of Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapies of Chronic Hepatitis C.
Conclusion: RBV may still have an augmenting role in treatment experienced patients; permitting effectual shortening of therapy particularly in patients with cirrhosis, with modest side and adverse consequences. PMID: 32397842 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Point Prevalence Surveys Of Antimicrobial Use: A Systematic Review And The Implications.
Authors: Saleem Z, Hassali MA, Godman B, Versporten A, Hashmi FK, Saeed H, Saleem F, Salman M, Rehman IU, Khan TM Abstract Introduction: In view of increasing concerns with antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the World Health Organization (WHO) instituted a Global Action Plan (GAP) to address this.Area Covered: One of the strategies to achieve the goals of GAP is to conduct regular surveillance of antimicrobial use through point prevalence surveys (PPS). In this review, PubMed, EBSCO, Proquest, Cinahl and Scopus were searched for PPS of antimicrobial use published in English between January 2000 and December 2019. Afte...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Harmonizing antibiotic regimens with renal replacement therapy.
Authors: Jang SM, Lewis SJ, Mueller BA Abstract Introduction: Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury often require renal replacement therapy and antibiotic therapy. Mortality rates are high in these patients, possibly due to ineffective dosing due to altered pharmacokinetic profiles and drug removal by renal replacement therapy.Areas covered: The main types of renal replacement therapies are intermittent hemodialysis, prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy and continuous renal replacement therapy. Each of these renal replacement therapies may have drastic, yet different, effects on antibiotic se...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Quadruple therapy for asymptomatic COVID-19 infection patients.
Authors: Wang L, Xu X, Ruan J, Lin S, Jiang J, Ye H Abstract Introduction: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is currently in epidemic stage. After large-scale interpersonal infection, asymptomatic patients appear. Whether asymptomatic patients are contagious or not and whether they need medication are the arguments among clinical experts.Areas covered: This paper reports a special asymptomatic couple with COVID-19, of which the male patient is an intercity bus driver but has not induced confirmed infection of his 188 passengers. The patients were treated with four combinations of lopinavir/ritonavir tablets, arbidol...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Harnessing the potential of CRISPR-based platforms to advance the field of hospital medicine.
Authors: McCarthy MW Abstract Introduction: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are segments of nucleic acid that play a role in prokaryotic defense and form the basis of a genome editing technology that allows permanent alteration of genetic material. This methodology, known as CRISPR-Cas9, is poised to revolutionize molecular biology, but no literature yet exists on how these advances will affect hospitalists.Areas covered: These specialists in inpatient medicine care for a wide variety of hospitalized patients, including those with infectious disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Precision medicine for the diagnosis and treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales: time to think from a different perspective.
Authors: Reyes S, Nicolau DP Abstract Introduction: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) represent a global public health problem. Precision medicine (PM) is a multicomponent medical approach that should be used to individualize the management of patients infected with CRE.Areas covered: Here, we differentiate carbapenem-producing CRE (CP-CRE) from non-CP-CRE and the importance of this distinction in clinical practice. The current phenotypic CRE-case definition and its implications are also discussed. Additionally, we summarize data regarding phenotypic and molecular diagnostic tools and available antibiotic...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Challenges in TB regimen development: preserving evidentiary standards for regulatory decisions and policymaking.
Authors: Guglielmetti L, Low M, McKenna L PMID: 32345064 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Total mouth photodynamic therapy mediated by blue led and curcumin in individuals with AIDS.
Conclusion: aPDT was effective in reducing Streptococcusspp. in addition to reducing Staphylococcusspp., enterobacteria and the total count of microorganisms when considering the numbers of TCD4 and TCD8 lymphocytes. The aPDT in the studied protocol was able to control clinically important intraoral microorganisms for AIDS patients, both those with TCD4 lymphocytes above or below 25% of normal and those with TCD8 lymphocytes above 25% of normal. PMID: 32336177 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infections among pediatricians in 2018 in Shaanxi Province, China.
