Regulation of the adaptive immune system by innate lymphoid cells.
Abstract Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of lymphocytes that promote rapid cytokine-dependent innate immunity, inflammation and tissue repair. In addition, a growing body of evidence suggests ILCs can influence adaptive immune cell responses. During fetal development a subset of ILCs orchestrate the generation and maturation of secondary lymphoid tissues. Following birth, ILCs continue to modulate adaptive immune cell responses indirectly through interactions with stromal cells in lymphoid tissues and epithelial cells at barrier surfaces. In this review we summarize the current understanding of how ILCs m...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - March 1, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hepworth MR, Sonnenberg GF Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Understanding Th17 cells through systematic genomic analyses.
Abstract Th17 cells are a subset of CD4+ T helper cells that play an important role in host defense and have been strongly associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. The immense research effort on Th17 cells has benefited in recent years from major breakthroughs in genomic profiling technologies. The picture emerging from these studies has led us away from thinking about T cell differentiation in terms of rigid, separate pathways that give rise to canonical 'types'. Instead, it has encouraged us to understand T cell differentiation and function through a complex network of transcriptional regulators that ca...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - March 1, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Peters A, Yosef N Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

STAT3 is a central regulator of lymphocyte differentiation and function.
Abstract Signalling in lymphocytes through cytokine receptors is critical for their development, activation and differentiation into effector cells that mediate protection against pathogens and provide the host with protective immunological memory. The essential role of cytokine signalling has been established not only by the generation and examination of gene-targeted mice, but also 'Experiments of Nature' whereby monogenic mutations cause primary immunodeficient conditions characterised by impaired immunity to infectious diseases due to compromised lymphocyte function. Mutations in STAT3 cause autosomal dominant...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - March 1, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kane A, Deenick EK, Ma CS, Cook MC, Uzel G, Tangye SG Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Vaccine immunity against fungal infections.
PMID: 24583636 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Opinion in Immunology)
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - February 27, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nanjappa SG, Klein BS Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Bcl-6 controlled TFH polarization and memory: the known unknowns.
Abstract Upon antigenic activation in vivo, naïve CD4 T cells can differentiate into one of several helper (Th) subsets under the control of lineage-specifying transcription factors to tailor immune responses against different types of pathogens. Follicular T-helper (TFH) cells are a recently defined subset that is controlled by Bcl-6 and specializes in promoting B cell-mediated humoral immunity. TFH cells exhibit unique spatiotemporal and functional features, but it is not settled as to how Bcl-6 promotes the TFH development, how TFH cells relate to other Th subsets, and how TFH cells relate to memory. Here ...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - February 27, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Qi H, Liu D, Ma W, Wang Y, Yan H Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Challenges and responses in human vaccine development.
Abstract Human vaccine development remains challenging because of the highly sophisticated evasion mechanisms of pathogens for which vaccines are not yet available. Recent years have witnessed both successes and failures of novel vaccine design and the strength of iterative approaches is increasingly appreciated. These combine discovery of novel antigens, adjuvants and vectors in the preclinical stage with computational analyses of clinical data to accelerate vaccine design. Reverse and structural vaccinology have revealed novel antigen candidates and molecular immunology has led to the formulation of promising ad...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - February 18, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kaufmann SH, Juliana McElrath M, Lewis DJ, Del Giudice G Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Metabolism of activated T lymphocytes.
Abstract Activated T cells undergo metabolic reprogramming which promotes glycolytic flux and lactate production as well as elevated production of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and other carbohydrates (i.e. induction of biomass) even in the presence of oxygen. Activated T cells show induced expression of, among other things, Glucose Transporter 1 and several glycolytic enzymes, including ADP-Dependent Glucokinase and the low affinity isoform Pyruvate Kinase-M2 (which promote glycolytic flux), as well Glutamine Transporters and Glycerol-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase 2 which make available glutamate and glycerol-3-pho...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - February 17, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Maciolek JA, Alex Pasternak J, Wilson HL Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Form follows function - the three-dimensional structure of antigen receptor gene loci.
Abstract Antigen receptor genes are assembled during lymphocyte development from individual gene segments by a somatic gene rearrangement process named V(D)J recombination. This process is tightly regulated to ensure the generation of an unbiased broad primary repertoire of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors, and to prevent aberrant recombination products that could initiate lymphomagenesis. One important mode of regulation that has recently been discovered for the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene locus is the adoption of distinct three-dimensional structures of the locus. Changes in the spatial conformatio...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - February 15, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fugmann SD Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Dual immunoglobulin light chain B cells: Trojan horses of autoimmunity?
