Obesity, SDGs and ROOTS: a Framework for Impact
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper demonstrates how addressing obesity is vital to achieving several of the Sustainable Development Goals and targets, especially target 3.4 on reducing premature mortality from non-communicable diseases.Recent FindingsRecent research by the UN notes that countries are not on schedule to achieve the SDGs. It is noted that obesity, neglected in earlier development goals and overlooked by global health funders and policymakers, is playing a role in major health and development issues. As such, the ROOTS framework developed by the World Obesity Federation offers a roadmap towards attaining sev...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 20, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Clinical Assessment and Treatment of Early-Onset Severe Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review describes clinical management of early-onset severe obesity, defined here as severe obesity in children ≤ 5 years old. It summarizes current information regarding (1) assessment, specifically growth, genetics, cardiometabolic risk, health behaviors, developmental considerations, and psychosocial factors, and (2) treatment, focusing on lifestyle modification including parent training and a brief s ummary of pharmacotherapy.Recent FindingsPrevalence of severe obesity in young children has remained stable yet most of these children will become adults with obesity. Interventi...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 7, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

An Exploration of the Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage in Promoting Obesity and Health Disparities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe mechanistic role of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) in the etiology of obesity is undetermined. We address whether, compared to other foods, does consumption of SSB (1) automatically lead to failure to compensate for the energy it contains? (2) fail to elicit homeostatic hormone responses? (3) promote hedonic eating through activation of the brain ’s reward pathways? We followed the evidence to address: (4) Would restriction of targeted marketing of SSB and other unhealthy foods to vulnerable populations decrease their prevalence of obesity?Recent FindingsThe data are lacking to demonstrat...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 7, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Anti-Obesity Treatment: Where Do We Stand?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs a chronic and relapsing disease, obesity impairs metabolism and causes cardiovascular diseases. Although behavioral modification is important for the treatment of obesity, it is difficult to achieve an ideal weight or sustain the process of long-term weight loss. Therefore, the obesity control guidelines strongly recommend lifestyle interventions along with medical treatment for patients who are overweight. There is sufficient evidence supporting that pharmacotherapy in combination with behavior-based interventions can result in significant weight loss and improved cardiometabolism.Recent Findin...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 6, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Drugs Affecting Body Weight, Body Fat Distribution, and Metabolic Function —Mechanisms and Possible Therapeutic or Preventive Measures: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWeight gain and body fat redistribution are common side effects of many widely used drugs. We summarize recent literature on prevalence data and mechanisms associated with drug-induced body fat changes and mechanisms to prevent or treat metabolic side effects.Recent FindingsThe highest prevalence of metabolic complications is seen with antipsychotics and antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV and may, at least partly, be responsible for the increased risk for co-morbid diseases such as diabetes, steatosis of the liver, and cardiovascular disease. The pathogenetic mechanisms leading to we...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 5, 2021 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Correction to: Obesity: a Ghost at the Feast of the Sustainable Development Goals
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s13679-020-00417-7 (Source: Current Obesity Reports)
Source: Current Obesity Reports - November 23, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Developing Integrated Clinical Pathways for the Management of Clinically Severe Adult Obesity: a Critique of NHS England Policy
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewPathways for obesity prevention and treatment are well documented, yet the prevalence of obesity is rising, and access to treatment (including bariatric surgery) is limited. This review seeks to assess the current integrated clinical pathway for obesity management in England and determine the major challenges.Recent FindingsEvidence for tier 2 (community-based lifestyle intervention) and tier 3 (specialist weight management services) is limited, and how it facilitates care and improve outcomes in tier 4 remains uncertain. Treatment access, rigidity in pathways, uncertain treatment outcomes and ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - November 12, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Obesity: a Ghost at the Feast of the Sustainable Development Goals
