The Role of BRAF V600E in Reducing AUS/FLUS Diagnosis in Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration
In this study, we summarize AUS/FLUS diagnosed cases from thyroid fine needle aspirations in our center from 2015 to 2017 to explore the impact of BRAF V600E detection on the cytopathological diagnosis of PTC. BRAF V600E detection could significantly reduce the AUS/FLUS diagnosis rates from 11.59 to 8.42% when all BRAF V600E-mutated AUS/FLUS cases were diagnosed as conforming to PTC (20.01 to 19.13% in 2016 and 10.92 to 7.93% in 2017, respectively). The AUS/M rates decreased from 0.67 to 0.64 in 2016 and from 0.33 to 0.23 in 2017. We further discuss a case with a single BRAF V600E cytological mutant lacking a postoperative...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - September 16, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

RET Proto-oncogene Gene Mutation Is Related to Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
AbstractRET proto-oncogene (RET) mutations were proved to be related to the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We aimed to analyze the role ofRET mutations in cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with MTC. Forty-nine patients with preoperatively diagnosed MTC by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) who underwent bilateral total thyroidectomy with cervical lymphadenectomy were included. PostoperativeRET gene test and pathological analysis were performed with the surgical specimens; serum calcitonin (Ctn) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were tested pre- and postoperatively, to evaluate the as...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - September 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The Genomic Landscape of Sporadic Prolactinomas
AbstractSomaticGNAS andUSP8 mutations have been implicated in sporadic somatotrophinomas and corticotrophinomas, respectively. However, no genes are known to be recurrently mutated in sporadic prolactinomas. The prevalence of copy number variants (CNV), which is emerging as a mechanism of tumorigenesis in sporadic pituitary adenomas in general, is also unclear in prolactinomas. To characterize the genetic events underpinning sporadic prolactinomas, we performed whole exome sequencing of paired tumor and germline DNA from 12 prolactinoma patients. We observed recurrent large-scale CNV, most commonly in the form of copy numb...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - August 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Long Non-coding RNA Expression in Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinomas
AbstractLong non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in transcription and in epigenetic or post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. They also have roles in epithelial to mesenchymal transition and in carcinogenesis. Because lncRNAs may also have a role in thyroid cancer progression, we examined a group of thyroid tumors which included papillary thyroid carcinomas and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas to determine the specific lncRNAs that were upregulated during thyroid tumor progression. An RT2 Profiler PCR Array Human Cancer Pathway Finder consisting of 84 lncRNAs (Qiagen) and fresh tissues of normal thyroid, PTCs, ...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - August 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Overexpression of Histone H3 Lysine 27 Trimethylation Is Associated with Aggressiveness and Dedifferentiation of Thyroid Cancer
AbstractA variety of epigenetic dysregulations are observed in thyroid malignancies. EZH2, the catalytic subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2, is upregulated in advanced thyroid cancers. EZH2 can catalyze trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and contribute to transcriptional silencing of target genes. Here, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of H3K27me3 in neoplastic and normal thyroid tissues. Normal thyroid epithelial cells typically exhibited nuclear staining of moderate intensity. A similar expression pattern was observed in nodular goiters and follicular adenomas. By contrast, stron...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - August 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Impact of Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features (NIFTP) on Cytological Diagnosis and Thyroid Cancer Prevalence
This study was done to investigate the prevalence and cytological distribution of NIFTP. PRISMA guided systematic review was done from a database search of Pubmed, EMBASE, and Medline using the search terms “non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features”, “non-invasive follicular variant of papillary carcinoma”, “niftp”, and “Bethesda” until November 2018. Original articles with surgically proven diagnoses of NIFTP using strict NIFTP criteria were include d. Twenty-nine studies with 1563 cases of NIFTP were included. The pooled prevalence of NI...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - July 23, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 and Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 1 and 2 Are Expressed in Neuroblastoma
AbstractNeuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial cancer in childhood, exhibits neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation. Two well-established NE markers, chromogranin A (CgA) and synaptophysin (syn), are used in the histopathological diagnostics. Our aims were to explore if the NE markers synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) and vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1) and 2 (VMAT2) also are expressed in human NB and if so, evaluate their usefulness in NB histopathological diagnostics. Tumor specimens from 21 NB patients, before and/or after chemotherapy, were immunostained for CgA, syn, SV2, VMAT1, and VMAT2. Clinical dat...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - July 18, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Diagnostic Performance of BRAF V600E Immunohistochemistry in Thyroid Histopathology
In conclusion, BRAF IHC is highly sensitive and reasonably specific in detecting theBRAFV600E mutation; however, there is some variability in analytic performance. (Source: Endocrine Pathology)
Source: Endocrine Pathology - July 12, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The Utility of Intraoperative Cytological Smear and Frozen Section in the Surgical Management of Patients with Cushing ’s Disease due to Pituitary Microadenomas
AbstractCushing ’s disease (CD) is most commonly caused by a microadenoma, which at surgical exploration may not provide adequate tissue for pathologic diagnosis using standard techniques. We wished to determine the accuracy of intraoperative pathologic examination and whether the addition of intraoperative cytol ogy increased the diagnostic yield. We reviewed the pathology reports from 403 operations on 341 patients with CD microadenomas from a single institution. The concordance rates of intraoperative diagnoses (cytology and frozen) with the final (paraffin section) pathological diagnosis were calculated. The over...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - June 21, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Comprehensive Evaluation of Rare Pituitary Lesions: A Single Tertiary Care Pituitary Center Experience and Review of the Literature
AbstractThe 2017 World Health Organization classification of central nervous system and endocrine tumors have introduced significant changes in the diagnostic criteria for pituitary lesions. The aim of our paper is to describe the epidemiological, clinico-pathological, and radiological features of a single consecutive institutional surgical series of rare pituitary lesions, using these new criteria. Of the 316 endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal approaches performed for pituitary lesions between 2010 and 2018, 15 rare lesions were encountered. These included metastases, pituitary carcinomas, pituicytomas, granular cell t...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - June 17, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

