Elevated maternal retinoic acid-related orphan receptor- γt enhances the effect of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid in inducing fetal loss.
Elevated maternal retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-γt enhances the effect of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid in inducing fetal loss. Exp Anim. 2019 Jun 10;: Authors: Tome S, Sasaki T, Takahashi S, Takei Y Abstract T helper 17 (Th17) cells have been suggested to play a crucial role in various complications during pregnancy by participating in maternal immune activation (MIA). To test a possible role for Th17 cells in MIA-mediated abortion, we analyzed transgenic mice overexpressing retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma-t (RORγt), a master regulator of IL-17 producing cell developm...
Source: Experimental Animals - June 12, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Early attenuation of autonomic nervous function in senescence accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8).
Authors: Chikamoto A, Sekizawa SI, Tochinai R, Kuwahara M Abstract The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strain has been established as an inbred strain with an accelerated aging phenotype. SAM prone-8 (SAMP8), one of the SAM strain, exhibits learning disability, immune deficiency, and circadian rhythm loss at a relatively young age. However, it has not been clarified whether aging affects the autonomic nervous activity in SAMP8. The aim of this study was to clarify the utility of SAMP8 in age-related studies of autonomic nervous function. Electrocardiogram (ECG), body temperature, and locomotor activity were reco...
Source: Experimental Animals - June 8, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Osthole improves therapy for osteoporosis through increasing autophagy of mesenchymal stem cells.
Authors: Zheng X, Yu Y, Shao B, Gan N, Chen L, Yang D Abstract Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder resulting in elevated fracture risk. Improvement of osteogenic differentiation is thought to be the top priority in osteoporosis treatment projects. Significant characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), especially attractive ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, have made them alternatives for osteoporosis treatment. However, therapeutic effect with BMMSCs remains to be improved. Here, osthole, a bioactive simple coumarin derivative extracted from many medicinal plants, was introduced...
Source: Experimental Animals - June 5, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Characterization of Th17-like autoreactive T cells in aged mice.
Authors: Uematsu T, Fujita T, Kobayashi N Abstract Interleukin-17-producing T helper cells (Th17) are attracting attention as a new CD4-positive subset of T cells, reported to be responsible for various autoimmune diseases through stimulation of the release of inflammatory cytokines from target cells. However, most investigations of Th17 mediation of autoimmune diseases have focused on the experimental autoimmune models derived from young animals, with few studies that have analyzed physiological factors such as aging. The present study analyzed autoreactive T cells established in a syngeneic mixed lymphocyte cultu...
Source: Experimental Animals - June 5, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Analysis of amino acid profiles of blood over time and biomarkers associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in STAM mice.
Authors: Iida A, Kuranuki S, Yamamoto R, Uchida M, Ohta M, Ichimura M, Tsuneyama K, Masaki T, Seike M, Nakamura T Abstract The changes in free amino acid (AA) levels in blood during the progression from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unclear. We investigated serum AA levels, along with biochemical and histological events, in a mouse model of NASH. We induced NASH in male C57BL/6J mice with a streptozotocin injection and high-fat diet after 4 weeks of age (STAM group). We chronologically (6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 weeks, n=4-12 mice/group) evaluated the progression from steatoh...
Source: Experimental Animals - June 5, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Slc:Hartley guinea pigs frequently possess duplication of the caudal vena cava.
In conclusion, Slc:Hartley guinea pigs frequently possess asymptomatic duplicated caudal vena cava in the absence of iliac anastomosis and appear to be a novel and useful animal model for duplicated caudal vena cava in animals and humans. PMID: 31142684 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - June 1, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

The promise of zebrafish as a model of metabolic syndrome.
Authors: Benchoula K, Khatib A, Jaffar A, Ahmed QU, Sulaiman WMAW, Wahab RA, El-Seedi HR Abstract Metabolic syndrome is a cluster including hyperglycaemia, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridaemia as a result of biochemical and physiological alterations and can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Fundamental research on this disease requires validated animal models. One potential animal model that is rapidly gaining in popularity is zebrafish (Danio rerio). The use of zebrafish as an animal model conveys several advantages, including high human genetic homology, transparent embryos and...