Abstract Receptor editing, a major mechanism of B cell tolerance, can also lead to allelic inclusion at the immunoglobulin light chain loci and the development of B cells that coexpress two different immunoglobulin light chains and, therefore, two antibody specificities. Most allelically included B cells express two κ chains, although rare dual-λ cells are also observed. Moreover, these cells typically coexpress an autoreactive and a nonautoreactive antibody. Thus, allelically included B cells could operate like 'Trojan horses': expression and function of the nonautoreactive antigen receptors might pr...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - February 15, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Pelanda R Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Allogeneic transplantation as anticancer immunotherapy.
Abstract Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (AlloSCT) utilizes HLA-matched donor bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell grafts to reconstitute haematopoiesis and immunity in patients with bone marrow failure or hematological malignancies. It is now clear that much of the anti-cancer effect of AlloSCT is due to the ability of engrafting donor derived lymphocyte populations to eradicate residual malignant clones, through a phenomenon known as the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. Recognition of the importance of GVT in the long-term control of cancer has allowed substantial reductions in the pre-transplant condi...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - February 14, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Parmar S, Ritchie DS Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Manipulating immune cells for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Abstract The immune system can be induced to respond against cancer with some success reported in clinical trials using a range of approaches including vaccines and antibodies. In addition to these approaches, cell based therapies are demonstrating much promise as potential therapies for cancer. In cell therapies autologous patient leukocytes are isolated and manipulated in vitro before transfer back to the patient in adoptive transfer regimens. The majority of approaches utilize conventional T cells or dendritic cells, but a wide variety of other types of leukocytes exist which can possess anti-cancer activity. I...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - February 14, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Darcy PK, Neeson P, Yong CS, Kershaw MH Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

New insights into cancer immunoediting and its three component phases-elimination, equilibrium and escape.
Abstract The principles of cancer immunoediting have set the foundations for understanding the dual host-protective and tumor sculpting actions of immunity on cancer and establishing the basis for novel individualized cancer immunotherapies. During cancer immunoediting, the host immune system shapes tumor fate in three phases through the activation of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. In the first phase, Elimination, transformed cells are destroyed by a competent immune system. Sporadic tumor cells that manage to survive immune destruction may then enter an Equilibrium phase where editing occurs. The Escape p...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - February 12, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mittal D, Gubin MM, Schreiber RD, Smyth MJ Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

MicroRNA regulation of the germinal center response.
Abstract The generation of germinal centers (GCs) is a hallmark feature of the adaptive immune response, resulting in the production of high-affinity antibodies that neutralize pathogens and confer protection upon reinfection. The GC response requires interactions between different immune cell types, and the coordination of complex and dynamic gene expression networks within these cells. Here we provide deeper insights into how microRNAs, small endogenously expressed RNAs, regulate the cellular processes involved in the differentiation and function of T follicular helper cells and germinal center B cells, the two ...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - February 11, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Baumjohann D, Ansel KM Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Dendritic cells and cancer immunotherapy.
Abstract Dendritic cells (DC) play an essential role in the induction and regulation of immune responses, including the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) for the eradication of cancers. DC-based cancer vaccines are well tolerated with few side effects and can generate anti-tumour immune responses, but overall they have been of limited benefit. Recent studies have demonstrated that CD141(+) DC play an important role in anti-tumour responses. These are now attractive targets for the development of vaccines that directly target DC in vivo. An understanding of the functional specialisations of DC subsets, st...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - February 7, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Radford KJ, Tullett KM, Lahoud MH Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Invariant NKT cells provide innate and adaptive help for B cells.
Abstract B cells rely on CD4(+) T cells helper signals to optimize their responses to T-dependent antigens. Recently another subset of T cells has been identified which provides help for B cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. iNKT cells are unique because they provide both innate and adaptive forms of help to B cells, with divergent outcomes. iNKT cells are widely distributed throughout the spleen at rest, consolidate in the marginal zone of the spleen early after activation, and are later found in germinal centers. Understanding the activation requirements for iNKT cells has led to the development of g...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - February 7, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Vomhof-Dekrey EE, Yates J, Leadbetter EA Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Innate immunity.
