Surveillance of Pertussis: methods and implementation.
Authors: Guiso N, von König CH Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pertussis or whooping cough is a respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis or, to a lesser extent, by B. parapertussis. Vaccines against pertussis have been widely used for more than 50 years and have led to a significant reduction of morbidity and mortality. However, even in countries with a high vaccine coverage, the disease is still not well controlled. Surveillance is urgently needed. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes surveillance methods and gives examples that may be used when setting up a surveillance program or analyzing an outbreak...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Should we develop screens for multi-drug antibiotic tolerance?
Authors: Van den Bergh B, Michiels JE, Fauvart M, Michiels J PMID: 27227426 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Whole-genome sequencing in the prediction of antimicrobial resistance.
Authors: Chan KG PMID: 27215476 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis.
Authors: Llor C, Bjerrum L Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchitis is a self-limiting infectious disease characterized by acute cough with or without sputum but without signs of pneumonia. About 90% of cases are caused by viruses. AREAS COVERED: Antibiotics for acute bronchitis have been associated with an approximately half-day reduction in duration of cough. However, the mean duration of cough in patients with acute bronchitis is about 3 weeks, and at follow-up there are no significant differences in overall clinical improvement in patients treated with antibiotics compared with those receiving placebo. Despi...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

A link between poor quality antimalarials and malaria drug resistance?
Authors: Newton PN, Caillet C, Guerin PJ PMID: 27187060 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Protecting bone in long-term HIV positive patients receiving antiretrovirals.
Authors: McGinty T, Mallon P Abstract As the population of people living with HIV ages, the increase in non-AIDs morbidities is expected to increase in parallel. Maintaining bone health in those with HIV will be an important area of focus for the HIV clinician to prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with fragility fractures, the principal clinical sequela of low bone mineral density (BMD). Rates of fractures and prevalence of low bone mineral density, a risk factor for future fragility fractures, are already increased in the HIV positive population. This review examines the strategies to maintain bone hea...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of Ebola samples in the laboratory.
Authors: de La Vega MA, Bello A, Chaillet P, Kobinger GP Abstract The magnitude of the 2014-2016 West African Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the importance of immediate and rapid deployment of control measures in affected areas. While many prophylactic and therapeutic options entered clinical trials in the past two years, larger use to impact on Ebola spread will not be possible until at least one product meets final approval by regulatory agencies. Control of the West African outbreak was achieved almost entirely by breaking chain of transmissions through case identification and specialized treatment, commun...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Tackling antimicrobial resistance in lower urinary tract infections: molecular epidemiology and treatment options.
Authors: Pitout JD, Chan W, Church DL Abstract Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases occurring in either the community or healthcare settings. A wide variety of bacteria are responsible for causing UTIs, however extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli or ExPEC remains the most common etiological agent. Since 2000, resistance to antibiotics emerged globally among ExPEC and is causing delays in appropriate therapy with subsequent increased morbidity and mortality. For patients with acute uncomplicated lower UTIs, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fosfomycin or pivmecil...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Paraviral exanthems.
Authors: Fölster-Holst R, Zawar V, Chuh A Abstract Paraviral exanthems are skin eruptions suspected to be aetiologically related to viral infections. It is important to review for these rashes because the viruses might cause acute and long-term complications, the patients might face physical and psychosocial problems, and over-treatments might cause adverse reactions. During pregnancy, some peculiarities should be considered. Treatments include corticosteroids (local and systemic), antihistamines, antibiotics and ultraviolet light. The authors advocate that future clinical trials might incorporate patient-asse...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - May 6, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

HACEK endocarditis: a review.
Authors: Sharara SL, Tayyar R, Kanafani ZA, Kanj SS Abstract The HACEK group referring to Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae, is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. It causes the majority of Gram-negative endocarditis cases. It has a higher risk of embolization and stroke and tends to affect younger individuals when compared to non-HACEK endocarditis. The modified Duke criteria for diagnosing infective endocarditis apply to HACEK endocarditis but the HACEK group tends to have larger vegetations on echocardiography. Furthermo...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 30, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Macrolides use and the risk of sudden cardiac death.