Source: Experimental Animals - May 24, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Comparison of biological features between severely immuno-deficient NOD/Shi-scid Il2rgnull and NOD/LtSz-scid Il2rgnull mice.
In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrated that NOG and NSG mice showed no distinct strain differences in either biological features or biological disadvantages. PMID: 31118345 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - May 24, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Genetic modifiers of rodent animal models: the role in cataractogenesis.
Authors: Wada K, Yasuda SP, Kikkawa Y Abstract Visual impairment leads to a decrease in quality of life. Cataract is the most commonly observed ocular disease in humans that causes vision disorders. The risk factors associated with cataract development include aging, infections, eye injuries, environmental causes, such as radiation and exposure to ultraviolet rays in sunlight, and genetic mutations. Additionally, several cataract patients display phenotypic heterogeneity, suggesting the role of genetic modifiers in the modulation of severity and onset time of cataractogenesis. However, the genetic modifiers associa...
Source: Experimental Animals - May 22, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Effects of an anesthetic mixture of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol and antagonism by atipamezole in rabbits.
We examined the antagonistic effects of ATI by intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV) injection in rabbits. We used the anesthetic score to measure surgical anesthetic duration and recovery time from anesthesia. During the experiments, we measured heart rate, respiratory rate, O2-saturation, and blood pressure. We found there were no significant differences in anesthetic duration and recovery time between MMB and KX. There were no significant differences in heart rate after administration of MMB or KX. Systolic blood pressure at 10 min after administration of MMB was higher than that of KX. The antagonistic effect of ATI b...
Source: Experimental Animals - May 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Measurements of body surface area and volume in male Japanese White rabbits using a computed tomography scanner: comparison with male New Zealand White rabbits.
In this study, we measured the BSA and volume of 50 male Japanese White rabbits (JW) at 10 to 54 weeks of age using a computed tomography scanner, then calculated the k value, density, and sphericity. The variations in these parameters were then analyzed in relation to growth. The obtained results indicated that the k value was negatively correlated to BW, and that this negative correlation was mainly due to the variation in density. Based on the regression analysis, we propose the following linear regression equation for calculating the k value in male JW at 10-54 weeks of age: the k value = 14.602 - 0.959 × BW [kg]...
Source: Experimental Animals - May 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Neuron-specific Mafb knockout causes growth retardation accompanied by an impaired GH/IGF-I axis.
Authors: Maimaiti S, Koshida R, Ojima M, Kulathunga K, Oishi H, Takahashi S Abstract Mammalian postnatal growth is regulated primarily by the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis. MafB is a basic leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factor that has pleiotropic functions. Although MafB plays a critical role in fetal brain development, such as in guidance for hindbrain segmentation, its postnatal role in neurons remains to be elucidated. To investigate this, we used neuron-specific Mafb conditional knockout (cKO) mice. In addition to an approximately 50% neonatal viability, the Mafb cKO mice e...
Source: Experimental Animals - May 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Development of blastocyst complementation technology without contributions to gametes and the brain.
Authors: Hashimoto H, Eto T, Yamamoto M, Yagoto M, Goto M, Kagawa T, Kojima K, Kawai K, Akimoto T, Takahashi RI Abstract In Japan, it is possible to generate chimeric animals from specified embryos by combining animal blastocysts with human pluripotent stem (PS) cells (animal-human PS chimera). However, the production of animal-human PS chimeras has been restricted because of ethical concerns, such as the development of human-like intelligence and formation of humanized gametes in the animals, owing to the contributions of human PS cells to the brain and reproductive organs. To solve these problems, we established ...
Source: Experimental Animals - April 20, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Development of a quantitative method for evaluating small intestinal motility using ultrasonography in mice.
In conclusion, ultrasonography is an effective in vivo method to quantify small intestinal motility in mice. PMID: 30971623 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - April 13, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms of the sedation and analgesia induced by xylazine on Wistar rats and PC12 cell.