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDespite its rapidly rising global prevalence, obesity is not featured in any of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This review highlights the multiple points at which obesity is affected by the Goals.Recent FindingsAt least 14 out of the 17 thematic SDG targets play a role in driving the obesity epidemic, including health, food, education, water quality, land and ocean quality, urbanisation and employment.SummaryAlthough the SDGs recognise the need to reduce ‘malnutrition in all its forms’, it underplays the role of urbanisation and unregulated markets on dietary health. Furtherm...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - November 4, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Preventing Excess Gestational Weight Gain and Obesity in Pregnancy: the Potential of Targeting Psychological Mechanisms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOverweight and obesity are now the most common high-risk conditions in pregnancy in the United States and increase risk of adverse outcomes during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum. Importantly, excess gestational weight gain is highly predictive of maternal postpartum weight retention and risk of overweight and obesity in mothers and their children later in life. This makes pregnancy a unique window of opportunity in the fight against obesity across the lifespan. This narrative review critically evaluates research on the efficacy of interventions targeting excess gestational weight gain, hig...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - November 4, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Measuring Food Culture: a Tool for Public Health Practice
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFood culture is a ubiquitous aspect of all societies. This review provides an overview of methods for measuring food culture, and emphasizes the importance of these measures not just for description, but also for strengthening public health practice, primarily through the development of better interventions; to monitor and evaluate changes in diet and nutrition; and for the development of strategies for sustainability and dissemination.Recent FindingsFood culture measurement has enriched public health practice through its use of myriad approaches, including interviews, cultural domain analysis, vis...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 31, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Co-occurrence of Pediatric Obesity and ADHD: an Understanding of Shared Pathophysiology and Implications for Collaborative Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe what is known about the association between obesity and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children along with the co-occurring conditions of sleep dysfunction, loss of control/binge eating disorder (LOC-ED/BED), and anxiety.Recent FindingsObesity and ADHD share common brain pathways (hypothalamic, executive, and reward centers) with pathophysiology in these areas manifesting in partial or complete expression of these diseases. Sleep dysfunction, LOC-ED/BED, and anxiety share similar pathways and are associated with this disease dyad.SummaryThe association of obesity and...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 28, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Family Dynamics and Pediatric Weight Management: Putting the Family into Family-Based Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe treatment of pediatric obesity entails working with entire families. However, aside from parenting and family health behaviors, family dynamics and relationships are not often incorporated in clinical treatment of obesity.Recent FindingsEvidence across several studies suggest a relationship between family dynamics and child weight, with impaired family dynamics associated with higher weight status in children. Evidence is mixed if child age and family function are associated. Unfortunately, there is little evidence that addressing family dynamics (i.e., relationships and overall family system) ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 27, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Weight Management in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes and Obesity: Challenges and Possible Solutions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights challenges associated with weight management in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our purpose is to propose potential solutions to improve weight outcomes in youth with T1D.Recent FindingsA common barrier to weight management in T1D is reluctance to engage in exercise for fear of hypoglycemia. Healthcare practitioners generally provide limited guidance for insulin dosing and carbohydrate modifications to maintain stable glycemia during exercise. Adherence to dietary guidelines is associated with improved glycemia; however, youth struggle to meet recommendat...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 27, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Role of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists in Pediatric Obesity: Benefits, Risks, and Approaches to Patient Selection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEffective treatments for pediatric obesity are limited. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have emerged as therapeutic agents for obesity in adults and have shown benefits outside of weight loss. Here we explore the evidence for GLP-1R agonist use in pediatric obesity.Recent FindingsEmerging evidence suggests that GLP-1R agonists have a role in pediatric obesity treatment. A recently published, randomized, placebo-controlled trial found a greater reduction in BMIz-score ( − 0.22 SDs) in adolescents receiving liraglutide compared with placebo. As in adults, gastrointesti...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 21, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Childhood Obesity in the Pacific: Challenges and Opportunities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChildhood obesity is increasing substantially in many Pacific island countries and poses an urgent and serious challenge. The Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations and the NCD Roadmap created at the request of the Pacific Finance and Economic Ministers identify prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases as core priorities. Among the various risk factors responsible for the development of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), overweight and obesity are particularly of concern with the potential to negate many of the health benefits that have contributed to increased life expecta...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 20, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Weight Stigma in Youth: Prevalence, Consequences, and Considerations for Clinical Practice
