Understanding the Role of the Gut Microbiome and Microbial Metabolites in Obesity and Obesity-Associated Metabolic Disorders: Current Evidence and Perspectives
AbstractPurposeIn this review, we summarize current evidence on the gut microbiome and microbial metabolites in relation to obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Special emphasis is given on mechanisms interconnecting gut microbiome and microbial metabolites with metabolic disorders as well as on potential preventive and therapeutic perspectives with a “bench to bedside” approach.Recent FindingsRecent data have highlighted the role of gut dysbiosis in the etiology and pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and non-alcoholic fatty liver...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 7, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Ethnic Disparities in Adiposity: Focus on Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Visceral, and Generalized Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewExcessive adiposity has become a public health problem worldwide, contributing to the rise in obesity-related diseases and associated morbidity and mortality. This review details the relative significance of race/ethnicity as it pertains to adiposity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).Recent FindingsFat distribution remains a more reliable measure of adiposity than anthropometric measures, with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. While obesity is the most common risk factor for NAFLD, the racial/ethnic prevalence of obesity does not co...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 29, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Mechanism of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Improvements in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to emphasize the pivotal role of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in tackling the parallel epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM).Recent FindingsGLP-1-based therapies and in particular GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) have proven to be effective in lowering blood glucose and decreasing weight. GLP-1 RA not only mitigate these significant medical burdens but also result in weight loss and weight loss independent factors that decrease cardiovascular disease (CVD) and microvascular complications of T2DM, such as diabetic nephropathy.SummaryGLP-1-based therapies ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

How Group-Based Interventions Can Improve Services for People with Severe Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRising demand for specialised “Tier 3” weight management services in England is exceeding capacity, leading many services to offer group-based care programmes. This review considers the organisation of current provision, exploring how group programmes may enhance services and how these could be scaled up for wider implementa tion.Recent FindingsExisting group-based programmes mainly focus on providing patients with information and education about their condition. Evidence suggests that groups themselves offer therapeutic benefits beyond this, by underpinning patients ’ engagement ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 6, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Severe Obesity in the Pediatric Population: Current Concepts in Clinical Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review describes (1) the clinical assessment of pediatric patients with severe obesity, including a summary of salient biological, psychological, and social factors that may be contributing to the patient ’s obesity and (2) the current state of treatment strategies for pediatric severe obesity, including lifestyle modification therapy, pharmacotherapy, and metabolic and bariatric surgery.Recent FindingsLifestyle modification therapy alone is insufficient for achieving clinically significant BMI reduction for most youth with severe obesity and metabolic and bariatric surgery, though effec...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 3, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Issues in Measuring and Interpreting Human Appetite (Satiety/Satiation) and Its Contribution to Obesity
This report assesses the validity of a homeostatic toolkit to measure subjectively perceived hunger and its relationship to the developing processes of satiation (control of meal size) and satiety (control of the post-eating period). The capacity of a procedure to measure the influence of hedonic processes on food intake is also evaluated. A major issue is the relationship between the pattern of eating behaviour (influenced by the underlying drive to eat and the inhibition induced by the act of eating itself) and the parallel underlying profile of hormonal and other metabolic biomarkers.SummaryIncreasing recognition is bei...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 29, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Obesity Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most prevalent cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, is strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance.Recent FindingsSignificant weight loss can improve NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Diet and exercise that result in a sustained body weight reduction of 7 –10% can improve liver fat content, NASH, and fibrosis. Vitamin E can be considered in patients with biopsy-proven NASH without diabetes, though caution must be used in those with prostate cancer. Pioglitazone improves liver histology, including fibrosis, and can be ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 3, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Immunometabolism Converge: Perspectives on Future Research and Therapeutic Development for Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewResearch over the past decade has shown that immunologic and metabolic pathways are intricately linked. This burgeoning field of immunometabolism includes intrinsic and extrinsic pathways and is known to be associated with obesity-accelerated metabolic disease. Intrinsic immunometabolism includes the study of fuel utilization and bioenergetic pathways that influence immune cell function. Extrinsic immunometabolism includes the study of immune cells and products that influence systemic metabolism.Recent FindingsTh2 immunity, macrophage iron handling, adaptive immune memory, and epigenetic regulation...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 27, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