Conclusion: Effective integrated interventions should be developed to promote the prudent use of antibiotics among pediatricians. PMID: 32338547 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Novel strategies for rapid identification and susceptibility testing of MRSA.
Authors: Mizusawa M, Carroll KC Abstract Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with adverse clinical outcomes and increased morbidity, mortality, length of hospital stay and health care costs. Rapid diagnosis of MRSA infections has been associated with positive impact on clinical outcomes.Areas Covered: We searched relevant papers in PubMed for the last 10 years. In major papers, we scanned the bibliographies to ensure that important articles were included. This review describes screening and diagnostic test methods for MRSA and their analytical performances with a focus on ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Nucleos(t)ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: a systematic review with network meta-analysis.
Conclusion: The nucleos(t)ide analogs are all effective for HBeAg seroconversion, HBeAg loss, undetectable HBV DNA and most are effective for ALT normalization in adults with CHB. RCTs of multi-center, low risk of bias and long-term follow-up are still needed. PMID: 32329638 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Current approaches to cysticidal drug therapy for neurocysticercosis.
Authors: Del Brutto OH Abstract Introduction: Cysticidal drugs have improved the prognosis of thousands of patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC). However, conflicting studies have created controversies on the actual value of these drugs. Here, the reasons of these controversies, as well as evidence showing the beneficial role of cysticidal drugs are reviewed.Areas covered: The present review (based on different databases searches up to March 2020), focuses on the evidence supporting the use of cysticidal drugs in patients with NCC. For parenchymal NCC, albendazole alone must be used for patients with one or two cy...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Antibiotic resistant profile of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Conclusion: In summary, increasing resistance rate in UTI related agents is a risk factor that endangers both mother and fetus. Health care providers should consider screening as the radical part of infection control strategies. Due to low resistance rate to Nitrofurantoin, this drug can be a good choice for UTI treatment in pregnancies, but it should use with caution. PMID: 32321329 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Antifungal susceptibility testing in Candida species: current methods and promising new tools for shortening the turnaround time.
Authors: Knabl L, Lass-Flörl C Abstract Introduction: Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) have received attention as an emerging public health threat, are difficult to diagnose and to treat, and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The standard of care in IFD management requires an early and targeted antifungal treatment, hence covers - amongst others - species identification and antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST).Areas covered: This review gives an overview of methods currently applied in AFST and highlights promising new tools for shortening the turnaround time focusing on Candida speci...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

How can we improve uptake of oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for transgender individuals?
Authors: Radix AE, Harris AB, Goldstein ZG PMID: 32316773 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Plazomicin: an intravenous aminoglycoside antibacterial for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections.
Authors: Bilinskaya A, Linder KE, Kuti JL Abstract Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance continues to be a major public health concern due to the emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms, including extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase producing Enterobacterales. Plazomicin is a novel aminoglycoside that demonstrates activity against MDR gram-negatives, including those producing ESBLs and most carbapenemases, and retains activity against aminoglycoside modifying enzymes as a result of structural modifications. The information discussed is meant to assist in identifying pl...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Cardiovascular disease in HIV patients: recent advances in predicting and managing risk.
Authors: McGettrick P, Mallon PW, Sabin CA Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in virally suppressed people living with HIV (PLWH) and with an ageing population, is likely to become one of the leading challenges in maintaining good health outcomes in HIV infection. However, factors driving risk of CVD in PLWH are multiple and may be different from those of the general population, raising challenges to predicting and managing CVD risk in this population.Areas covered: In this review, we examine the relevant data regarding CVD in HIV infection including that o...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Emerging from the screening of 57 million citizens and treating 4 million patients: future strategies to eliminate hepatitis C from Egypt.