Authors: Li X, Wang M, Liu G, Zhou L, Wang Z, Li C PMID: 27086751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 19, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Measuring the impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs.
Authors: Dik JH, Hendrix R, Poelman R, Niesters HG, Postma MJ, Sinha B, Friedrich AW Abstract Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) are being implemented worldwide to optimize antimicrobial therapy, and thereby improve patient safety and quality of care. Additionally, this should counteract resistance development. It is, however, vital that correct and timely diagnostics are performed in parallel, and that an institution runs a well-organized infection prevention program. Currently, there is no clear consensus on which interventions an ASP should comprise. Indeed, this depends on the institution, the region, an...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 16, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori therapy: a paradigm shift.
Authors: Graham DY, Dore MP Abstract Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is a leading cause of gastroduodenal disease, including gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication therapies and their efficacy are summarized. A number of current treatment regimens will reliably yield>90% or 95% cure rates with susceptible strains. None has proven to be superior. We show how to predict the efficacy of a regimen in any population provided one knows the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. As with other infectious diseases, therapy should always be susceptibility-based. Susceptibility testing should be demanded. We provide recommend...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 16, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The Syrian conflict and infectious diseases.
Authors: Ozaras R, Leblebicioglu H, Sunbul M, Tabak F, Balkan II, Yemisen M, Sencan I, Ozturk R Abstract The conflict in Syria is a big humanitarian emergency. More than 200,000 Syrians have been killed, with more than half of the population either having been displaced or having immigrated. Healthcare has been interrupted due to the destruction of facilities, a lack of medical staff, and a critical shortage of life-saving medications. It produced suitable conditions leading to the re-emergence of tuberculosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, polio, and measles. Lebanon and Jordan reported increased rates of tuberculosis ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 13, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Anal human papillomavirus infection: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of related lesions.
Authors: Benevolo M, Dona' MG, Ravenda PS, Chiocca S Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is mostly asymptomatic, but may also have many diverse clinical signs encompassing benign ano-genital lesions, and carcinomas. Recently, interest has also particularly focused on anal cancer since, over the last decades, its incidence has been greatly increasing in developed countries, both in women and men and is drastically higher in specific risk groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-1 infected individuals. Approximately 88% of anal cancer cases worldwide are associated with HPV infection. This re...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Ceftazidime-avibactam (CTZ-AVI) as a treatment for hospitalized adult patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections.
Authors: Gardiner BJ, Golan Y Abstract Avibactam, a novel β-lactamase inhibitor, has recently been co-formulated with ceftazidime and approved for use in patients with complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections, where no better treatment alternative exists. The basis for its FDA approval has been the extensive clinical experience with ceftazidime and the demonstration in vitro and in animal models that the addition of avibactam reverses resistance to ceftazidime in extended-spectrum β-lactamase and some carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Early clinical data are promising, with effic...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 6, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Diagnosis of human enteroviruses that cause hand, foot and mouth disease.
Authors: Teo FM, Chu JJ PMID: 27042876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 6, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Reactivation tuberculosis: role of surveillance.
Authors: DiNardo AR, Guy E Abstract The incidence and death rates from tuberculosis (TB) have declined through concerted efforts in the diagnosis and treatment of active disease. Despite this, 9.6 million new cases and 1.1 million deaths in 2014 are unacceptably high. To decrease the rates of TB further, the huge number of persons with latent TB infection (LTBI) from whom new cases will arise has to be addressed with a sense of priority. Identifying the highest risk groups and providing effective treatment has been shown to decrease active TB. Further research to refine the predictors of reactivation and shorter ef...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 6, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Chronic hepatitis B and C infection in the United States: a review of current guidelines, disease burden and cost effectiveness of screening.
Authors: Dost S, Baichoo E, Dieterich DT Abstract Chronic hepatitis B and C infection are the leading causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver related death in the world and in the United States respectively. Screening guidelines have been developed based on estimated prevalence determined by NHANES data. However, individuals with the most risk of chronic infection (incarcerated, homeless, immigrants, nursing home residents, and hospitalized persons) are underrepresented in this cohort leading to an underestimation of the true prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and C infection. This has led to recent updates in ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 6, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Optimum treatment of congenital cytomegalovirus infection.