PMID: 24495628 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Opinion in Immunology)
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - February 1, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Masters SL, De Nardo D Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

The immune contexture of primary and metastatic human tumours.
an WH Abstract A tumour grows in a complex microenvironment composed of stromal cells, lymphoid and myeloid cells, vascular and lymphatic vessels, and the resultant cytokine and chemokine milieu. In most primary tumours, a strong Th1/cytotoxic T cells infiltration correlates with a longer survival. This beneficial effect can be hampered by the presence of M2 polarized macrophages and high VEGF production. Recent studies revealed that the pattern of the tumour microenvironment remains a major prognostic factor even in the metastatic lesions, while been reproducible between the primary and metastatic tumour. Neverth...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - January 30, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Giraldo NA, Becht E, Remark R, Damotte D, Sautès-Fridman C, Fridman WH Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Orchestrating immune check-point blockade for cancer immunotherapy in combinations.
Abstract Inhibitory receptors on immune system cells respond to membrane-bound and soluble ligands to abort or mitigate the intensity of immune responses by raising thresholds of activation, halting proliferation, favoring apoptosis or inhibiting/deviating effector function differentiation. Such evolutionarily selected inhibitory mechanisms are termed check-points and therefore check-point inhibitors empower any ongoing anti-cancer immune response that might have been too weak or exhausted. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) interfering with CTLA-4-CD80/86, PD-1 - PD-L1, TIM-3-GAL9 and LAG3-MHC-II belong to this category...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - January 28, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Perez-Gracia JL, Labiano S, Rodriguez-Ruiz ME, Sanmamed MF, Melero I Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory properties of the vaccine adjuvant alum.
Abstract Alum, the most common adjuvant in non-living vaccines, has a record of successful use in human vaccination where it promotes antibody-mediated protective immunity. However, alum is a poor inducer of cellular immune responses. The mechanism underlying the selective enhancement of humoral immunity is still not well understood. Here, to provide an insight into its mode of action, recent findings regarding innate immune responses induced by alum and their impact on adaptive immunity are described, with a particular emphasis on early recognition of alum, including NLRP3 and PI3 kinase activation, adjuvant-indu...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - January 22, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Oleszycka E, Lavelle EC Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Regulatory T cells in cancer immunotherapy.
Abstract FOXP3(+)CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells, crucial for the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance, are abundant in tumors. Most of them are chemo-attracted to tumor tissues, expanding locally and differentiating into a Treg-cell subpopulation that strongly suppresses the activation and expansion of tumor-antigen-specific effector T cells. Several cancer immunotherapies targeting FOXP3(+)CD4(+) Treg cells, including depletion of Treg cells, are currently being tested in the clinic. In addition, clinical benefit of immune-checkpoint blockade, such as anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody therapy, could...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - January 9, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nishikawa H, Sakaguchi S Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

TLRs and interferons: a central paradigm in autoimmunity.
Abstract Investigations into the pathogenesis of lupus have largely focused on abnormalities in components of the adaptive immune system. Despite important advances, however, the question about the origin of the pathogenic process, the primary disease trigger, and the dominance of autoantibodies against nuclear components, remained unanswered. Discoveries in the last decade have provided some resolution to these questions by elucidating the central role of nucleic acid-sensing TLRs and the attendant inflammatory response, particularly the production of type I interferons. These priming events are responsible for i...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - November 16, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kono DH, Baccala R, Theofilopoulos AN Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Editorial overview.
PMID: 24246387 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Opinion in Immunology)
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - November 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lehuen A, Marshak-Rothstein A Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Innate immune mechanisms in vitiligo: danger from within.
Abstract Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin in which melanocytes are destroyed by antigen-specific T cells, resulting in patchy depigmentation. Although adaptive immunity plays a clear role in disease progression, initiating factors are largely unknown. Many studies report that cellular stress pathways are dysregulated in melanocytes from vitiligo patients, suggesting that melanocyte-intrinsic defects participate in disease pathogenesis. Recent studies reveal that melanocyte stress generates damage-associated molecular patterns that activate innate immunity, thus connecting stress to organ-specific infl...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - November 12, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Richmond JM, Frisoli ML, Harris JE Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Autoimmunity to citrullinated proteins and the initiation of rheumatoid arthritis.
Abstract Clinical manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the second most common human autoimmune disease, are primarily focused on the joints, causing disability and requiring life-long treatment to ameliorate signs and symptoms. The etiology of RA is unknown; however, important discoveries in two areas have been made which provide hope that the causal mechanisms can be identified. First, the most severe form of this disease is associated with the presence of humoral and cellular autoimmunity to citrullinated proteins and peptides. Second, in the natural history of RA, autoimmunity to citrullinated antigens ...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - November 8, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Holers VM Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Commensal microbiota and NKT cells in the control of inflammatory diseases at mucosal surfaces.