In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanism of action of xylazine both in vivo and in vitro. After determing the optimal dose of xylazine, 35 male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (n=5 per group), including a control group (saline) and xylazine administration groups. Then, at six time points after xylazine administration indicators were evaluated for changes. Moreover, PC12 cells were co-cultured with xylazine, and extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) siRNA and protein kinase A (PKA) siRNA were transfected into cells to identify changes of relevant indicators. Our data showed that xylazine influenced...
Source: Experimental Animals - April 10, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Bone microstructure and metabolism changes under the combined intervention of ketogenic diet with intermittent fasting: an in vivo study of rats.
This study aims to establish different ketogenic rat models and compare the influence of EODKD with KD on bone microstructure and metabolism. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into Control, KD and EODKD groups, fed with standard diet, continuous and intermittent ketogenic diet respectively. After 12 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD) and body fat percentage were obtained by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Micro-CT and three-point bending test were used to evaluate the bone microstructure and mechanical properties. Activities of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were...
Source: Experimental Animals - April 6, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Neuromuscular control pattern in rhesus monkeys during bipedal walking.
This study investigated these particular relationships and clarified whether they are correlated with speed to further understand the neuromuscular control pattern. Four adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were selected to record gait parameters while walking on a bipedal treadmill at speeds of 0.2, 0.8, 1.4, and 2.0 km/h. We recorded 3 ipsilateral hindlimb muscles by surface recording. In this study, we calculated the correlations between electromyography (EMG) and kinematic parameters (24 EMG*17 kinematic parameters). Of the 408 calculated coefficients, 71.6% showed significant linear correlations. Significant l...
Source: Experimental Animals - April 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Involvement of B cells in the pathophysiology of β-aminopropionitrile-induced thoracic aortic dissection in mice.
Involvement of B cells in the pathophysiology of β-aminopropionitrile-induced thoracic aortic dissection in mice. Exp Anim. 2019 Mar 29;: Authors: Gao Y, Wang Z, Zhao J, Sun W, Guo J, Yang Z, Tu Y, Yu C, Pan L, Zheng J Abstract Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is a life-threatening disease that is characterized by an inflammatory response. Innate and cellular immunity has long been known to be involved in TAD, but the role of humoral immunity in the pathophysiology of TAD remains unknown. We administered the lysyl oxidase inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN; 1 g/kg/day) in 3-week-old male C5...
Source: Experimental Animals - April 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Characterization of behavioral phenotypes in the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J mouse model of Autism Spectrum Disorder under social housing conditions using the Multiple Animal Positioning System.
In this study, we applied a newly developed assay system, the Multiple Animal Positioning System (MAPS), to quantify behaviors under group housing conditions over four days of continuous observation. Using MAPS, we showed that in a group housing condition, the BTBR mice exhibited lower activity levels in the dark phase and alteration of social behavior in comparison with the C57BL/6J mice. The phenotypes of the BTBR mice were affected by co-housing with the C57BL/6J mice for four days, but the influence was weak and limited. Our results by MAPS differ from those obtained using conventional behavioral tests. The present stu...
Source: Experimental Animals - March 26, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Survey report on public awareness concerning the use of animals in scientific research in Japan.
Authors: Uchikoshi A, Kasai N Abstract We conducted a survey on 3096 members of the public in order to find out about public awareness concerning the use of animals in scientific research in Japan and statistically analyzed the results. Regarding the necessity of experiments, research, and educational activities using animals, 55-62% respondents answered that "development of medicine and medical technology for human beings," "development of medicine and medical technology for animals," "practical training at medical schools," and "practical training at schools of veterinary medici...
Source: Experimental Animals - March 21, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Mouse NC/Jic strain provides novel insights into host genetic factors for malaria research.
Authors: Ohno T, Miyasaka Y, Kuga M, Ushida K, Matsushima M, Kawabe T, Kikkawa Y, Mizuno M, Takahashi M Abstract Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites and is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases in humans. Infection can result in severe complications such as cerebral malaria, acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute renal injury. These complications are mainly caused by P. falciparum infection and are major causes of death associated with malaria. There are a few species of rodent-infective malaria parasites, and mice infected with such parasites are now widely used for s...
