The Impact of Restrictive and Non-restrictive Dietary Weight Loss Interventions on Neurobehavioral Factors Related to Body Weight Control: the Gaps and Challenges
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRestrictive diets, such as low-calorie diets, are difficult to maintain in the long term. For this reason, their popularity has decreased compared to non-restrictive approaches, which instead promote healthy eating strategies. Since both strategies may entail different neurobiological mechanisms, this review will examine the current evidence on the effects of restrictive and non-restrictive interventions on neurobehavioral factors.Recent FindingsRestrictive diets appear to improve eating behaviors, and the evidence reviewed argues against the notion that they may worsen the severity of binge eating...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - July 27, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Pediatric Obesity Treatment via Telehealth: Current Evidence and Future Directions
We describe impressions and future directions.Recent FindingsWe identified and included 20 studies that described unique interventions from the past 5 years. The majority of reviewed studies indicated statistically significant reductions in BMI z-scores, high retention and attendance, and high satisfaction. However, mean decreases in BMI z-scores were marginal (approximately 0.10) in all but two studies. Studies did not often report effect sizes.SummaryPediatric telehealth weight management interventions demonstrate good feasibility and acceptability. Improvement in reporting results and more rigorous research, including u...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - July 24, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Social Isolation and Loneliness During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Impact on Weight
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSocial isolation and loneliness have long been identified as risk factors for poorer physical and mental health and increased mortality. These factors have also been shown to impact dietary behavior and physical activity which play a role in precipitating and maintaining obesity. Less is known about the impact of social isolation resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic in which social distancing is a major component of public health initiatives. This narrative review will examine the existing literature on the relationships between social isolation, loneliness, mental health, and weight as they relate...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - July 23, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Benefits of Low Carbohydrate Diets: a Settled Question or Still Controversial?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review was to provide an update on the available data on the benefits of low-carbohydrate (low-carb) diets for weight management and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and determine if low-carb diets were a settled question or still controversial.Recent FindingsMost of the recent published literature in this area consists of reviews of past trials, with a relatively smaller number of recent trials. Low-carb is most commonly compared to low-fat, with problematically inconsistent definitions of both. There are numerous challenges in trying to draw clear conclusions about efficacy and effectiv...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - July 23, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Most Undertreated Chronic Disease: Addressing Obesity in Primary Care Settings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhile obesity-related comorbidities are frequently addressed and treated in primary care (PC), obesity itself is undertreated. We review the current treatments for obesity and provide potential provider and system-level strategies for integrating weight management and improving longer term obesity care within PC settings.Recent FindingsWe now understand that the body develops multiple mechanisms to resist weight loss and promote weight regain, making both weight loss and weight loss maintenance challenging. Therefore, weight management often requires medically supervised interventions and should be...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - July 23, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Endoscopic Procedures for Weight Loss
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide updated evidence on the endoscopic procedures for weight loss and to bring personal insights on the future of endobariatrics.Recent FindingsIntragastric balloons promote significant improvement in histologic and radiologic aspects of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; the endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty is effective up to 5 years and seems particularly beneficial to patients with BMI ≤40kg/m2; distal POSE is a promising technique but still lacks adequate clinical data; aspiration therapy triggers remarkable weight loss, but data on weight trends after removal of the device are still lackin...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - July 23, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Opportunities to Address Obesity Disparities Among High-Risk Latino Children and Adolescents
We present two exemplar studies that demonstrate that integrating cultural values and enhancing the overall cultural fit of prevention programs can increase engagement among high-risk Latino families. We also examine the use of multi-sector collaborations to build community capacity and address key SDoH that impact health behaviors and outcomes. Our last example study demonstrates the utility of technology for engaging youth and extending the reach of prevention strategies in vulnerable communities.SummaryTo address growing obesity-related disparities, there is an urgent need to develop and test these strategies among high...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - July 14, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

COVID-19 Self-quarantine and Weight Gain Risk Factors in Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe COVID-19 pandemic is associated with weight gain in certain individuals. This review highlights the risk factors for weight gain during COVID-19 self-quarantine in adults.Recent FindingsAmong those who have gained weight during COVID-19 self-quarantine, self-reported body weight has increased between .5 and 1.8 kg ( ± 2.8 kg) after just 2 months of quarantine. Identified risk factors for weight gain during COVID-19 self-quarantine are the following: increased sedentary behaviors, decreased physical activity, increased snacking frequency (particularly after dinner), increased alcohol inta...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - July 12, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Use of Self-Help Strategies in Obesity Treatment. A Narrative Review Focused on Hypnosis and Mindfulness