Abstract Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are a phenotypically and functionally diverse subset of T cells, which recognizes self- and microbial lipids in the context of the atypical MHC class I molecule CD1d. NKT cells exhibit potent effector functions and play critical roles in antimicrobial defense, cancer immunosurveillance and the modulation of immune-mediated disorders. Recent evidence has revealed extensive cross-regulation between the mucosal microbiota and CD1d as well as NKT cells. Microbial exposure at mucosal surfaces, particularly during early postnatal development, regulates NKT cell trafficking and funct...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - November 5, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zeissig S, Blumberg RS Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Allergy and hypersensitivity.
PMID: 24183163 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Opinion in Immunology)
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - October 29, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fontenot AP, Peebles RS Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Dendritic cells in tolerance and autoimmune diabetes.
Abstract Type 1 diabetes is a T cell mediated autoimmune disease where both central and peripheral mechanisms effect T cell tolerance induction. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses. They significantly contribute to central and peripheral T cell tolerance and, following maturation, induce the activation and differentiation of naïve T cells into effector and memory cells. DCs are also major actors in inflammation. Given these multiple effects on immune responses, DCs are suspected to contribute to autoimmune diseases. In this review we discuss how some specific featu...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - October 26, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Guerder S, Joncker N, Mahiddine K, Serre L Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Beyond the transcriptome: completion of act one of the Immunological Genome Project.
Abstract The Immunological Genome Consortium has generated a public resource (www.immgen.org) that provides a compendium of gene expression profiles of ∼270 leukocyte subsets in the mouse. This effort established carefully standardized operating procedures that resulted in a transcriptional dataset of unprecedented comprehensiveness and quality. The findings have been detailed recently in a series of publications providing molecular insights into the development, heterogeneity, and/or function of these cellular lineages and distinct subpopulations. Here, we review the key findings of these studies, highlightin...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - October 26, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kim CC, Lanier LL Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Impact of new sequencing technologies on studies of the human B cell repertoire.
PMID: 24161653 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Opinion in Immunology)
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - October 22, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Finn JA, Crowe JE Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Remote control-triggering of brain autoimmune disease in the gut.
Abstract Converging evidence indicates that multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, is caused by brain-specific, self-reactive T lymphocytes. These are normal components embedded in the human immune system throughout healthy life. Only upon activation in the periphery, the T cells assume properties that enable them to break through the vascular blood-brain barrier and to invade the brain white matter. While activation has been traditionally associated with microbial infections, recently, studies of animal models revealed a critical role of the commensal gut flora as...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - October 22, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wekerle H, Berer K, Krishnamoorthy G Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Computational deconvolution: extracting cell type-specific information from heterogeneous samples.
Abstract The quanta unit of the immune system is the cell, yet analyzed samples are often heterogeneous with respect to cell subsets which can mislead result interpretation. Experimentally, researchers face a difficult choice whether to profile heterogeneous samples with the ensuing confounding effects, or a priori focus on a few cell subsets of interest, potentially limiting new discoveries. An attractive alternative solution is to extract cell subset-specific information directly from heterogeneous samples via computational deconvolution techniques, thereby capturing both cell-centered and whole system level con...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - October 19, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Shen-Orr SS, Gaujoux R Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Natural killer T (NKT) cells in autoimmune hepatitis.
Abstract Natural killer T (NKT) cells represent an innate-like lymphocyte population endowed with unique antigen recognition and tissue distribution features. Their abundance in the microvascular compartments of the liver allows NKT cells to immediately respond to lipid antigens and soluble factors circulating through the portal vein system by releasing tremendous amounts of different cytokines and chemokines. Subsequently, dependent on the nature of the lipid antigen encountered as well as the accessory signal(s) provided, NKT cells not only contribute to the maintenance of immune tolerance, but also direct adver...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - October 19, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mattner J Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Lineage relationship of effector and memory T cells.
Abstract Adaptive immunity is characterized by the ability to form long-lived immunological memory. Upon re-exposure to antigen, memory T cells respond more rapidly and robustly than naïve T cells, providing better clearance of pathogens. Recent reviews have reinforced the text-book view that memory T cells arise from effector cells. Although this notion is teleologically appealing, emerging data are more consistent with a model where naïve cells directly develop into memory cells without transitioning through an effector stage. A clear understanding of the lineage relationships between memory and effect...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - October 19, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Restifo NP, Gattinoni L Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Environmental sensing and regulation of gene expression in CD4(+) T cell subsets.