Authors: Esmat G, Elbaz T, Elsharkawy A, AbdAllah M, Kassas ME Abstract Introduction: Egypt succeeded in establishing a successful model of care for hepatitis C virus (HCV) management in the country with the highest worldwide disease prevalence. The Egyptian ministry of health announced an optimistic goal of near disease elimination. More steps are still required to achieve such a goal.Areas covered: This review covers the efforts made in treatment and prevention of HCV by the Egyptian National Committee for the Control of Viral Hepatitis (NCCVH) with emphasis on the extensive screening program that was able to scr...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Meropenem/ vaborbactam: a next generation β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination.
This article reviews the microbiological and pharmacological profile and current clinical experience and safety of M/V in the treatment of infections caused by CRE.Expert opinion: M/V is a promising drug for the treatment of infections due to KPC-producing CRE (KPC-CRE). It exhibited an almost complete coverage of KPC-CRE isolates from large surveillance studies and a low propensity for resistance selection, retaining activity also against strains producing KPC mutants resistant to ceftazidime-avibactam. Both meropenem and vaborbactam have a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, with similar kinetic properties, a good intrapu...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Repurposed anti-cancer drugs: the future for anti-infective therapy?
Authors: Quezada H, Martínez-Vázquez M, López-Jácome E, González-Pedrajo B, Andrade Á, Fernández Presas AM, Tovar García A, García-Contreras R PMID: 32290720 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Improper disposal of unused antibiotics: an often overlooked driver of antimicrobial resistance.
Authors: Anwar M, Iqbal Q, Saleem F PMID: 32281427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Management strategies for human babesiosis.
Authors: Smith RP, Hunfeld KP, Krause PJ Abstract Introduction: Human babesiosis is reported throughout the world and is endemic in the northeastern and northern Midwestern United States and northeastern China. Transmission is primarily through hard bodied ticks. Most cases of severe disease occur in immunocompromised individuals and may result in prolonged relapsing disease or death.Areas covered: We provide a summary of evidence supporting current treatment recommendations for immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals experiencing babesiosis.Expert opinion: Most cases of human babesiosis are successfully ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Fecal microbiota transplantation for treatment of patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection.
Authors: Voth E, Khanna S Abstract Introduction: Recurrent Clostridiodes difficile infection (rCDI) is a growing public health burden, and is associated with poor patient outcomes. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a novel therapy with an aim to restore the disrupted microbiota with demonstrated success in management of rCDI and a favorable safety profile.Areas covered: This review includes a comprehensive overview of a search of the literature including epidemiology of rCDI, basics of the gut microbiome, antibiotic therapy for rCDI along with rationale for, safety and efficacy of FMT for rCDI.Expert opinio...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Bacterial infection during wars, conflicts and post-natural disasters in Asia and the Middle East: a narrative review.
Authors: Nawfal Dagher T, Al-Bayssari C, Diene SM, Azar E, Rolain JM Abstract Introduction: Bacterial infections resulting from wars and natural disasters represent a major public health problem. Over the past 50 years, Asia and the Middle East have suffered several wars. Moreover, East-Asian countries are considered the most natural disaster-prone countries in the world.Areas covered: This review focuses on bacterial infection occurring during wars and after natural disasters, among refugees, wounded citizens and soldiers as well as the prevention and control measures that must be taken.Expert opinion: During wars...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Further understanding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa's ability to horizontally acquire virulence: possible intervention strategies.
Authors: Redfern J, Enright MC Abstract Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common, ubiquitous bacterium that is found in natural environments but is also a successful opportunistic pathogen of humans and plants. The reasons for this flexibility and evolutionary success can be attributed to its ability to readily acquire new genes to ensure its survival enabling it to survive desiccation, the action of antimicrobial compounds and invade new territories such as modern hospitals with high levels of antibiotic usage.Areas covered: Literature was searched using PubMed and Web of science (05/19 to 05/20). Identifi...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The enemy at home: Leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean basin, Italy on the focus.