FSP27 and Links to Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is a pandemic, yet preventable healthcare problem. Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular complications are core manifestation of obesity. While adipose tissue is a primary site of energy storage, it is also an endocrine organ, secreting a large number of adipokines and cytokines. Nonetheless in obesity, the secretion of cytokines and free fatty acids increases significantly and is associated with the degree of adiposity and insulin resistance. Fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) has emerged as one of the major proteins that promote physiological storage of fat ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 27, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Physical Activity in the Prevention of Weight Gain: the Impact of Measurement and Interpretation of Associations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo what extent do different methods of physical activity measurement and statistical analysis influence the reported associations between physical activity and weight gain?Recent FindingsThe obesity epidemic has led to a focus on lifestyle approaches to the prevention of weight gain. Physical activity is one such approach. A number of studies have reported beneficial associations between higher levels of physical activity and weight gain at the population level. However, limitations of physical activity measurement and analytical models in some of these studies are likely to have resulted in overes...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 23, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Issues in Measuring and Interpreting Energy Balance and Its Contribution to Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesogenic environment challenges individuals ’ ability to preserve energy homeostasis, leading to weight gain. To understand how this energy imbalance proceeds, several methods and analytical procedures to determine energy intake and expenditure are currently available. However, these methods and procedures are not exempt from issues that ma y lead to equivocal conclusions. Our purpose herein is to discuss major issues involved in energy balance assessment.Recent FindingsMeasurement of energy intake mostly relies on self-report methods that provide inaccurate data. In contrast, determination...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 22, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Primary Care Interventions for Obesity: Review of the Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review describes the results of randomized controlled trials that have evaluated the efficacy of behavioral interventions for obesity in primary care settings.Recent FindingsMost studies have found that high-intensity behavioral counseling (providing 12 or more sessions per year, as defined by the US Preventative Services Task Force), when delivered in-person, by phone, or electronically, produced clinically meaningful weight loss (4 to 7  kg). Low- to moderate-intensity behavioral counseling and counseling that did not include behavioral strategies (e.g., motivational interviewing) produ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 19, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Issues in Measuring the Healthiness of Food Environments and Interpreting Relationships with Diet, Obesity and Related Health Outcomes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is a broad consensus that policies to create healthier food environments are needed to address obesity. However, previous reviews of the relationships between the healthiness of food environments and diet/obesity-related outcomes have typically reported either mixed associations or none at all. This paper aimed to synthesise measurement and interpretation issues in this field, based on findings from previous reviews.Recent FindingsKey issues, drawn from 14 previous reviews in the last decade, included: (1) the use of measures of the food environments that are too narrow in scope; (2) inadequa...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 16, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Issues in Measuring and Interpreting Diet and Its Contribution to Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarises the issues related to the measurement and interpretation of dietary intake in individuals with overweight and obesity, as well as identifies future research priorities.Recent FindingsSome aspects of the assessment of dietary intake have improved through the application of technology-based methods and the use of dietary biomarkers. In populations with overweight and obesity, misreporting bias related to social desirability is a prominent issue. Future efforts should focus on combining technology-based dietary methods with the use of dietary biomarkers to help reduce and accoun...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 15, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Metformin: Mechanisms in Human Obesity and Weight Loss
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMetformin has multiple benefits for health beyond its anti-hyperglycemic properties. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the mechanisms that underlie metformin ’s effects on obesity.Recent FindingsMetformin is a first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes. Large cohort studies have shown weight loss benefits associated with metformin therapy. Metabolic consequences were traditionally thought to underlie this effect, including reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis and reduction in insulin production. Emerging evidence suggests that metformin-associated weight loss is due to modulation of hyp...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 14, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Influence of Parental Dieting Behavior on Child Dieting Behavior and Weight Status