Source: Experimental Animals - March 20, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

The comparison of two mouse models of inflammation-related lung tumorigenesis induced by benzo(a)pyrene and lipopolysaccharide.
In conclusion, a better mouse model of inflammation-related lung tumorigenesis induced by B(a)p plus LPS in C57BL/6J mice was set up successfully. PMID: 30867368 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - March 16, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Distribution of atherosclerotic lesions in various arteries of WHHLMI rabbits, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia.
In conclusion, the arterial lesions expanded from bifurcations, and the morphological features of the arterial lesions varied depending on the type of artery. These results serve as reference data for arterial lesions in studies using WHHLMI rabbits. PMID: 30828028 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - March 6, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Paromomycin sulfate is an effective treatment for balantidiasis in captive cynomolgus monkeys.
Authors: Nakamura S, Itagaki I, Nakagawa T, Kawamoto I, Asano T, Arakawa D, Tsuchiya H Abstract There are few effective antimicrobial agents against Balantidium coli infection. The effect of paromomycin sulfate (PS) against B. coli was confirmed in this study of 596 captive cynomolgus monkeys. In several trials, the minimum dose and duration of oral administration of PS were 25 mg/day for 5 + 5 days, with a 2-day withdrawal interval. To facilitate daily PS administration, pumpkin cakes supplemented with PS were made, which not only resulted in precise effects but also increased the efficiency of preparation and adm...
Source: Experimental Animals - March 4, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Errata: Investigation of the synergistic effects of haloperidol combined with Calculus Bovis Sativus in treating MK-801-induced schizophrenia in rats.
Authors: Abstract In the article "Investigation of the synergistic effects of haloperidol combined with Calculus Bovis Sativus in treating MK-801-induced schizophrenia in rats", the statement of equal contributions of Kai Lei and Guo-Fang He was mistakenly omitted. The publisher regrets this error. PMID: 30814436 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - March 4, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Continuous measurement of locomotor activity during convalescence and acclimation in group-housed rats.
Authors: Yoshizawa T, Shimada S, Takizawa Y, Makino T, Kanada Y, Ito Y, Ochiai T, Matsumoto K Abstract Locomotor activity is affected by a range of factors in addition to experimental treatment, including the breeding environment. Appropriate convalescence and acclimation are important for animal experiments, because environmental changes and physical burden can result from surgery, transportation, and cage exchange. However, the duration that locomotor activity is affected by these factors is currently unclear, because it has traditionally been difficult to measure locomotor activity in multiple group-housed anima...
Source: Experimental Animals - February 15, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

A rat model of serous borderline ovarian tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene.
This study aims to investigate the proper dosage and induction time of DMBA for rat models of SBOTs, and explore their morphological features demonstrated by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and molecular genetic characteristics. Rats were randomly divided into six groups (1 mg/70 D, 2 mg/70 D, 3 mg/70 D, 2 mg/50 D, 2 mg/90 D, and 2 mg/110 D). The 3 mg/70 D group induced the most SBOTs (50.0%, 12/24). The micropapillary projections were shown on MR imaging, which was the characteristic of SBOTs. The Cyclin D1 characterizing an early pathogenetic event strongly expressed in induced serous benign tumors (SBTs). The immunoreac...
Source: Experimental Animals - February 15, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Species differences in lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase activities: comparative studies of animal models of lifestyle-related diseases.
In conclusion, this simple assay method was effective for measuring LPL and HTGL activities of experimental animals, and the activities are highly regulated depending on animal species, animal models, feeding/fasting conditions and genders. PMID: 30745527 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Fetal and early postnatal development of the porcine tonsils of the soft palate.