Abstract Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells represent a major mechanism for the maintenance of self-tolerance and immune homeostasis in various inflammatory responses. To achieve this, Foxp3(+) Treg cells must integrate a spectrum of environmental stimuli to orchestrate the required pathways for their coordinated action in vivo. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene regulation enable T cells to respond to inflammatory events, by altering the nature, amounts and activities of specific proteins produced for their controlled and coordinated modulation of immunity. Recent studies show that distin...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - October 17, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Piccirillo CA Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Immunosequencing: applications of immune repertoire deep sequencing.
Abstract Advances in high-throughput sequencing have enabled the development of a powerful new technology for probing the adaptive immune system. Millions of B or T cell receptor sequences can be read in parallel from a single sample. The dynamics of an adaptive immune response, which is based on clonal expansion and contraction, can be monitored in real time at high sensitivity and the global properties of the adaptive immune repertoires can be studied. A large set of clinical applications for this technology are presently under study, with a few diagnostic applications for hematological malignancies already avai...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - October 16, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Robins H Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Linking genome and immunity.
PMID: 24139582 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Opinion in Immunology)
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - October 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Palucka AK, Pulendran B Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Emerging antigens involved in allergic responses.
Abstract New allergic diseases can 'emerge' because of exposure to a novel antigen, because the immune responsiveness of the subject changes, or because of a change in the behavior of the population. Novel antigens have entered the environment as new pests in the home (e.g., Asian lady beetle or stink bugs), in the diet (e.g., prebiotics or wheat isolates), or because of the spread of a biting arthropod (e.g., ticks). Over the last few years, a significant new disease has been identified, which has changed the paradigm for food allergy. Bites of the tick, Amblyomma americanum, are capable of inducing IgE antibodie...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - October 2, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Platts-Mills TA, Commins SP Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Remembering one's ID/E-ntity: E/ID protein regulation of T cell memory.
Abstract Upon infection, CD8(+) T cells proliferate and differentiate into armed effector cells capable of eliminating the assaulting pathogen. Although the majority of the antigen-specific T cells will die as the immune response wanes, a few will survive indefinitely to establish the memory population and provide long-lived protection against reinfection. E protein transcription factors and their inhibitors, ID proteins, operate to balance expression of genes that control CD8(+) T cell differentiation through this process. Here, we discuss the role of ID2 and ID3 in promoting the generation and survival of effect...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - October 1, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Omilusik KD, Shaw LA, Goldrath AW Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Immunogenetics and transplantation.
PMID: 24075812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Opinion in Immunology)
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - September 26, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Davenport MP, Dunn-Walters DK Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Systems approaches to human autoimmune diseases.
Abstract Systemic autoimmune diseases result from interactions between genes and environmental triggers that lead to dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Systems biology approaches enable the global characterization of complex systems at the DNA, RNA and protein levels. Recent technological breakthroughs such as deep sequencing or high-throughput proteomics are revealing novel inflammatory pathways involved in autoimmunity. Herein, we review recent developments, challenges and promising avenues in the use of systems approaches to understand human systemic autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. ...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - September 18, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Banchereau R, Cepika AM, Pascual V Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Th17-mediated inflammation in asthma.
Abstract Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many different phenotypes. Moderate and severe asthma phenotypes have been associated with increased neutrophils and increased Th17 cytokines, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients. Th17 cytokines recruit neutrophils to the airway by increasing secretion of epithelial-derived neutrophilic chemokines. In addition, Th17 cytokines also induce mucous cell metaplasia and have pleotropic effects on airway smooth muscle resulting in airway narrowing. The role of Th17 cytokines in regulating Th2 cytokine expression and allergic airway inf...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - September 10, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Newcomb DC, Stokes Peebles R Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Systems approaches to studying the immune response in tuberculosis.
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) remains a disease of considerable mortality and morbidity. Studies employing microarrays to derive transcriptional profiles of the host response during TB, which combined with data from experimental systems have highlighted a potentially detrimental role for type I interferons during infection, with important implications for vaccine and therapeutic development. In addition, these studies have provided candidate biomarkers which may advance diagnosis and treatment monitoring. These studies thus exemplify the promise of a systems biology approach to study complex infectious disease such a...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - September 7, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Reddoch Berry MP, Blankley S, Graham CM, Bloom CI, O'Garra A Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Drug repurposing: a better approach for infectious disease drug discovery?