Authors: Leruez-Ville M, Ville Y Abstract Congenital cytomegalovirus infection affects 0.7% of live births and is the leading cause of congenital neurological handicaps of infectious origin. However, systematic screening of this infection has not been implemented in pregnancy or at birth in any country. This apparent paradox has been justified by the unavailability of an efficient vaccine and by the scarcity of data available on the treatment of congenital CMV. However, in the last decade interesting new data on the management of this congenital infection has emerged including new results on both neonatal and postn...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 6, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection among HIV-infected patients in resource-rich settings.
This article reviewed the epidemiology of latent TB infection among the adult HIV-infected patients, and the use and benefit of screening and treatment of latent TB infection in resource-rich settings in the past decade. While such practice should be continued in countries with medium or high TB burden, targeted screening and treatment only for HIV-infected patients with additional risk factors for TB might be a more practical option in resource-rich countries with low TB burden. PMID: 26999724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 23, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

HACEK endocarditis: state-of-the-art.
Authors: Revest M, Egmann G, Cattoir V, Tattevin P Abstract The HACEK group of bacteria - Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter spp. (A. actinomycetemcomitans, A. aphrophilus, A. paraphrophilus, and A. segnis), Cardiobacterium spp. (C. hominis, C. valvarum), Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella spp. (K. kingae, K. denitrificans) - are fastidious gram-negative bacteria, part of the normal microbiota of oral and upper respiratory tract in humans. Although their pathogenicity is limited, they are responsible for 1-3% of all infective endocarditis. HACEK endocarditis mostly affect patients with underlying heart dise...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The potential role for romidepsin as a component in early HIV-1 curative efforts.
Authors: Gunst JD, Tolstrup M, Rasmussen TA, Søgaard OS PMID: 26953620 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Host resistance to visceral leishmaniasis: prevalence and prevention.
Authors: Maran N, Gomes PS, Freire-de-Lima L, Freitas EO, Freire-de-Lima CG, Morrot A Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the vector-borne Leishmania donovani and Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi parasites. The disease affects about 12 million humans in more than 90 countries worldwide. If not treated, the visceral form of Leishmania infection is potentially fatal, yielding about 50000 deaths per year. In the vertebrate host, the Leishmania species causing VL spread systematically to propagate in macrophage reservoirs distributed in the tissues of internal organs, primarily...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - March 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Carbapenem susceptibility breakpoints, clinical implications with the moving target.
Authors: O'Donnell JN, Miglis CM, Lee JY, Tuvell M, Lertharakul T, Scheetz MH Abstract Carbapenems are primary agents used to treat a variety of Gram-negative multi-drug resistant infections. In parallel with increasing use, increasing resistance to carbapenem agents has manifested as increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). To attempt to improve clinical outcomes with carbapenems, the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and the Food Drug Administration decreased susceptibility breakpoints. The European equivalent expert committee, the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, also ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

A review of trials investigating efavirenz-induced neuropsychiatric side effects and the implications.
Authors: Gaida R, Truter I, Grobler C, Kotze T, Godman B Abstract Efavirenz is part of the first-line treatment for HIV patients including South Africa with approximately 50% experiencing neuropsychiatric side effects. A systematic review of papers reporting neuropsychiatric side effects with efavirenz published between January 2001 and December 2014 was performed, to provide guidance. 13 articles were reviewed. Patient ages ranged between 37 to 41 years, with a high percentage males. Scales used to measure incidence and severity of side effects were varied; with disease severity or stage not reported. Patients wit...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 26, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Respiratory viruses as a cause of sudden death.
Authors: Garcia M, Beby-Defaux A, Lévêque N PMID: 26901796 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 26, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Sepsis following cancer surgery: the need for early recognition and standardised clinical care.