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo explore the relationship that parental dieting behavior (e.g., dieting, encouragement to diet, weight-teasing) has on child dieting behavior and weight status.Recent FindingsEncouragement to diet and weight-teasing are both strong predictors of child dieting behavior in both childhood and adolescence. The impact of parent modeling of dieting behavior on child dieting behavior is mixed, but there is enough evidence to suggest that modeling is more impactful on daughters than sons and when parents are modeling unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors (e.g., skipping meals).SummaryParental di...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 7, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Barrier Breakdown and Adipose Tissue Inflammation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is a state of chronic inflammation. This review aims to summarize recent data supporting the role of the intestinal mucosal barrier and the microbiome in causing adipose tissue inflammation as well as metabolic factors that can affect the intestinal barrier.Recent FindingsObesity and its metabolic consequences, such as diabetes mellitus, are associated with disruption of the intestinal barrier function. Intestinal microbiota and diet play a key role in the maintenance of a healthy intestinal epithelium. Intestinal barrier dysfunction can lead to heightened inflammation, which in turn can fu...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 7, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Changes in Bile Acid Metabolism, Transport, and Signaling as Central Drivers for Metabolic Improvements After Bariatric Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review current evidence regarding changes in bile acid (BA) metabolism, transport, and signaling after bariatric surgery and how these might bolster fat mass loss and energy expenditure to promote improvements in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).Recent FindingsThe two most common bariatric techniques, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), increase the size and alter the composition of the circulating BA pool that may then impact energy metabolism through altered activities of BA targets in the many tissues perfused by systemic bl...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 7, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Disordered Eating Among Individuals with Excess Weight: a Review of Recent Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review was to examine different forms of disordered eating among individuals with excess weight, including their rates, correlates, and psychosocial treatments.Recent FindingsBinge eating/binge eating disorder, loss of control eating, emotional eating, and food addiction are all fairly prevalent among individuals with excess weight. They appear to share many of the same correlates, including broader eating disorder psychopathology, body/shape/weight concerns, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and third-wave (e.g., acceptance, mindfulness...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 2, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Weight Bias in Educational Settings: a Systematic Review
ConclusionThese results highlighted the impact of weight bias in creating inequity for students with obesity as well as several underexamined areas, such as weight bias in postsecondary settings and attitudes among teachers and pre-service teachers. Innovative strategies to address weight bias in educational settings are needed. (Source: Current Obesity Reports)
Source: Current Obesity Reports - February 28, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

A Review of the Relationship between Night Eating Syndrome and Body Mass Index
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewTo review literature on night eating syndrome (NES) and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) published in the last 5  years.Recent FindingsSince December, 2013, 11 studies examined the association between NES and BMI. Five of these studies reported a positive relationship, five showed no relationship, and one produced mixed findings. Emotional eating and age were moderators. Twelve studies examined whether there was a difference in BMI between those with and without NES with only five of these finding differences. A primary weakness of the recent literature base is that it is almost entirely cross...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - February 27, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Correction to: Psychosocial Concerns Following Bariatric Surgery: Current Status
A word was inadvertently omitted in the original version of this article. (Source: Current Obesity Reports)
Source: Current Obesity Reports - February 8, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Obesity in South Asia: Phenotype, Morbidities, and Mitigation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity has increased in South Asian countries that are still grappling with undernutrition. In this review, we highlight the characteristics of obesity, its relation to morbidities, and its management in South Asians. A literature search was conducted using relevant search engines and based on key words focusing on obesity in South Asians.Recent FindingsThe increasing trend in obesity prevalence is caused by imbalanced diets and physical inactivity. South Asians, in general, have higher body fat and lower skeletal muscle mass at the same or lower BMIs compared to white people ( “high body fa...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - February 7, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

A Critical Examination of the Practical Implications Derived from the Food Addiction Concept
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdopting an addiction perspective on eating disorders and obesity may have practical implications for diagnostic classification, prevention, and treatment of these disorders. The present article critically examines these implications derived from the food addiction concept.Recent FindingsIntroducing food addiction as a new disorder in diagnostic classification system seems redundant as most individuals with an addiction-like eating behavior are already covered by established eating disorder diagnoses. Food addiction may be a useful metaphor in the treatment of binge eating, but would be inappropria...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 31, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Loss-of-Control Eating and Obesity Among Children and Adolescents
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes findings on pediatric loss-of-control (LOC) eating and obesity published since 2013 in relation to physiological, socioenvironmental, and psychological factors.Recent FindingsLOC eating and obesity are highly comorbid in youth. Genetic and physiological risk factors are associated with the development of LOC eating. Adverse physiological outcomes of LOC eating include increased risk for overweight and obesity and greater dysfunction in components of metabolic syndrome. Socioenvironmental, psychological, and behavioral factors, such as weight-based teasing, dieting, negative a...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 30, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Women ’s Use of Social Media: What Is the Evidence About Their Impact on Weight Management and Body Image?