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this narrative review was to summarize the evidence evaluating the possibilities and limitations of self-hypnosis and mindfulness strategies in the treatment of obesity.Recent FindingsPsychological factors, such as mood disorders and stress, can affect eating behaviors and deeply influence weight gain. Psychological approaches to weight management could increase the motivation and self-control of the patients with obesity, limiting their impulsiveness and inappropriate use of food. The cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the cornerstone of obesity treatment, but complementary a...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 29, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Weight Management in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition that clinically presents during adolescence. PCOS is associated with increased rates of overweight and obesity, as well as higher rates of metabolic disease, especially type 2 diabetes. Weight loss decreases PCOS symptoms and risk for metabolic disease. The goal of this review is to evaluate recent studies describing the hormonal, metabolic, and weight effects of different weight loss strategies: dietary, physical activity, pharmacotherapy, bariatric surgery, mood modification, and sleep.Recent FindingsCalorie restriction continues to be suppor...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 27, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Use of Effective Language and Communication in the Management of Obesity: the Challenge for Healthcare Professionals
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInitial conversations about weight with patients are important to set the tone for future dialogue and management of obesity. There is often reluctance in raising the topic of overweight or obesity in consultations. We aimed to evaluate literature to discover the perceived barriers to optimal discussion about weight status and preferred weight-based terminology for adults, adolescents and parents of younger children.Recent FindingsFear of offending patients, insufficient training and lack of knowledge of referral pathways were identified as factors hindering healthcare professionals ’ ability...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 18, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Racial Disparities in Obesity Treatment Among Children and Adolescents
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWith the growing obesity epidemic among children and adolescents, the evaluation of disease origin to slow disease progression is necessary. Racial disparities which are evident amid prevalence and treatment must be studied to counteract disease propagation.Recent FindingsDisparities are pronounced among Black and Hispanic pediatric patients prior to conception and birth due to genetic composition and fetal environment. Postnatal environment and psychosocial influences can further increase a child/adolescent ’s propensity to increased weight. Current treatment options including nutrition, phy...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 14, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Contextualising Eating Disorder Concerns for Paediatric Obesity Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEating disorders are complex mental health conditions that share risk factors with obesity. This review outlines the context for concerns that paediatric obesity treatment presents a risk for eating disorder development.Recent FindingsMost children and adolescents undergoing professionally supervised obesity treatment will have improvements or no change to eating disorder risk profiles. However, some may subsequently develop a clinical eating disorder, and this is proposed to relate to weight-focussed dietary interventions that are standard in paediatric obesity treatment. Nevertheless, dietary res...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 10, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Bariatric-Metabolic Physician ’s Role in Managing Clinically Severe Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this review is to outline the obesity physician ’s role in managing patients with severe obesity with a particular emphasis on bariatric surgery candidates.Recent FindingsObesity is a chronic, relapsing and progressive disease. Scoring systems that evaluate the severity of obesity based on the clinical assessment, rather than the Body Mass Index, are a valuable tool. The clinical assessment should explore the underlying contributors for weight gain and screen for obesity-related complications. Bariatric surgery remains the most effective management approach for severe and complex o...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 8, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Adolescent and Childhood Obesity and Excess Morbidity and Mortality in Young Adulthood —a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRates of childhood obesity have been soaring in recent decades. The association between obesity in adulthood and excess morbidity and mortality has been readily established, whereas the association of childhood and adolescent obesity has not. The purpose of this review is to summarize existing data regarding the association of the presence of obesity in childhood/adolescence and early-onset adverse outcomes in adulthood, with specific focus on young adults under the age of 45 years.Recent FindingsDiabetes, cancer, and cardiometabolic outcomes in midlife are closely linked to childhood and adolescen...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 5, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Do Antibiotics Cause Obesity Through Long-term Alterations in the Gut Microbiome? A Review of Current Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we summarize current evidence on the association between antibiotics and the subsequent development of obesity through modulation of the gut microbiome. Particular emphasis is given on (i) animal and human studies and their limitations; (ii) the reservoir of antibiotics in animal feed, emerging antibiotic resistance, gut dysbiosis, and obesity; (iii) the role of infections, specifically viral infections, as a cause of obesity; and (iv) the potential therapeutic approaches other than antibiotics to modulate gut microbiome.Recent FindingsOverall, the majority of animal studies and met...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 4, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Understanding the Co-Epidemic of Obesity and COVID-19: Current Evidence, Comparison with Previous Epidemics, Mechanisms, and Preventive and Therapeutic Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA growing body of evidence suggests that obesity and increased visceral adiposity are strongly and independently linked to adverse outcomes and death due to COVID-19. This review summarizes current epidemiologic data, highlights pathogenetic mechanisms on the association between excess body weight and COVID-19, compares data from previous pandemics, discusses why COVID-19 challenges the “obesity paradox,” and presents implications in prevention and treatment as well as future perspectives.Recent FindingsData from meta-analyses based on recent observational studies have indicated that ob...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 28, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Role of Mitochondrial Adaptation and Metabolic Flexibility in the Pathophysiology of Obesity and Insulin Resistance: an Updated Overview