Authors: Gianchecchi E, Montomoli E Abstract Introduction: Leishmaniasis represents one of the most dangerous neglected tropical diseases. The parasite used to show a well-defined geographical distribution; however, during the last decade the parasite has spread into new areas. This change in the worldwide distribution of the parasite and in leishmaniasis epidemiology are the result of man's ill-considered interventions in the environment and of the consequent global warming.Areas covered: The present review focuses on Leishmaniasis incidence in the Mediterranean basin and underlines the pressing need to raise awar...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Leprosy: Why does it persist among us?
Authors: Santos VS, de Souza CDF, Martins-Filho PRS, Cuevas LE PMID: 32250199 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Natural and vaccine-induced B cell-derived systemic and mucosal humoral immunity to human papillomavirus.
Authors: Mboumba Bouassa RS, Péré H, Jenabian MA, Veyer D, Meye JF, Touzé A, Bélec L Abstract Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) play an important role in the pathogenesis of mucosal neoplasia. Considering that cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer in women worldwide and that the global incidence of both HPV-associated anal and oropharyngeal cancers is constantly increasing, especially in men, infection with HPV can be regarded as a worldwide concern. HPV-specific adaptive immune response which involve CD8+ cytotoxic T cells as well as humoral responses both coordinated by CD...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Alternative approaches to treat bacterial infections: targeting quorum-sensing.
We present the components of QS systems that form possible targets for the development of anti-virulence drugs and discuss recent research on quorum-quenching approaches to control bacterial infection.Expert opinion: While there has been extensive research on QS systems and quorum-quenching approaches, there is a paucity of in-vivo research using adequate animal models to substantiate applicability. In-vivo research on QS blockers needs to be intensified and optimized to use clinically relevant setups, in order to underscore that such drugs can be used effectively to overcome problems associated with the treatment of sever...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Preventing catheter-related infections in cancer patients: a review of current strategies.
Authors: Malek AE, Raad II Abstract Introduction: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are a frequent cause of healthcare-associated infections, increasing healthcare costs and decreasing the quality of life for critically and chronic ill patients such as those with cancer. These infections are largely preventable and have been significantly reduced throughout the United States. However, further reduction of CLABSI requires continued innovation in preventive strategies.Areas covered: We provide an overview of the recent medical literature on catheter-related infections among cancer patients, disc...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant Candida auris: an epidemiological review.
Authors: Chakrabarti A, Singh S Abstract Introduction: Since the emergence of Candida auris infection in 2009, the disease has been reported from multiple countries within a decade. The infection is classified under urgent threat, as it is multi-drug resistant, causes high mortality, spreads easily in hospital setting and is difficult to identify. Whole-genome sequencing has provided insights into this organisms biology and epidemiology. A comprehensive review of those issues would help the clinicians and scientists facing C. auris infection.Areas covered: We reviewed the epidemiological trends of C. auris infectio...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

How could artificial intelligence aid in the fight against coronavirus?
Authors: Yassine HM, Shah Z PMID: 32223349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The role of dalbavancin in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs).
Authors: Soriano A, Rossolini GM, Pea F Abstract Introduction: Acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSI) are a subgroup of skin and soft tissue infections and are a common source of morbidity in both the community and the hospital setting. The most common cause of ABSSSI is Staphylococcus aureus, which also includes methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), together with beta-hemolytic streptococci, enterococci, and Gram-negative bacteria. Since the emergence of MRSA, the management of ABSSSI has become more challenging. Novel therapies alternative to teicoplanin and vancomycin, intravenous agents c...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Prevalence, impact, and management strategies for asymptomatic bacteriuria in the acute care elderly patient: a review of the current literature.
Authors: Shimoni Z, Cohen R, Froom P Abstract Introduction: It is unclear how to prevent the negative impact of inappropriate urine cultures in older acute care patients who have a high rate of asymptomatic bacteriuria.Areas covered: A nonsystematic literature review of the definition, impact, and management of elderly acute care patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB).Expert opinion: In the elderly, patients with ASB include those with extra-urinary tract diseases (e.g. pneumonia) and those with symptoms/signs that resolve without antibiotic therapy, but the diagnosis of ASB is unclear in febrile patients res...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Management of osteoarticular fungal infections in the setting of immunodeficiency.