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review aims to summarize recent research on the effects of social media-delivered weight management interventions on weight loss and the impact of social media use on body image concerns in women and adolescent girls.Recent FindingsEvidence supports the feasibility, but not the efficacy, of studies using single-component social media-delivered weight management interventions (i.e., including no other modes of intervention delivery) in women. Studies conducted in adolescent girls and women suggest that the impact of social media on body image outcomes is mostly detrimental, but is dependent...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 21, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Psychosocial Concerns Following Bariatric Surgery: Current Status
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this paper is to review the current status of research on psychosocial concerns following bariatric surgery.Recent FindingsBariatric surgery has a positive overall impact on weight and obesity-related comorbidities, as well as a positive short-term impact on mental health and psychosocial functioning. Nonetheless, research has documented a number of different psychosocial concerns that may emerge following surgery including maladaptive eating, substance use disorders, suicide, lack of social support, and excess skin. Moreover, special populations of patients may have distinctive psyc...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 18, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Bipolar Disorder and Obesity: Contributing Factors, Impact on Clinical Course, and the Role of Bariatric Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, common, and chronic affective disorder. This review highlights the BD and obesity connection and the role of treatments for obesity in this population.Recent FindingsPatients with BD are at a significantly increased risk for obesity, as compared to those without BD, with obesity serving as a proxy for severity and predictor of poorer outcome. BD is characterized by substantial medical burden, with obesity-related conditions contributing to premature mortality. Pharmacotherapy for BD can cause weight gain and may be moderated by binge eating behavior. Bariatric sur...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 27, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Towards an Individualized Nutrition Treatment: Role of the Gastrointestinal Microbiome in the Interplay Between Diet and Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDietary treatments for obesity have relatively low long-term success. Recent studies have identified the gastrointestinal microbiome as a factor of high relevance. The current knowledge on the interplay between diet, obesity, and the gastrointestinal microbiome and the potential for individualized dietary treatment will be discussed.Recent FindingsStudies indicate that each individual digests and metabolizes identical food substances differently depending on their gastrointestinal microbiome composition. Factors related to this crosstalk may improve our understanding of weight homeostasis and treat...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Bangladesh: a Systematic Review of the Literature
This study included 14 studies on the topic which were available in full text and met the inclusion criteria.Recent FindingsThe outcomes from the included study indicated an increasing trend in overweight and obesity among Bangladeshi children, adolescents, and adults over time. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is much higher in girls than in boys among children and adolescents, and also prevalence rates are higher in females than in males in the adults. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity are also higher in urban peoples compared to rural peoples living in Bangladesh.SummaryGlobally, overweight/obesity is c...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 22, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Risk Factors and Implications of Childhood Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes our current understanding of factors associated with childhood obesity, including latest prevalence rates, effectiveness of intervention strategies, and risk for concomitant disease later in life.Recent FindingsObesity has reached global dimensions, and prevalence of childhood obesity has increased eightfold since 1975. Interventions for obesity prevention have mainly focused on behavioral settings to date, i.e., interventions that have focused on behavioral changes of the individuum such as increasing daily physical exercise or optimizing diet. However, effects have been ver...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 13, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Obesity and Sexual Functioning
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewSexual functioning is an important, yet often overlooked, aspect of quality of life for many individuals with obesity.Recent FindingsWith the growing recognition of obesity as a significant, international public health issue, a developing body of research has investigated the relationship between obesity and sexual functioning. Several studies have found that obesity is associated with impairments in sexual functioning. The mechanisms of this relationship, whether physiological, psychosocial, or a combination of the two, are yet to be fully elucidated. Other studies have suggested that weight l...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - September 15, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Youth with Overweight and Obesity: Implications for Treatment