Authors: Hiong A, Thursky KA, Teh BW, Haeusler GM, Slavin MA, Worth LJ Abstract Despite the implementation of multimodal bundles of care in hospitalised patients, post-operative sepsis in patients with cancer still accounts for a significant burden of illness and substantial healthcare costs. Patients undergoing surgery for cancer are at particular risk of sepsis due to underlying malignancy, being immunocompromised associated with cancer management and the complexity of surgical procedures performed. In this review, we evaluate the burden of illness and risks for sepsis following surgery for cancer. Current eviden...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 19, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Influenza infection in human host: challenges in making a better influenza vaccine.
Authors: Virk RK, Gunalan V, Tambyah PA Abstract Influenza is a ubiquitous infection with a spectrum ranging from mild to severe. The mystery regarding such variability in the clinical spectrum has not been fully unravelled, although a role for the complex interplay among virus characteristics, host immune response and environmental factors has been suggested. Antivirals and current vaccines have a limited role in prophylaxis and treatment because they primarily target surface glycoproteins which undergo antigenic/genetic changes under host immune pressure. Targeting conserved internal proteins could lead the way t...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 19, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

What steps do we need to take to improve diagnosis of tuberculosis in children?
Authors: Venturini E, Remaschi G, Berti E, Montagnani C, Galli L, de Martino M, Chiappini E Abstract Tuberculosis still represents a big global public health challenge. The diagnosis of tuberculosis and the differentiation between active and latent tuberculosis remain difficult, particularly in childhood, because of the lack of a gold standard test for diagnosis. In the last decade, novel diagnostic assays have been developed. Among immunologic tests, new assays based on the measurement of different cytokines released by specific T cells in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens, other than INF-γ, ha...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Impact of special patient populations on the pharmacokinetics of echinocandins.
Authors: Muilwijk EW, Lempers VJ, Burger DM, Warris A, Pickkers P, Aarnoutse RE, Brüggemann RJ Abstract Echinocandins belong to the class of antifungal agents. Currently, three echinocandin drugs are licensed for intravenous treatment of invasive fungal infections: anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin. While their antifungal activity overlaps, there are substantial differences in pharmacokinetics (PK). Numerous factors may account for variability in PK of echinocandins including age (pediatrics vs adults), body surface area and body composition (normal weight vs obesity), disease status (e.g., critically ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Vancomycin in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - a clinician's guide to the science informing current practice.
Authors: Lee JY, Howden BP Abstract Clinicians treating an infection assess a patient in terms of disease manifestation, causative organism and available antibiotic options with the aim of devising a therapeutic strategy under the creed of 'first, do no harm'. It is often only when treatment is failing or options are limited, as in the scenario of multidrug-resistant organisms, that consideration is given to the interplay that occurs between the microbe and the host. The emergence of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin provides a prime example of these dynamic interactions. This review s...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Darunavir/cobicistat once daily for the treatment of HIV.
Authors: Kakuda TN, Crauwels H, Opsomer M, Tomaka F, van de Casteele T, Vanveggel S, Iterbeke K, de Smedt G Abstract A current focus in HIV management is improving adherence by minimizing pill burden with convenient formulations, including fixed-dose combinations (FDCs). Darunavir, a HIV protease inhibitor, co-administered with low-dose ritonavir (800/100 mg once daily), is recommended in guidelines in combination with other antiretrovirals for HIV patients with no darunavir resistance-associated mutations. Cobicistat is an alternative agent to ritonavir for boosting plasma drug levels of darunavir among other anti...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Vaccine preventable meningitis in Malaysia: epidemiology and management.
Authors: McNeil HC, Jefferies JM, Clarke SC Abstract Worldwide bacterial meningitis accounts for more than one million cases and 135,000 deaths annually. Profound, lasting neurological complications occur in 9-25% of cases. This review confirms the greatest risk from bacterial meningitis is in early life in Malaysia. Much of the disease burden can be avoided by immunization, particularly against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Despite inclusion of the Hib vaccine in the National Immunisation Programme and the licensure of pneumococcal vaccines, these two species are the main contri...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Rates and effectiveness of antiviral use among hospitalized influenza patients.