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe term “metabolic flexibility” denotes the dynamic responses of the cellular oxidative machinery in order to adapt to changes in energy substrate availability. A progressive loss of this adaptive capacity has been implicated in the development of obesity-related comorbidities. Mitochondria are dynamic intracellular organelles which play a fundamental role in energy metabolism, and the mitochondrial adaptation to environmental challenges may be viewed as the functional component of metabolic flexibility. Herein, we attempt to comprehensively review the available evidence regarding the ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 10, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Vitamin D and Obesity: Current Evidence and Controversies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEvidence from observational studies suggests that obesity is associated with low vitamin D. As both obesity and hypovitaminosis D present an alarmingly increased prevalence worldwide, there is an intense research interest to clarify all aspects of this association. This review summarizes current evidence from meta-analyses investigating vitamin D status in obesity, including the effects of weight loss and bariatric surgery on vitamin D status and the outcomes of vitamin D supplementation on body weight. We also discuss potential pathophysiologic mechanisms and important controversies.Recent Finding...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 1, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in the Pathogenesis of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): Current Evidence and Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease with rising prevalence worldwide. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge supporting the role of ER stress and autophagy processes in NAFLD pathogenesis and progression. We also highlight the interrelation between these two pathways and the impact of ER stress and autophagy modulators on NAFLD treatment.Recent FindingsThe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in NAFLD progression are currently under investigation. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the concomitant...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 22, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Weight Bias During the COVID-19 Pandemic
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review explores potential sources of weight bias and stigma during the COVID-19 pandemic, including “quarantine-15” messages and discussion of obesity in media and public health campaigns. We examine evidence of the effects of weight bias on well-being during the pandemic and highlight unanswered questions to be addressed in future research.Recent FindingsStudies that have investigated weight change during stay-at-home orders have yielded mixed findings and relied predominantly on self-reported retrospective recall, thus providing weak evidence of a widespread “quarantine-15&...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 18, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery in Adolescents
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe prevalence of obesity is increasing in all age groups. Following its success in adults, and with limited success using conservative therapies, metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) is increasingly being utilized in adolescents. This review highlights the current evidence and guidelines supporting its use.Recent FindingsSafety and efficacy mirror results seen in adults. The most recent evidence, as outcomes enter the long term, suggests that comorbidity resolution, including diabetes and hypertension, can even outperform that of adults. Mental health problems persist despite good weight loss. Ov...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 16, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Commercial Weight Loss Programs in the Management of Obesity: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewComprehensive lifestyle programs are cornerstones of obesity management, but clinician referrals may be limited by program availability. Commercial weight loss programs may be an alternative, but clinicians may be unaware of their efficacy and safety. This review describes the evidence for commercial programs, particularly 12-month weight loss, among individuals with obesity.Recent FindingsSeveral programs are concordant with evidence-based recommendations (i.e., lower-calorie diet, increased physical activity, and behavioral strategies). Among the guideline-concordant programs, National Diabetes P...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - February 20, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Healthcare Professional Training Regarding Gestational Weight Gain: Recommendations and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of reviewThe aim of this review was to summarise recent evaluations of healthcare professional training regarding gestational weight gain and provide recommendations for future training.Recent findingsA number of evaluated healthcare professional training sessions regarding gestational weight gain show promising results in terms of increased participant confidence and knowledge and impact on women ’s outcomes. It is clear that the interventions which have also implemented resources in the practice environment to support training are the ones most likely to influence gestational weight gain.SummarySupp...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - February 20, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Efficacy of Dietary Manipulations for Depleting Intrahepatic Triglyceride Content: Implications for the Management of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUnderstanding the effects of dietary manipulations on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) balance will have important implications for the prevention and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).Recent FindingsReducing calorie intake to induce weight loss is the most potent intervention to decrease IHTG. Carbohydrate restriction during the initial stages of weight loss may be particularly beneficial, but at later stages, the amount of weight loss predominates over diet composition. By contrast, during weight stability, restricting calories from fat seems to be optimal for depleting liver...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - February 13, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Correction to: An Exploration of the Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage in Promoting Obesity and Health Disparities