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewChildren with obesity experience disordered eating attitudes and behaviors at high rates, which increases their risk for adult obesity and eating disorder development. As such, it is imperative to screen for disordered eating symptoms and identify appropriate treatments.Recent FindingsFamily-based multicomponent behavioral weight loss treatment (FBT) is effective at treating childhood obesity and demonstrates positive outcomes on psychosocial outcomes, including disordered eating. FBT utilizes a socio-ecological treatment approach that focuses on the development of individual and family healthy...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Investing for Health: Potential Mechanisms for the Investment Community to Contribute to Obesity Prevention and Improved Nutrition
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is a critical need for corporations to be part of the solutions to major societal issues, such as obesity. Investment decisions can have a substantial impact on both corporate practices and population health. This paper aimed to explore potential mechanisms for incorporating obesity and related nutrition considerations into responsible investment (RI) approaches.Recent FindingsWe found that there are a number of available strategies for the investment community to incorporate obesity considerations into their decisions. However, despite some recent efforts to improve company disclosure in the...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Personality Traits and Weight Loss Surgery Outcome
AbstractPurpose of the reviewTo update the recent findings on the influence of personality features on postoperative weight loss in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.Recent findingsSeveral studies investigated the influence of pre-surgical psychological variables on the outcome of bariatric surgery, but the effective role of personality factors (i.e., both normal personality traits and personality disturbances) in shaping bariatric surgery outcome is still unclear.SummaryWe analyzed nine recent papers that examined the impact of pre-operative personality traits on postoperative weight loss among individuals undergoing ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Australia ’s Progress in Improving Diets and Preventing Obesity: Clear Opportunities for Action
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAustralia, like other developed countries, has a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, in both adults and children. This review examines progress in food policy in Australia, particularly at a national level, around key policy domains as well as in relation to public education.Recent FindingsAustralia lacks a national nutrition strategy or an obesity prevention strategy, incorporating best practice recommendations to improve diets. Examination of current progress shows patchy implementation of key food policy initiatives and significant gaps, particularly at the federal level.SummaryIn the abs...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Obesity in Adults: Latest Trends
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAn increasing trend in obesity prevalence since the early 1980s has posed a significant population health burden across the globe. We conducted a systematic review for studies using measured anthropometry to examine trends in obesity in the USA published from 2012 to 2018 and for systematic reviews to document trends in obesity across the globe published from 2014 to 2018.Recent FindingsFor the USA, the only nationally representative data source capturing trends in obesity in this period was the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which uses repeated cross-sectional data to document n...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Classic and Novel Adipocytokines at the Intersection of Obesity and Cancer: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we investigate the role of classic and novel adipocytokines in cancer pathogenesis synopsizing the mechanisms underlying the association between adipocytokines and malignancy. Special emphasis is given on novel adipocytokines as new evidence is emerging regarding their entanglement in neoplastic development.Recent FindingsRecent data have emphasized the role of the triad of overweight/obesity, insulin resistance and adipocytokines in cancer. In the setting of obesity, classic and novel adipocytokines present independent and joint effects on activation of major intracellular signalin...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - August 25, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Australia ’s Progress in Improving Diets and Preventing Obesity: Clear Opportunities for Action
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAustralia, like other developed countries, has a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, in both adults and children. This review examines progress in food policy in Australia, particularly at a national level, around key policy domains as well as in relation to public education.Recent FindingsAustralia lacks a national nutrition strategy or an obesity prevention strategy, incorporating best practice recommendations to improve diets. Examination of current progress shows patchy implementation of key food policy initiatives and significant gaps, particularly at the federal level.SummaryIn the abs...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - August 11, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Youth with Overweight and Obesity: Implications for Treatment
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewChildren with obesity experience disordered eating attitudes and behaviors at high rates, which increases their risk for adult obesity and eating disorder development. As such, it is imperative to screen for disordered eating symptoms and identify appropriate treatments.Recent FindingsFamily-based multicomponent behavioral weight loss treatment (FBT) is effective at treating childhood obesity and demonstrates positive outcomes on psychosocial outcomes, including disordered eating. FBT utilizes a socio-ecological treatment approach that focuses on the development of individual and family healthy...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Personality Traits and Weight Loss Surgery Outcome