Abstract The advent of publicly available databases containing system-wide phenotypic data of the host response to both drugs and pathogens, in conjunction with bioinformatics and computational methods now allows for in silico predictions of FDA-approved drugs as treatments against infection diseases. This systems biology approach captures the complexity of both the pathogen and drug host response in the form of expression patterns or molecular interaction networks without having to understand the underlying mechanisms of action. These drug repurposing techniques have been successful in identifying new drug candid...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - September 5, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Law GL, Tisoncik-Go J, Korth MJ, Katze MG Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

New facets of antibody deficiencies.
uml;m Q Abstract Antibody deficiencies are the most prevalent forms of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Several disease-causing mutations have been identified to date, but still, the genetic background of most patients remains elusive. During the last 2 years, next generation sequencing has revealed the genetic basis for a number of these disorders. Having as a reference the latest International Union of Immunological Societies classification on PIDs, we present 9 novel genetic defects/mechanisms that are associated with antibody deficiency, affecting either early or late B-cell development. The role of dysregul...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - September 4, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Liadaki K, Sun J, Hammarström L, Pan-Hammarström Q Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Single-cell mass cytometry for analysis of immune system functional states.
Abstract Mass cytometry facilitates high-dimensional, quantitative analysis of the effects of bioactive molecules on cell populations at single-cell resolution. Datasets are generated with panels of up to 45 antibodies. Each antibody is conjugated to a polymer chelated with a stable metal isotope, usually in the lanthanide series of the periodic table. Antibody panels recognize surface markers to delineate cell types simultaneously with intracellular signaling molecules to measure biological functions, such as metabolism, survival, DNA damage, cell cycle and apoptosis, to provide an overall determination of the ne...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - August 31, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bjornson ZB, Nolan GP, Fantl WJ Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Perspectives on vaccine development for the elderly.
This article reviews in a succinct form the current state of the art on the development of vaccines for the elderly and critically assesses the past and current literature on this topic, while also proposing new avenues for future studies. PMID: 24001371 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Opinion in Immunology)
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - August 31, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Oviedo-Orta E, Li CK, Rappuoli R Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Innate lymphoid cells and allergic inflammation.
Abstract Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play critical roles in anti-helminth immunity and airway epithelial repair. Recently, these cells have also emerged as key players in the development of allergic inflammation at multiple barrier surfaces. ILC2s arise from common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow, are dependent on the transcription factors RORα, GATA3, and TCF-1 and produce the type 2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and/or IL-13. The epithelial cell-derived cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP regulate the activation and effector functions of ILC2s, and recent studies suggest that their responsiven...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - August 31, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kim BS, Wojno ED, Artis D Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Predisposed αβ T cell antigen receptor recognition of MHC and MHC-I like molecules?
Predisposed αβ T cell antigen receptor recognition of MHC and MHC-I like molecules? Curr Opin Immunol. 2013 Aug 29; Authors: Eckle SB, Turner SJ, Rossjohn J, McCluskey J Abstract The diverse αβ T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire exhibits versatility in its ability to generate antigen (Ag) receptors capable of interacting with polymorphic Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules and monomorphic MHC-I like molecules, including the CD1 and MR1 families. Collectively, these evolutionarily related Ag-presenting molecules present peptides, lipids and vitamin B metabolites for T cell s...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - August 29, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Eckle SB, Turner SJ, Rossjohn J, McCluskey J Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Human lymphocyte repertoires in ageing.
Abstract Deterioration of adaptive immunity with ageing may reflect changes in the repertoire of T cells and B cells available to respond to antigenic challenges, due to altered proportions and absolute numbers of lymphocyte subpopulations as well as changes in the repertoire of antigen receptor genes expressed by these cells. High-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS) now facilitates examination of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene rearrangements, and initial studies using these methods to study immune system ageing in humans have demonstrated age-related alterations in the receptor populations within lymphocyte ...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - August 28, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Boyd SD, Liu Y, Wang C, Martin V, Dunn-Walters DK Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

T cell recognition of beryllium.
Abstract Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium and characterized by the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells in the lung. Genetic susceptibility to beryllium-induced disease is strongly associated with HLA-DP alleles possessing a glutamic acid at the 69th position of the β-chain (βGlu69). The structure of HLA-DP2, the most prevalent βGlu69-containing molecule, revealed a unique solvent-exposed acidic pocket that includes βGlu69 and represents the putative beryllium-binding site. The delineation of mimotopes and en...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - August 23, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dai S, Falta MT, Bowerman NA, McKee AS, Fontenot AP Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research