Authors: Suzuki S, Fuchimoto D Abstract Tonsils are mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues located at the openings of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, which play a key role in the surveillance of inhaled or ingested pathogens and can concurrently be reservoirs of infectious agents. Therefore, tonsils are important for the immunology and hygiene management of domestic animals, including pigs. However, the process of their fetal developmental has been poorly described, at least in part, because rodents lack tonsils. Therefore, we performed a histological analysis of porcine tonsils of the soft palate from 60 ...
Source: Experimental Animals - January 16, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Protective effects of sulforaphane on diabetic retinopathy: activation of the Nrf2 pathway and inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome formation.
In conclusion, our work demonstrates that SFN attenuates retinal inflammation and oxidative stress induced by high glucose and activates the antioxidative Nrf2 pathway and inhibits the formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo and in vitro. PMID: 30606939 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - January 5, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

MiR-206-3p alleviates chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain through targeting HDAC4.
Authors: Wen J, He T, Qi F, Chen H Abstract It was identified that microRNAs were involved in the regulation of chronic neuropathic pain. However, the role of miR-206-3p in neuropathic pain was still unclear. In the current study, the role of miR-206-3p, a type of mature miR-206, in neuropathic pain was investigated. The potential mechanisms were also explored. We found that the expression of miR-206-3p decreased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of chronic constriction sciatic nerve injury (CCI) rats, whereas the While histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) level increased. Further exploration showed that administration of...
Source: Experimental Animals - December 29, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Effects of housing conditions on behaviors and biochemical parameters in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).
In conclusion, paired housing improved behavioral abnormalities in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting that it may be an effective environmental enrichment paradigm. Calcium, cortisol, and 4EPS concentrations in biological samples may be useful indices for evaluating the effects of environmental enrichment. PMID: 30584201 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - December 27, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Genetic diversity of 21 experimental chicken lines with diverse origins and genetic backgrounds.
Authors: Nunome M, Kinoshita K, Ishishita S, Ohmori Y, Murai A, Matsuda Y Abstract The genetic characteristics and diversity of 21 experimental chicken lines registered with the National BioResource Project of Japan were examined using mitochondrial D-loop sequences and 54 microsatellite DNA markers. A total of 12 haplotypes were detected in the 500-bp mitochondrial DNA sequences of the hypervariable segment I for 349 individuals of 21 lines. The 12 haplotypes belonged to three (A, D, and E) haplogroups, out of the seven (A-H) common haplogroups in domestic chickens and red junglefowls. The haplogroups A and D were...
Source: Experimental Animals - December 15, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

A semi-nested RT-PCR assay for detection of norovirus in rat fecal samples.
In this study, we describe the development of a sensitive, semi-nested RT-PCR assay for detection of norovirus in fecal samples from Rattus norvegicus, reared in animal facilities under different sanitary barrier conditions. Additionally, we describe the first report of the presence of norovirus in rat colonies from Brazilian animal facilities. PMID: 30531093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - December 13, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

The acute pulmonary toxicity in mice induced by Staphylococcus aureus, particulate matter, and their combination.
Authors: Wang F, Wang R, Liu H Abstract Inhalation of pathogenic bacteria transported by particulate matter (PM) presents an important potential threat to human health. Therefore, the pulmonary toxicity in mice caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and PM as individual matter and mixtures was studied. PM and S. aureus were instilled intratracheally into Kunming mice at doses of 0.2 mg/mouse and 5.08 × 106 CFU /mouse, respectively, as individual matter and in combination two times at 5-day intervals. After the exposure period, oxidative stress markers and nitric oxide (NO) in the lung, cellular infiltrat...
Source: Experimental Animals - December 13, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Hatano rats selectively bred for high- and low-avoidance learning: an overview.
Authors: Ohta R, Kojima K Abstract This review compiles the results of a series of studies on Hatano high- and low-avoidance animals (HAA and LAA, respectively) established at the Hatano Research Institute, Food and Drug Safety Center, Japan. The HAA and LAA lines were selected and bred from Sprague Dawley rats for high and low avoidance learning, respectively, in a shuttlebox task since 1985. Although Hatano rats were selected only based on their behavioral traits in the active avoidance task, strain differences between the HAA and LAA lines were also observed in their stress responses and reproductive functions. ...