This article briefly outlines the rates and effectiveness of antiviral use among hospitalized influenza patients. It also discusses some important considerations regarding controversial issues and future perspectives on antiviral use for the management of hospitalized influenza patients. PMID: 25968485 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Vitamin A supplementation for the reduction of the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Authors: McHenry MS, Apondi E, Vreeman RC Abstract Although advances in HIV prevention and treatment suggest the possibility of creating an AIDS-free generation, many areas of the world still suffer from high rates of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Interventions proven to significantly decrease rates of MTCT of HIV are often unavailable in resource-limited settings due to lack of reliable clean water, low numbers of hospital deliveries and inconsistent availability of antiretroviral medications. Vitamin A, with its multiple roles in epithelial, reproductive and immune function, has been evaluated as a ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Antibiotic resistance to Propionobacterium acnes: worldwide scenario, diagnosis and management.
Authors: Sardana K, Gupta T, Garg VK, Ghunawat S Abstract Antibiotic resistance in cutaneous Propionobacterium is a global problem. As a general rule, resistance levels are high to macrolides, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin, while tetracyclines and levofloxacin have low resistance potential. Newer preparations like doxycycline MR and doxycycline 20 mg are subantimicrobial and may not lead to resistance. Sampling techniques are crucial to determine resistance. Genomic evaluation using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing can be useful in diagnosing mutations and mapping phylotypes of Propionobacterium ac...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Schizophrenia and Toxoplasma gondii: an undervalued association?
Authors: Flegr J Abstract The existence of an association between schizophrenia and an infection by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has been suspected since the 1950s. Two significant phenomena first garnered the attention of the psychiatric community toward toxoplasmosis, the illness precipitated by an infection of the parasite. Transient symptoms of acute toxoplasmosis sometimes resemble the clinical picture of paranoid schizophrenia. Many studies have also found an increased seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in clients of mental health institutions in comparison with members of control populations. We hav...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Telavancin (VIBATIV) for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections.
Authors: Nawar T, Kanafani ZA Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged as a major causative pathogen in complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs). Unfortunately, treatment failure with vancomycin has been increasingly reported. Over the past decade, several alternative antimicrobial agents have been studied and approved for the treatment of cSSSIs. One such agent is the lipoglycopeptide telavancin, which was approved by the US FDA 2009. Given its dual mechanism of action, telavancin is characterized by a highly bactericidal activity and low potential for resistance selection. I...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Clinical pharmacological approach for balancing the use of daptomycin and linezolid in comparison with that of vancomycin in the treatment of MRSA-related infections.
Authors: Pea F, Petrosillo N, Garau J Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most challenging bacterial pathogens responsible for severe infections among hospitalized patients. In recent years there is increasing evidence that the clinical efficacy of vancomycin is progressively decreasing. Although daptomycin and linezolid are valuable alternatives to vancomycin for the treatment of MRSA-related bloodstream infections and pneumonia, respectively, a great deal of debate exists about their role in daily clinical practice due to cost-effectiveness issues. In this article we put into...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Bordetella holmesii infection: current knowledge and a vision for future research.
Authors: Pittet LF, Posfay-Barbe KM Abstract Bordetella holmesii is a recently recognized Gram-negative bacterium causing both pertussis-like respiratory symptoms and invasive infections, such as bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis, arthritis, pericarditis and endocarditis. Few data are available on its epidemiological characteristics, mostly related to respiratory infections. However, these are frequently misdiagnosed as a Bordetella pertussis infection as most diagnostic tests routinely used are not species-specific, thus biasing the epidemiological studies of both strains, as well as the efficacy studies on pertus...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Combinatorial drug approaches to tackle Candida albicans biofilms.
Authors: De Cremer K, Staes I, Delattin N, Cammue BP, Thevissen K, De Brucker K Abstract The human fungal opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans resides in the human gut, genitourinary tract and on the skin. The majority of infections caused by C. albicans are biofilm-related. In the first part of this review, we discuss new insights into C. albicans biofilm characteristics, concentrating on the extracellular matrix, phenotypic switching, efflux pumps and persister cells. It is widely accepted that this multicellular lifestyle is more resistant to traditional antifungal treatment compared to free-living cells. The...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

The emerging threat of artemisinin resistance in malaria: focus on artemether-lumefantrine.