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s13679-021-00427-z (Source: Current Obesity Reports)
Source: Current Obesity Reports - February 2, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Obesity-Related Cancers
AbstractPurpose of reviewIn this review, we summarize the role of obesity in carcinogenesis, providing details on specific cancer sites. Special emphasis is given to gender differences in obesity-related cancers and on the effect of bariatric surgery on cancer risk.Recent FindingsAccumulating evidence has highlighted the detrimental role of overweight/obesity in cancer, with almost 55% of cancers diagnosed in women and 24% diagnosed in men considered overweight- and obesity-related cancers. Sufficient data have shown that higher BMI is associated with risk of gynecologic malignancies (mainly breast and endometrial cancers)...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - February 1, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Time-Restricted Eating, Intermittent Fasting, and Fasting-Mimicking Diets in Weight Loss
This article reviews the current literature on dietary interventions, including time-restricted eating (TRE), intermittent fasting (IF), and fasting-mimicking diets (FMD) and their effects on weight loss.Recent FindingsDietary interventions, primarily known for their potential health benefits, are attracting considerable interest also for their effects on weight loss.SummaryThe literature suggests that many popular diets can induce weight loss but only a limited number of studies actually demonstrate long-term weight loss efficacy. Here we present an update on the latest studies on some of the most popular dietary interven...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 29, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Use of Weight Loss Medications in Patients after Bariatric Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWeight regain after bariatric surgery is unfortunately a common occurrence. In this article, we have reviewed the data addressing this clinical problem focusing on pharmacological management of weight regain.Recent FindingsData from several small, non-randomized, retrospective, and prospective studies provide evidence that a number of pharmacological options, both FDA approved and off-label, are effective in mitigating and managing weight regain after bariatric surgery. There is a suggestion that the optimal time to initiate weight loss medications may be at the time of weight plateau, rather than ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 25, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Obesity, SDGs and ROOTS: a Framework for Impact
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper demonstrates how addressing obesity is vital to achieving several of the Sustainable Development Goals and targets, especially target 3.4 on reducing premature mortality from non-communicable diseases.Recent FindingsRecent research by the UN notes that countries are not on schedule to achieve the SDGs. It is noted that obesity, neglected in earlier development goals and overlooked by global health funders and policymakers, is playing a role in major health and development issues. As such, the ROOTS framework developed by the World Obesity Federation offers a roadmap towards attaining sev...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 20, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Clinical Assessment and Treatment of Early-Onset Severe Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review describes clinical management of early-onset severe obesity, defined here as severe obesity in children ≤ 5 years old. It summarizes current information regarding (1) assessment, specifically growth, genetics, cardiometabolic risk, health behaviors, developmental considerations, and psychosocial factors, and (2) treatment, focusing on lifestyle modification including parent training and a brief s ummary of pharmacotherapy.Recent FindingsPrevalence of severe obesity in young children has remained stable yet most of these children will become adults with obesity. Interventi...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 7, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

An Exploration of the Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage in Promoting Obesity and Health Disparities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe mechanistic role of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) in the etiology of obesity is undetermined. We address whether, compared to other foods, does consumption of SSB (1) automatically lead to failure to compensate for the energy it contains? (2) fail to elicit homeostatic hormone responses? (3) promote hedonic eating through activation of the brain ’s reward pathways? We followed the evidence to address: (4) Would restriction of targeted marketing of SSB and other unhealthy foods to vulnerable populations decrease their prevalence of obesity?Recent FindingsThe data are lacking to demonstrat...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 7, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Anti-Obesity Treatment: Where Do We Stand?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs a chronic and relapsing disease, obesity impairs metabolism and causes cardiovascular diseases. Although behavioral modification is important for the treatment of obesity, it is difficult to achieve an ideal weight or sustain the process of long-term weight loss. Therefore, the obesity control guidelines strongly recommend lifestyle interventions along with medical treatment for patients who are overweight. There is sufficient evidence supporting that pharmacotherapy in combination with behavior-based interventions can result in significant weight loss and improved cardiometabolism.Recent Findin...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Drugs Affecting Body Weight, Body Fat Distribution, and Metabolic Function —Mechanisms and Possible Therapeutic or Preventive Measures: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWeight gain and body fat redistribution are common side effects of many widely used drugs. We summarize recent literature on prevalence data and mechanisms associated with drug-induced body fat changes and mechanisms to prevent or treat metabolic side effects.Recent FindingsThe highest prevalence of metabolic complications is seen with antipsychotics and antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV and may, at least partly, be responsible for the increased risk for co-morbid diseases such as diabetes, steatosis of the liver, and cardiovascular disease. The pathogenetic mechanisms leading to we...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 5, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Correction to: Obesity: a Ghost at the Feast of the Sustainable Development Goals