Source: Experimental Animals - December 13, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

AIM-deficient mouse fed a high-trans fat, high-cholesterol diet: a new animal model for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Authors: Komatsu G, Nonomura T, Sasaki M, Ishida Y, Arai S, Miyazaki T Abstract Owing to changes in lifestyle, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a common form of chronic liver injury. NAFLD comprises a wide variety of disease stages, from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which is a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because animal models for NAFLD are needed to investigate the precise pathogenesis, we aimed to establish a new mouse model employing mice deficient for apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM-/-), which exhibit accelerated lipid storage...
Source: Experimental Animals - November 30, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Chronic restraint stress impairs sociability but not social recognition and spatial memory in C57BL/6J mice.
Authors: Zain MA, Pandy V, Majeed ABA, Wong WF, Mohamed Z Abstract Chronic stress has been associated with impairment of memory, learning, and social cognition. In animal studies, chronic stress has been shown to impair rodent sociability behaviour which mimics social withdrawal as observed in depression patients. The effect of chronic stress on social recognition, however, is uncertain. Moreover, with reference to spatial learning and memory, the effect of chronic stress is dependent on the type of behavioural task: an appetitively or aversively motivated tasks. The effect of chronic stress was consistent in impai...
Source: Experimental Animals - November 6, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Comparison between blood coagulability in the intra-atrial and peripheral regions during the acute phase after rapid atrial pacing.
Authors: Yamada S, Hirao D, Miura N, Iwanaga T, Kawaguchi T, Yoshimura A, Oomori T, Nagasato T, Maruyama I, Fukushima R Abstract The changes in intra-atrial blood coagulability after development of atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been elucidated in human. In the present study, blood coagulability were examined in the intra-atrial and peripheral regions during the acute phase after development of rapid atrial pacing (RAP) in experimentally created model dog similar to AF, using Total Thrombus-formation Analysis System (T-TAS) that is capable of comprehensively evaluating thrombogenicity in the bloodstream in the m...
Source: Experimental Animals - November 3, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Mice harboring an MCTO mutation exhibit renal failure resembling nephropathy in human patients.
Authors: Tsunakawa Y, Hamada M, Matsunaga Y, Fuseya S, Jeon H, Wakimoto Y, Usui T, Kanai M, Mizuno S, Morito N, Takahashi S Abstract Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis (MCTO) is a condition involving progressive osteolysis of the carpal and tarsal bones that is associated with glomerular sclerosis and renal failure (MCTO nephropathy). Previous work identified an autosomal dominant missense mutation in the transactivation domain of the transcription factor MAFB as the cause of MCTO. Several methods are currently used for MCTO nephropathy treatment, but these methods are invasive and lead to severe side effects, lim...
Source: Experimental Animals - October 30, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Linagliptin protects rat carotid artery from balloon injury and activates the NRF2 antioxidant pathway.
In conclusion, our data suggest that linagliptin protects carotid artery from balloon injury-induced neointima formation and activates the NRF2 antioxidant pathway. PMID: 30369549 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - October 30, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Negative lusitropic property of nifekalant identified using ventricular pressure-volume loop analyses in anesthetized monkeys.
In conclusion, a therapeutic dose of nifekalant had no effect on inotropic activity or cardiac compliance, whereas it showed negative lusitropic properties and QT/QTc prolongation in isoflurane-anesthetized monkeys. In addition, higher doses of nifekalant showed remarkable QT/QTc prolongation leading to arrhythmogenicity, which showed good accordance with clinical findings. Caution should be paid to negative lusitropic properties as well as arrhythmogenisity for the safe use of nifekalant. PMID: 30333366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - October 20, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Food aversion learning based on voluntary running in non-deprived rats: a technique for establishing aversive conditioning with minimized discomfort.
This article presents an experimental preparation for establishing conditioned food aversion (CFA) by voluntary wheel running in rats with laboratory chow and water freely available. In Experiment 1, unfamiliar food (raisins) was avoided by rats when they first encountered it. This neophobic food avoidance was habituated by repeated tests; the rats gradually increased their raisin consumption. However, the consumption remained suppressed in rats that accessed the raisins after wheel running. This finding implies that running yielded CFA, which suppressed consumption of the unfamiliar food rather than increasing it. Because...