This article provides a comprehensive review of the existing and latest data as a basis for interpretation of observed variability in parasite sensitivity to AL over the last 5 years. Clinical efficacy and preclinical data from a range of endemic countries are summarized, including potential molecular markers of resistance. Overall, AL remains effective in the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in most regions. Establishing validated molecular markers for resistance and strict efficacy monitoring will reinforce timely updates of treatment policies. PMID: 26081265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: E...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Circumsporozoite protein as a potential target for antimalarials.
Authors: Fernández-Arias C, Mashoof S, Huang J, Tsuji M Abstract Since the discovery of circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a major sporozoite surface antigen, by Ruth Nussenzweig and Victor Nussenzweig in the early 1980s, the role of CSP in protection against malaria has been extensively investigated. Several monoclonal antibodies against CSP have been generated to date, with some of them mediating antimalarial protection upon passive transfer into animals. Genetically engineered transgenic mosquitoes producing the anti-CSP antibody have recently been generated to reduce malarial transmission. A monoclonal anti...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Current recommendations and importance of antifungal stewardship for the management of invasive candidiasis.
Authors: Miyazaki T, Kohno S Abstract Invasive candidiasis can have a major effect on patient prognosis and medical economics. Quickly eliminating the focus of the infection and administering appropriate antifungal therapy are important. Clinical guidelines for invasive candidiasis have been issued in the USA, Europe and recently in Japan. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current recommendations on how to diagnose and treat invasive candidiasis based on the evidence gathered to date and by referencing guidelines from various countries. Echinocandin antifungals play a central role in the prevention and...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Diagnosis of hantavirus infection in humans.
Authors: Mattar S, Guzmán C, Figueiredo LT Abstract Rodent-borne hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Europe and Asia. The viruses are transmitted to humans mainly by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosols of rodent excreta and secreta. Classic clinical hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome occurs in five phases: fever, hypotension, oliguria, polyuria, and convalescence. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a severe acute disease that is associated with respiratory failure, pulmonary edema and card...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.
Authors: Lee YR, Houngue C, Hall RG Abstract Community-acquired pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the USA. Adherence to the 2007 Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society community-acquired pneumonia guidelines has been associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, choice between guideline-recommended treatments is at the discretion of the prescribing clinician. This review is intended to discuss the characteristics of these treatment options including dosing frequency, dose adjustment for renal/hepatic dysfunction, serious/common adverse events, drug interactions, lung ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Urine biomarkers of schistosomiais and its associated bladder cancer.
Authors: Eissa S, Matboli M, Shawky S, Essawy NO Abstract Schistosomiasis (SCH) is the second only to malaria among the parasitic diseases affecting humans regarding the prevalence of infection worldwide. In this nonsystematic review, we summarize the existing data on commercially available and promising investigational urine markers for the detection of SCH and its associated bladder cancer (BC). We searched PubMed, Scopus and Cochran without time limits. We reviewed the recent literatures on urine-based markers for SCH and its associated BC. Many studies identified several urine biomarkers of Schistosoma haematob...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Infection with human retroviruses other than HIV-1: HIV-2, HTLV-1, HTLV-2, HTLV-3 and HTLV-4.
Authors: Nicolás D, Ambrosioni J, Paredes R, Marcos MÁ, Manzardo C, Moreno A, Miró JM Abstract HIV-1 is the most prevalent retrovirus, with over 30 million people infected worldwide. Nevertheless, infection caused by other human retroviruses like HIV-2, HTLV-1, HTLV-2, HTLV-3 and HTLV-4 is gaining importance. Initially confined to specific geographical areas, HIV-2, HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are becoming a major concern in non-endemic countries due to international migration flows. Clinical manifestations of retroviruses range from asymptomatic carriers to life-threatening conditions, such as AIDS in H...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Coxsackievirus A6: a new emerging pathogen causing hand, foot and mouth disease outbreaks worldwide.
This article reviewed the epidemic characteristics, molecular epidemiology, clinical features and laboratory diagnosis of CA6 infection. The genetic evolution of CA6 strains associated with HFMD was also analyzed. It indicated that the development of a multivalent vaccine combining EV71, CA16 and CA6 is an urgent necessity to control HFMD. PMID: 26112307 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - February 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research