TERT Promoter Mutation Spatial Heterogeneity in a Metastatic Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: Implications for Clinical Work-Up
We describe a patient presenting with a large pelvic mass, in which a core needle biopsy was consistent with follicular-patterned thyroid tissue positive for a Q61RNRAS mutation and the C228TTERT promoter mutation. Upon clinical investigation, a 60-mm lesion was detected in the right thyroid lobe. The ensuing FNAB was consistent with a follicular thyroid tumor, Bethesda IV, positive for the sameNRAS mutation and both the C228T and C250TTERT promoter mutations. A total thyroidectomy was performed, and a widely invasive FTC was diagnosed. Tumor tissue samples from various parts of the primary lesion were investigated forTERT...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - June 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Parathyroid Neoplasms: Immunohistochemical Characterization and Long Noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Expression
AbstractParathyroid adenomas are slow growing benign neoplasms associated with hypercalcemia, while atypical parathyroid adenomas and parathyroid carcinomas are uncommon tumors and their histologic features may overlap with parathyroid adenomas. LncRNAs participate in transcription and in epigenetic or post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, and probably contribute to carcinogenesis. We analyzed a group of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic parathyroid lesions to determine the best immunohistochemical markers to characterize these lesions and to determine the role of selected lncRNAs in tumor progression. A t...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - May 22, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Pembrolizumab-Induced Thyroiditis
We describe a case of thyrotoxicosis secondary to a programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor, pembrolizumab. A 30- year-old female was started on pembrolizumab immunotherapy for stage III small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type. Thirteen days after her second cycle of therapy, she presented with symptoms consistent with thyrotoxicosis. A thyroiditis was diagnosed by thyroid function tests and ultra sonography. She was originally treated with prednisone and metoprolol for possible Grave’s disease. Pertechnetate thyroid scan was more consistent with thyroiditis secondary to pembrolizumab...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - May 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Risk of Malignancy According to the Sub-classification of Atypia of Undetermined Significance and Suspicious Follicular Neoplasm Categories in Thyroid Core Needle Biopsies
The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of malignancy (ROM) associated with atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) and suspicious follicular neoplasm (SFN) core needle biopsy (CNB) categories after further sub-classification. Data from 2267 thyroid nodules evaluated by ultrasound-guided CNB, from January to December 2015, were retrospectively reviewed. AUS nodules (n = 556) were sub-classified as follows: (1) architectural atypia (AUS-A;n = 369, 66.4%), (2) cytologic atypia (AUS-C;n = 35, 6.3%), (3) cytologic/architectural atypia (AUS-C/A;n = 85, 15.3%...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