Authors: Papachristou SG, Iosifidis E, Sipsas NV, Gamaletsou MN, Walsh TJ, Roilides E Abstract Introduction: Osteoarticular fungal infections (OAFIs) complicate the clinical course of high-risk patients, including immunosuppressed individuals. Their management, however, despite being intricate, is governed by evidence arising from sub-optimal quality research, such as case series. Guidelines are scarce and when present result in recommendations based on low quality evidence. Furthermore, the differences between the management of immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients are not distinct. This is a narrative re...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The cost-effectiveness of a bedaquiline-containing short-course regimen for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa.
Conclusions: Replacing an injectable-containing SCR with a bedaquiline-containing SCR is cost-effective, offering a cost-saving alternative with improved patient outcomes for MDR-TB. PMID: 32186925 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Impact of antimicrobial de-escalation on mortality: a literature review of study methodology and recommendations for observational studies.
Authors: van Heijl I, Schweitzer VA, van der Linden PD, Bonten MJM, van Werkhoven CH Abstract Introduction: The safety of de-escalation of empirical antimicrobial therapy is largely based on observational data, with many reporting protective effects on mortality. As there is no plausible biological explanation for this phenomenon it is most probably caused by confounding by indication.Areas covered: We evaluate the methodology used in observational studies on the effects of de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy on mortality. We extended the search of a recent systematic review and identified 52 observational studi...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Cabotegravir and rilpivirine for the treatment of HIV.
This article overviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of LA cabotegravir and rilpivirine (CR), two nanoformulated drugs of intramuscular administration and focuses on assessing its role on the treatment of HIV infection.Expert opinion: In addition to the advantage of treatment simplification, which could be especially beneficial for population subgroups with significant HIV-related stigma, it also reduces the number of drugs, and probably, the risk of treatment-related toxicity. The similar efficacy when compared to oral triple therapies in clinical trials and the high satisfaction rates among both prof...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 14, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Real word outcomes associated with use of raltegravir in older people living with HIV: results from the 60 months follow-up of the RAL-age cohort.
Conclusion: A 60-month treatment with RAL-containing regimens is safe and highly effective in the older PLWH and these data give new insights on the elderly population.Clinical trial registration: NCT02765776 and NCT03579485. PMID: 32096433 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Importance of epidemiological research of Monkeypox: is incidence increasing?
Authors: Ihekweazu C, Yinka-Ogunleye A, Lule S, Ibrahim A PMID: 32096659 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Predictive tools to determine risk of infection in kidney transplant recipients.
Authors: Fernández-Ruiz M, López-Medrano F, Aguado JM Abstract Introduction: Infection represents a major complication after kidney transplantation (KT). Therapeutic drug monitoring is essentially the only approach for the adjustment of immunosuppression in current practice, with suboptimal results. The implementation of immune monitoring strategies may contribute to minimizing the risk of adverse events attributable to over-immunosuppression without compromising graft outcomes.Areas covered: The present review (based on PubMed/MEDLINE searches from database inception to November 2019) is focused on i...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Neonatal sepsis in low-income countries: epidemiology, diagnosis and prevention.
Authors: Popescu CR, Cavanagh MMM, Tembo B, Chiume M, Lufesi N, Goldfarb DM, Kissoon N, Lavoie PM Abstract Introduction: Sepsis accounts for up to one third of neonatal deaths in the world each year. The World Health Organization acknowledges neonatal sepsis as a major global health concern, and that the highest burden occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite major research and clinical progress in this area, we still lack accurate diagnostic tools for neonatal sepsis, complicating the management of this condition.Areas covered: The purpose here is to review the latest data on the incidence, diag...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Safety profile of meglumine antimoniate intralesional infiltration for cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Conclusion: In general, MA-IL was well tolerated and although associated with local and systemic adverse events, there was a low risk of high intensity or severe complications. PMID: 32067521 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research