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s13679-020-00417-7 (Source: Current Obesity Reports)
Source: Current Obesity Reports - November 23, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Developing Integrated Clinical Pathways for the Management of Clinically Severe Adult Obesity: a Critique of NHS England Policy
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewPathways for obesity prevention and treatment are well documented, yet the prevalence of obesity is rising, and access to treatment (including bariatric surgery) is limited. This review seeks to assess the current integrated clinical pathway for obesity management in England and determine the major challenges.Recent FindingsEvidence for tier 2 (community-based lifestyle intervention) and tier 3 (specialist weight management services) is limited, and how it facilitates care and improve outcomes in tier 4 remains uncertain. Treatment access, rigidity in pathways, uncertain treatment outcomes and ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - November 12, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Obesity: a Ghost at the Feast of the Sustainable Development Goals
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDespite its rapidly rising global prevalence, obesity is not featured in any of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This review highlights the multiple points at which obesity is affected by the Goals.Recent FindingsAt least 14 out of the 17 thematic SDG targets play a role in driving the obesity epidemic, including health, food, education, water quality, land and ocean quality, urbanisation and employment.SummaryAlthough the SDGs recognise the need to reduce ‘malnutrition in all its forms’, it underplays the role of urbanisation and unregulated markets on dietary health. Furtherm...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - November 4, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Preventing Excess Gestational Weight Gain and Obesity in Pregnancy: the Potential of Targeting Psychological Mechanisms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOverweight and obesity are now the most common high-risk conditions in pregnancy in the United States and increase risk of adverse outcomes during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum. Importantly, excess gestational weight gain is highly predictive of maternal postpartum weight retention and risk of overweight and obesity in mothers and their children later in life. This makes pregnancy a unique window of opportunity in the fight against obesity across the lifespan. This narrative review critically evaluates research on the efficacy of interventions targeting excess gestational weight gain, hig...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - November 4, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Measuring Food Culture: a Tool for Public Health Practice
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFood culture is a ubiquitous aspect of all societies. This review provides an overview of methods for measuring food culture, and emphasizes the importance of these measures not just for description, but also for strengthening public health practice, primarily through the development of better interventions; to monitor and evaluate changes in diet and nutrition; and for the development of strategies for sustainability and dissemination.Recent FindingsFood culture measurement has enriched public health practice through its use of myriad approaches, including interviews, cultural domain analysis, vis...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 31, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Co-occurrence of Pediatric Obesity and ADHD: an Understanding of Shared Pathophysiology and Implications for Collaborative Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe what is known about the association between obesity and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children along with the co-occurring conditions of sleep dysfunction, loss of control/binge eating disorder (LOC-ED/BED), and anxiety.Recent FindingsObesity and ADHD share common brain pathways (hypothalamic, executive, and reward centers) with pathophysiology in these areas manifesting in partial or complete expression of these diseases. Sleep dysfunction, LOC-ED/BED, and anxiety share similar pathways and are associated with this disease dyad.SummaryThe association of obesity and...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 28, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Family Dynamics and Pediatric Weight Management: Putting the Family into Family-Based Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe treatment of pediatric obesity entails working with entire families. However, aside from parenting and family health behaviors, family dynamics and relationships are not often incorporated in clinical treatment of obesity.Recent FindingsEvidence across several studies suggest a relationship between family dynamics and child weight, with impaired family dynamics associated with higher weight status in children. Evidence is mixed if child age and family function are associated. Unfortunately, there is little evidence that addressing family dynamics (i.e., relationships and overall family system) ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 27, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Weight Management in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes and Obesity: Challenges and Possible Solutions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights challenges associated with weight management in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our purpose is to propose potential solutions to improve weight outcomes in youth with T1D.Recent FindingsA common barrier to weight management in T1D is reluctance to engage in exercise for fear of hypoglycemia. Healthcare practitioners generally provide limited guidance for insulin dosing and carbohydrate modifications to maintain stable glycemia during exercise. Adherence to dietary guidelines is associated with improved glycemia; however, youth struggle to meet recommendat...