A Previously Unrecognized Monocytic Component of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma
We describe a consistently present, previously unrecognized, population of monocytes in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Although sustentacular cells are generally recognized as a common component of these tumors, differential immunohistochemical staining for CD163 and S100 shows that monocytes can in fact  be more numerous. These cells frequently resemble sustentacular cells topographically and cytologically, possibly explaining why they have not been previously noticed. They contribute to the tumor proteome and may have implications for tumor biology. No correlations were identifiable between the p resence of t...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - April 18, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Expression of Prox1 in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Is Associated with Chromogranin A and Calcitonin Expression and with Ki67 Proliferative Index, but Not with Prognosis
In conclusion, Prox1 expression in MTC is positively correlated with Ki67 and with the immunohistochemical expression of chromogranin A and calcitonin. However, the present study does not support a role for Prox1 in MTC prognosis. (Source: Endocrine Pathology)
Source: Endocrine Pathology - April 17, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features (NIFTP): Update and Diagnostic Considerations —a Review
AbstractAdvances in our understanding of thyroid lesions, especially those entities with an indolent behavior, has led clinicians to question the most appropriate surgical management of such thyroid nodules. Several studies have shown that the non-invasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas (NI-EFVPC) exhibits poor histopathologic diagnostic reproducibility and have been over-treated as conventional thyroid cancer. In 2015, an international thyroid working group re-evaluated NI-EFVPC and its diagnostic criteria. The new terminology of “noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillar...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - April 5, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Diagnostic Pitfall: Parathyroid Carcinoma Expands the Spectrum of Calcitonin and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Expressing Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
(Source: Endocrine Pathology)
Source: Endocrine Pathology - March 22, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

PITX2 Expression in Non-functional Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumor with Cavernous Sinus Invasion
In this study, we analyzed the relationship between CS invasion in PitNETs and the expression of PITX2 and SNAIL1, which are the transcription factors associated with the morphogenesis of pituitary gland. Sixty cases with non-functional PitNETs were classified into four types: type 1a, none of CS invasion and suprasellar expansion; type 1b, suprasellar expansion without CS invasion; type 2a, CS invasion without suprasellar expansion; and type 2b, CS invasion with suprasellar expansion. We analyzed the expression of PITX2 and SNAIL1 employing quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry. ...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - March 22, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Negative Results on Thyroid Molecular Testing Decrease Rates of Surgery for Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules
AbstractMolecular tests and mutational panels such as Afirma Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) and ThyroSeq, respectively, have been used to help risk stratify cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules with the aim to reduce unnecessary surgeries. We studied the effect of molecular testing on the rate of surgical resection in these nodules. Thyroid nodules with indeterminate (Bethesda III/IV) cytology that underwent molecular testing (GEC or ThyroSeq) at our institution between June 2012 and August 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. We collected demographics, cytology diagnoses, molecular test results, and whether surgic...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - March 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine Neoplasms Associated with Germline Pathogenic Variants in the Homologous Recombination Pathway
(Source: Endocrine Pathology)
Source: Endocrine Pathology - February 16, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

MiRNA-3653 Is a Potential Tissue Biomarker for Increased Metastatic Risk in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours
AbstractPancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs) are relatively uncommon, accounting for 1 –2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. Tumour grade (based on the Ki67 proliferative index and mitotic rate) is associated with metastatic risk across large cohorts; however, predicting the behaviour of individual tumours can be difficult. Therefore, any tool which could further stratify metastatic risk may be clinically beneficial. We sought to investigate microRNA (miRNA) expression as a marker of metastatic disease in PNETs. Tumours from 37 patients, comprising 23 with locoregional disease (L) and 14 with distant metastases (DM),...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - February 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Correction to: Evaluation of 167 Gene Expression Classifier ( GEC ) and ThyroSeq v2 Diagnostic Accuracy in the Preoperative Assessment of Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: Bivariate/HROC Meta-analysis
The original version of the article unfortunately contained an error. (Source: Endocrine Pathology)
Source: Endocrine Pathology - February 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