AbstractPurpose of the reviewTo update the recent findings on the influence of personality features on postoperative weight loss in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.Recent findingsSeveral studies investigated the influence of pre-surgical psychological variables on the outcome of bariatric surgery, but the effective role of personality factors (i.e., both normal personality traits and personality disturbances) in shaping bariatric surgery outcome is still unclear.SummaryWe analyzed nine recent papers that examined the impact of pre-operative personality traits on postoperative weight loss among individuals undergoing ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - July 26, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Investing for Health: Potential Mechanisms for the Investment Community to Contribute to Obesity Prevention and Improved Nutrition
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is a critical need for corporations to be part of the solutions to major societal issues, such as obesity. Investment decisions can have a substantial impact on both corporate practices and population health. This paper aimed to explore potential mechanisms for incorporating obesity and related nutrition considerations into responsible investment (RI) approaches.Recent FindingsWe found that there are a number of available strategies for the investment community to incorporate obesity considerations into their decisions. However, despite some recent efforts to improve company disclosure in the...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - July 18, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Obesity Prevention and Management Strategies in Canada: Shifting Paradigms and Putting People First
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this study was to review public and private sector obesity policies in Canada and to make recommendations for future evidence-based obesity prevention and management strategies.Recent FindingsSynthesis of obesity prevention and management policies and research studies are presented in three primary themes: (1) Increased awareness about the impact of weight bias and obesity stigma in Canada; (2) Inadequate government obesity prevention and management policies and strategies; and (3) Lack of comprehensive private sector obesity prevention and management policies.SummaryFindings suggest...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Food Cues and Obesity: Overpowering Hormones and Energy Balance Regulation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn the modern obesogenic environment, food cues play a crucial role in the development of obesity by disrupting hormone and energy balance mechanisms. Thus, it is critical to understand the neurobiology of feeding behaviors and obesity in the context of ubiquitous food cues. The current paper reviews the physiology of feeding, hormonal regulation of energy balance, and food cue responses and discusses their contributions to obesity.Recent FindingsFood cues have strong impact on human physiology. Obese individuals have altered food cue-elicited responses in the brain and periphery, overpowering horm...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The State of the Summer: a Review of Child Summer Weight Gain and Efforts to Prevent It
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAccumulating evidence shows that children in the USA gain weight more rapidly during the summer, when school is not in session. This narrative review spanning 2007 to 2017 summarizes efforts to characterize the problem, identify key determinants, and intervene to prevent excess summer weight gain.Recent FindingsSummer weight gain remains a concern for elementary-age youth. Few studies have examined its determinants, but unfavorable summertime shifts in diet, physical activity, sedentary time, screen media use, and sleep have been reported. Increased structure is thought to protect against summer we...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Future Pharmacotherapy for Obesity: New Anti-obesity Drugs on the Horizon
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is a global health crisis with detrimental effects on all organ systems leading to worsening disease state and rising costs of care. Persons with obesity failing lifestyle therapies need to be escalated to appropriate pharmacological treatment modalities, medical devices, and/or bariatric surgery if criteria are met and more aggressive intervention is needed. The progression of severe obesity in the patient population coupled with related co-morbidities necessitates the development of novel therapies for the treatment of obesity. This development is preceded by increased understanding of th...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Devices and Endoscopic Bariatric Therapies for Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we describe the FDA-approved and investigational devices and endoscopic bariatric therapies for the treatment of obesity. We focus on literature published in the past few years and present mechanisms of action as well as efficacy and safety data.Recent FindingsDevices and endoscopic procedures are emerging options to fill the significant treatment gap in the management of obesity. Not only are these devices and procedures minimally invasive and reversible, but they are potentially more effective than antiobesity medications, often safer for poor surgical candidates and possibly less...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research