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 27, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Role of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists in Pediatric Obesity: Benefits, Risks, and Approaches to Patient Selection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEffective treatments for pediatric obesity are limited. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have emerged as therapeutic agents for obesity in adults and have shown benefits outside of weight loss. Here we explore the evidence for GLP-1R agonist use in pediatric obesity.Recent FindingsEmerging evidence suggests that GLP-1R agonists have a role in pediatric obesity treatment. A recently published, randomized, placebo-controlled trial found a greater reduction in BMIz-score ( − 0.22 SDs) in adolescents receiving liraglutide compared with placebo. As in adults, gastrointesti...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 21, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Childhood Obesity in the Pacific: Challenges and Opportunities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChildhood obesity is increasing substantially in many Pacific island countries and poses an urgent and serious challenge. The Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations and the NCD Roadmap created at the request of the Pacific Finance and Economic Ministers identify prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases as core priorities. Among the various risk factors responsible for the development of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), overweight and obesity are particularly of concern with the potential to negate many of the health benefits that have contributed to increased life expecta...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 20, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Weight Stigma in Youth: Prevalence, Consequences, and Considerations for Clinical Practice
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes recent evidence on weight stigma experienced by youth with overweight or obesity. We examine the prevalence and sources of weight-based victimization targeting youth, consequences of these stigmatizing experiences for their psychological and physical health, and considerations for addressing weight stigma in clinical practice and pediatric care.Recent FindingsWeight stigma is highly prevalent among youth with high body weight, who are targets of weight-based victimization from peers, parents, and teachers. These experiences place youth at risk for psychological distress (prim...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 20, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Projecting the Influence of Global Warming on Physical Activity Patterns: a Systematic Review
This study systematically identified and synthesized empirical data-driven modeling studies that projected the future influence of global warming on people ’s physical activity patterns.Recent FindingsA total of ten studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Global warming, in general, was predicted to be associated with a net increase in active commuting and leisure-time physical activity. However, the specific relationship between climate change and future physical activity patterns was expected to vary by the periods of prediction, geographical locations, population subgroups, and season...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 17, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Food Insecurity and Pediatric Obesity: a Double Whammy in the Era of COVID-19
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines the current evidence about the ways in which food insecurity relates to obesity in children and adolescents, examining diet and diet-related behaviors, and taking into consideration the role of stress.Recent FindingsWhile living with food insecurity impacts stress and diet-related behaviors in children and adolescents, it is not clear whether food insecurity is associated with obesity above and beyond the influence of poverty. However, strategies to mitigate food insecurity and obesity are inherently connected, and recent examples from clinical practice (e.g., screening for foo...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 16, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Cognition, Brain Structure, and Brain Function in Individuals with Obesity and Related Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is one of the most serious public health concerns. Excess adipose tissue, particularly with a centralized distribution, is associated with cognitive decline. Indeed, obesity has been associated with a number of adverse changes in brain function and structure that can be detected by neuroimaging techniques. These obesity-associated changes in the brain are associated with cognitive dysfunction.Recent FindingsWhile the pathways by which excess adipose tissue affects brain function are not fully understood, available evidence points towards insulin resistance, inflammation, and vascular dysfun...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 16, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Role of Eating Behaviours in Genetic Susceptibility to Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEating behaviours are hypothesised to be the behavioural expression of genetic risk of obesity. In this review, we summarise findings from behavioural genetic research on the association between genetic risk for obesity and validated psychometrics measures of eating behaviours in children and adults (published in the past 10  years).Recent FindingsTwin studies have produced some evidence for a shared genetic aetiology underlying body mass index and eating behaviours. Studies using measured genetic susceptibility to obesity have suggested that increased genetic liability for obesity is associat...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - September 2, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

A Review of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Cardiovascular Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe focus of this review is to discuss obesity, physical activity (and physical inactivity/sedentary behavior), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and their often interrelated health implications. The authors summarize the pathophysiological changes associated with obesity, which lead to the development of CVD, recommendations for interventions such as diet, increased physical activity, and weight loss according to current literature and guidelines, and the critical importance of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).Recent FindingsClinical trials continue to demonstrate improved outcomes among overweight or ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - August 31, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research