An Institutional Experience of Tumor Progression to Pituitary Carcinoma in a 15-Year Cohort of 1055 Consecutive Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumors
AbstractPituitary carcinoma is a rare disease, defined by the presence of cerebrospinal or distant metastasis of a pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (PitNET). To review our institutional experience of pituitary carcinoma, we searched the database of the UHN Endocrine Oncology Site group and the University Health Network pathology laboratory information system from 2001 to 2016. Among 1055 PitNETs from 1169 transsphenoidal resections, we identified 4 cases of pituitary carcinoma, indicating that pituitary carcinoma represents around 0.4% of PitNETs. All four patients were women. The age at initial presentation ranged from 23 t...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - January 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Revisiting the Significance of Prominent C Cells in the Thyroid
We examined the number of C cells and solid cell nests (ultimobranchial body remnants) present in 118 completion thyroidectomy specimens from patients without medullary carcinoma and with no risk factors for MEN2. Morphological review was performed on all H&E-stained slides, and immunohistochemistry for calcitonin was performed on one block from each case. Solid cell nests were found in 4 (3.3%) of thyroids. Increased numbers of C cells sufficient to fulfil criteria for C cell hyperplasia were found in 5 (4.2%) to 36 (30.5%) cases depending on the criteria used. We conclude that large numbers of C cells are commonly fo...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - January 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Modified Transverse-Vertical Gross Examination: a Better Method for the Detection of Definite Capsular Invasion in Encapsulated Follicular-Patterned Thyroid Neoplasms
In this study, we present a modified transverse-vertical gross examination method with additional vertical cuts at the upper and lower ends of thyroid nodules. In addition, we compared the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with EFPTC between conventional and modified methods. The diagnostic rate of follicular thyroid carcinoma and invasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma was higher with the modified method (p = 0.003 andp = 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, the paraffin block number and the number of capsular invasion per centimeter were significantl...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - January 19, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The Prognostic Roles of the Ki-67 Proliferation Index, P53 Expression, Mitotic Index, and Radiological Tumor Invasion in Pituitary Adenomas
AbstractThe fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of pituitary tumors recommended evaluation of tumor proliferation and invasion to identify aggressiveness. We aimed to assess the prognostic roles of the Ki-67 proliferation index, mitotic index, P53 expression, and cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas (PAs). Among the 601 patients who underwent transnasal/transsphenoidal adenomectomy from 2001 to 2016, 101 patients (16.8%) who had tumors with a high ( ≥ 3%) Ki-67 index (group A) and a control group consisting of 43 patients with a low (
Source: Endocrine Pathology - January 4, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Plurihormonal Pituitary Tumor of Pit-1 and SF-1 Lineages, with Synchronous Collision Corticotroph Tumor: a Possible Stem Cell Phenomenon
We report an unusual plurihormonal tumor co-expressing Pit-1 and SF-1 along with hormones made by cells of both lineages. Its simultaneous occurrence adjacent to a corticotroph tumor raises questions regarding the pathogenesis of these tumors. We pr opose the possibility of a stem cell tumor with multiple lineage differentiation. We hypothesize that pregnancy might have played a permissive role in tumorigenesis. (Source: Endocrine Pathology)
Source: Endocrine Pathology - January 4, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