Source: Experimental Animals - October 6, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

The effect of avertin anesthesia and a mixture of three types of anesthetic agents on food intake and body weight in high fat-induced obese male and female mice.
Authors: Maejima Y, Yokota S, O'Hashi R, Aoyama M, Shimomura K Abstract Basic research on obesity is becoming more important due to an increasing number of obese people. Experiments using obesity-model animals often require surgical interventions, such as gastric operation, and proper selection of anesthesia is important. Avertin, an agent mainly composed of 2,2,2-Tribromoethanol, has been used as general anesthesia for a long time, without the use of narcotic drugs. In the current study, we found that a single injection of avertin can decrease body weight (BW) in male and female C57BL/6J and ICR mice with high fat...
Source: Experimental Animals - September 14, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Regional expression of tyrosinase in central catecholaminergic systems of colored mice.
Authors: Yamamuro Y, Ogura S Abstract A relationship between coat color and behavioral characteristics has been reported for numerous species. We previously indicated that particular behavioral traits contributing to the genotype at the agouti locus manifest only when possessing a wild-type allele at the albino (i.e., tyrosinase: Tyr) locus. The present study was performed to investigate tyrosinase expression with marked activity in central nervous systems. The whole brain of male B10 and B10-c mice, a B10 congenic strain of the albino locus from BALB/c at 8 to 9 weeks of age, was removed and we obtained several re...
Source: Experimental Animals - August 15, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Rabbit induced pluripotent stem cells retain capability of in vitro cardiac differentiation.
This study concluded that rabbit iPSCs remained their in vitro pluripotency with capability of differentiation into mature-phenotype cardiomyocytes. However, the efficiency of cardiac differentiation is still restricted. PMID: 30089733 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - August 11, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Chimeric analysis with newly established EGFP/DsRed2-tagged ES cells identify HYDIN as essential for spermiogenesis in mice.
In this study, we established an ESC line from RBGS (Red Body Green Sperm) transgenic mice [B6D2-Tg(CAG/Su9-DsRed2, Acr3-EGFP)RBGS002Osb] whose spermatozoa exhibit green fluorescence in the acrosome and red fluorescence in the mitochondria within the flagellar midpiece that is retained after the acrosome reaction. We utilized these new ESCs to analyze HYDIN, which is reported to function in sperm motility in humans. Analysis of Hydin-disrupted spermatozoa in mice is difficult as Hydin-mutant mice (hy3) die within 3 weeks, before sexual maturation, due to hydrocephaly. To circumvent the early lethality of the whole-body kno...
Source: Experimental Animals - August 11, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Optimal implantation site of transponders for identification of experimental swine.
In conclusion, the present results demonstrated that the back is the optimal implantation site for transponders in experimental swine. PMID: 30078789 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - August 8, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Effect of combined sublethal X-ray irradiation and cyclosporine A treatment in NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice.
Authors: Walcher L, Müller C, Hilger N, Kretschmer A, Stahl L, Wigge S, Rengelshausen J, Müller AM, Fricke S Abstract Cyclosporine A (CsA) is used in hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). GvHD is the most severe side effect of HSCT and efficient therapies are lacking. Mouse models are an essential tool for assessing potential new therapeutic strategies. Our aim is to mimic a clinical setting as close as possible using CsA treatment after sublethal irradiation in NSG mice and thereby evaluate the feasibility of this mouse model for GvHD studies. The ef...
Source: Experimental Animals - August 8, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research

Swine model of in-stent stenosis in the iliac artery evaluating the serial time course.
In conclusion, repeated carotid artery catheterization to the same animal is feasible without animal health deterioration. This model should be useful to evaluate the time course of neointimal proliferation after stent deployment in preclinical study. PMID: 30068792 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Animals)
Source: Experimental Animals - August 4, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research