In Situ Hybridization Analysis of Long Non-coding RNAs MALAT1 and HOTAIR in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
In this study, we evaluated the expressions and prognostic significance of MALAT1 and HOTAIR in 83 cases of GEP-NENs (60 grade 1, 17 grade 2, and 6 grade 3 tumors) diagnosed during the years 2005 –2017. Expression levels of MALAT1 and HOTAIR were digitally quantitated in assembled tissue microarray slides labeled by chromogenic in situ hybridization (ISH) using InForm 1.4.0 software. We found diffuse nuclear expression of both HOTAIR and MALAT1 in all primary tumors of GEP-NENs with variab le intensities. By multivariate model which adjusted for age and histologic grade, high expression of HOTAIR was associated with ...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - January 2, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Evaluation of 167 Gene Expression Classifier ( GEC ) and ThyroSeq v2 Diagnostic Accuracy in the Preoperative Assessment of Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: Bivariate/HROC Meta-analysis
The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the performance of theGene Expression Classifier (GEC) andThyroSeq v2 (ThyroSeq) in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate fine-needle aspiration biopsy results. We searched literature databases from January 2001 to April 2018. The bivariate model analysis was performed to estimate pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR −), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Pooled data from 1086 nodules with histopathologic confirmation from 16GEC studies enabled ca...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - December 27, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Tall Cell Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Impact of Change in WHO Definition and Molecular Analysis
AbstractThe morphologic criteria for tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were modified in the 2017 WHO Classification of Tumors of Endocrine Organs, with a decrease in the requirements for both the height of cells and in the percentage of tumor demonstrating a tall cell morphology. The aim of this study was to determine if the change in criteria would result in a significant increase in the percentage of tumors that meet criteria for TCV. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between morphology, molecular alterations, and clinical behavior of TCV. We studied three cohorts to evaluate the above ...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - December 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Expression of Insulinoma-Associated Protein 1 (INSM1) and Orthopedia Homeobox (OTP) in Tumors with Neuroendocrine Differentiation at Rare Sites
AbstractInsulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) and orthopedia homeobox (OTP) are transcription factors that play a critical role in neuroendocrine (NE) and neuroepithelial cell development. INSM1 has been identified in multiple tumors of NE or neuroepithelial origin, whereas OTP expression has been mainly studied in NE tumors of pulmonary origin. Expression of OTP appears to correlate with poorer prognosis in pulmonary carcinoids; however, its expression patterns in other NE/neuroepithelial tumors need further investigation. Here, we assessed the diagnostic utility of INSM1 and OTP in tumors with NE differentiation at rel...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - December 6, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine Liver Metastasis —a Specific Set of Markers to Detect Primary Tumor Sites
AbstractThe diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) is often made at an advanced stage of disease, including hepatic metastasis. At this point, the primary may still be unknown and sometimes cannot even be detected by functional imaging, especially in very small tumors of the pancreas (pan) and small intestinal (si) entities. The site of the primary may be based on biopsy specimens of the liver applying a specific set of markers. Specimens of liver metastases from 87 patients with NENs were studied. In retrospect, 50 patients had si and 37 pan NENs. Tissue samples were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The markers app...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - November 19, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Increased Expression of GARP in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the expression of GARP and Foxp3 in 19 human PTC tissues (including 10 cases with and 9 cases without lymph node metastasis) and 20 benign thyroid diseases (including 10 cases with nodular goiter and 10 cases with adenoma). Compared with benign thyroid diseases, we found a significant increase in the expression of GARP in PTC. Increased GARP expression in PTC was positively correlated with increased expression of Foxp3, which is very important for development of Tregs. But, there is no significant association of elevated expression of GARP with lymph node metasta...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - November 16, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The Role of Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Analysis of Succinate Dehydrogenase in the Diagnosis of Endocrine and Non-Endocrine Tumors and Related Syndromes
AbstractSuccinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is an enzyme complex, composed of four protein subunits, that plays a role in both the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. The genes for SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD are located in the nuclear DNA, and mutations in these genes have initially been described in paragangliomas (PGL) and pheochromocytomas (PCC), which are relatively rare tumors derived from the autonomic nervous system and the adrenal medulla, respectively. Patients with SDH mutations, that are almost exclusively in the germline, are frequently affected by multiple PGL and/or PCC. In addition, other tumors ha...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - November 12, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

ID Proteins May Reduce Aggressiveness of Thyroid Tumors
We examinedID expression and their correlation with diagnostic and prognostic features aiming to find a clinical application in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) cases. mRNA levels ofID1,ID2,ID3, andID4 genes were quantified and their expression was observed by immunohistochemistry in 194 thyroid samples including 68 goiters, 16 follicular adenomas, 75 classic papillary thyroid carcinomas, 18 follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 5 follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 1 anaplastic thyroid cancer, besides 11 normal thyroid tissues. DTC patients were managed according to standard protocols and followed up fo...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - November 9, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Comparison of Monitor-Image and Printout-Image Methods in Ki-67 Scoring of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
AbstractGastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) are classified according to tumor grade. Ki-67 and mitotic count are the two determinants of this classification. Therefore, Ki-67 scoring becomes very important in classifying the patients accurately. Eye-balling, counting of cells through the microscope, automated image analysis systems, and manual counting of printed image are the four major scoring methods in use. The aim of this study is to show the agreement between monitor-image method (MIM) and printout-image method (PIM) of Ki-67 scoring. In our study, 120 GEP-NETs from 85 patients diagnosed between Ja...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - October 26, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

A Young Male with Parafibromin-Deficient Parathyroid Carcinoma Due to a Rare Germline HRPT2/CDC73 Mutation
AbstractHyperparathyroidism, commonly observed in asymptomatic middle-aged women, with mild hypercalcemia, is usually caused by a benign adenoma. Some cases present with more severe manifestation and greater hypercalcemia. Within this spectrum, several familial/genetic associations have been discovered. While the majority are caused by benign disease, adenomas, or hyperplasia, a small proportion (
Source: Endocrine Pathology - October 25, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Endocrine Pathology Society Hubert Wolfe Award for 2018: Call for Nominations
(Source: Endocrine Pathology)
Source: Endocrine Pathology - October 24, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Cytomorphological Analysis of Thyroid Nodules Diagnosed as Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: a Fine Needle Aspiration Study of Diagnostic Clues in 42 Cases and the Impact of Using Bethesda System in Reporting —an Institutional Experience
In this study, we aimed to explore whether FNAC can demonstrate diagnostic clues by re-evaluating cytology slides from histopathologically diagnosed FVPTC cases. A total of 42 patients were enrolled in this study: patients were diagnosed with FVPTC via surgical resection between 2006 and 2016, and all patients were subjected to preoperative FNAC, which was conducted at either a private center or at the teaching hospital of Kocaeli University and reported by the same cytopathologist (NP). Clinical and cytomorphological characteristics were reviewed by both authors .Most cases (76.2%) are diagnosed either Bethesda IV or V. T...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - October 12, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

TERT Immunohistochemistry Is a Poor Predictor of TERT Promoter Mutations and Gene Expression in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma
(Source: Endocrine Pathology)
Source: Endocrine Pathology - October 10, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

TEKT4 Promotes Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cell Proliferation, Colony Formation, and Metastasis through Activating PI3K/Akt Pathway
This study was designed to investigate the function of TEKT4 in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The effect of TEKT4 on aggressive behavior of PTC cell lines, namely, TPC1 and BCPAP, transfected with small interfering RNA was identified through cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion. Our previous study revealed that TEKT4 may be vital in PTC. In in vitro experiments, TEKT4 downregulation suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, cell migration, and invasion. Our data also indicated that tumor-suppressing role of TEKT4 knockdown in PTC cell lines was associated with the silence of the PI3K/Akt p...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - September 25, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Clinically Relevant Prognostic Parameters in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma
AbstractAlthough differentiated thyroid carcinomas typically pursue an indolent clinical course, it is important to identify the subset of tumors that are most likely to behave aggressively so that patients with these tumors are counseled and treated appropriately. Extent of disease is fundamental to the prognostication for differentiated thyroid carcinoma; however, there are additional histologic features of the tumor separate from extent of disease that have been shown to affect clinical course. This review will start with a discussion of aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma, move to the prognostic signific...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - September 20, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Synchronous Multiple Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumors of Different Cell Lineages
We report clinicopathological features of a large series of synchronous multiple pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) of different cell lineages. Retrospective review of pathology records from 2001 to 2016 identified 13 synchronous multiple PitNETs from 1055 PitNETs classified using pituitary cell-lineage transcription factors, adenohypohyseal hormones, and other biomarkers. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of these tumors were reviewed. The series included seven females and six males. Mean age at diagnosis was 55.23  years (range 36–73). Imaging was unavailable for four patients; amon...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - September 13, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Cervical Lymph Node Fine-Needle Aspiration and Needle-Wash Thyroglobulin Reflex Test for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
AbstractFine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology coupled with needle-wash thyroglobulin (FNA-Tg) testing is recommended for cervical lymph node (LN) biopsies in patients with a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the procedure has not been standardized with the assay for FNA-Tg testing. A standard operating procedure (SOP) has been generated at our facility for cervical LN FNAs with Tg reflex testing on patients with a history of PTC. The procedure requires FNA cytology to be reviewed first, and all cases not positive for PTC are reflexed for FNA-Tg testing with the Beckman Access thyroglobulin assay. The t...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - September 10, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma: Reclassification to Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features (NIFTP): a Retrospective Clinicopathologic Study
In this study, we confirmed the previous published re ports exhibiting indolent nature of PTMC and also suggested that PTMC cases that fulfill all the criteria for NIFTP can be sub-classified under this term in order to avoid unnecessary aggressive treatment. (Source: Endocrine Pathology)
Source: Endocrine Pathology - September 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research