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes recent evidence on weight stigma experienced by youth with overweight or obesity. We examine the prevalence and sources of weight-based victimization targeting youth, consequences of these stigmatizing experiences for their psychological and physical health, and considerations for addressing weight stigma in clinical practice and pediatric care.Recent FindingsWeight stigma is highly prevalent among youth with high body weight, who are targets of weight-based victimization from peers, parents, and teachers. These experiences place youth at risk for psychological distress (prim...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 20, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Projecting the Influence of Global Warming on Physical Activity Patterns: a Systematic Review
This study systematically identified and synthesized empirical data-driven modeling studies that projected the future influence of global warming on people ’s physical activity patterns.Recent FindingsA total of ten studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Global warming, in general, was predicted to be associated with a net increase in active commuting and leisure-time physical activity. However, the specific relationship between climate change and future physical activity patterns was expected to vary by the periods of prediction, geographical locations, population subgroups, and season...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 17, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Food Insecurity and Pediatric Obesity: a Double Whammy in the Era of COVID-19
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines the current evidence about the ways in which food insecurity relates to obesity in children and adolescents, examining diet and diet-related behaviors, and taking into consideration the role of stress.Recent FindingsWhile living with food insecurity impacts stress and diet-related behaviors in children and adolescents, it is not clear whether food insecurity is associated with obesity above and beyond the influence of poverty. However, strategies to mitigate food insecurity and obesity are inherently connected, and recent examples from clinical practice (e.g., screening for foo...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 16, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Cognition, Brain Structure, and Brain Function in Individuals with Obesity and Related Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is one of the most serious public health concerns. Excess adipose tissue, particularly with a centralized distribution, is associated with cognitive decline. Indeed, obesity has been associated with a number of adverse changes in brain function and structure that can be detected by neuroimaging techniques. These obesity-associated changes in the brain are associated with cognitive dysfunction.Recent FindingsWhile the pathways by which excess adipose tissue affects brain function are not fully understood, available evidence points towards insulin resistance, inflammation, and vascular dysfun...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 16, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Role of Eating Behaviours in Genetic Susceptibility to Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEating behaviours are hypothesised to be the behavioural expression of genetic risk of obesity. In this review, we summarise findings from behavioural genetic research on the association between genetic risk for obesity and validated psychometrics measures of eating behaviours in children and adults (published in the past 10  years).Recent FindingsTwin studies have produced some evidence for a shared genetic aetiology underlying body mass index and eating behaviours. Studies using measured genetic susceptibility to obesity have suggested that increased genetic liability for obesity is associat...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - September 2, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

A Review of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Cardiovascular Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe focus of this review is to discuss obesity, physical activity (and physical inactivity/sedentary behavior), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and their often interrelated health implications. The authors summarize the pathophysiological changes associated with obesity, which lead to the development of CVD, recommendations for interventions such as diet, increased physical activity, and weight loss according to current literature and guidelines, and the critical importance of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).Recent FindingsClinical trials continue to demonstrate improved outcomes among overweight or ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - August 31, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Psychological Correlates of Sedentary Screen Time Behaviour Among Children and Adolescents: a Narrative Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aims of this narrative review were to (1) synthesise the literature on the relationship between screen time and important mental health outcomes and (2) examine the underpinning factors that can influence this association.Recent FindingsParalleling the rise of mental health issues in children and adolescents is the ubiquitous overuse of screens, but it is unclear how screen time is related to important mental health outcomes and whether this association differs by gender, age and screen type.MethodsMedline/PubMed, PsychINFO and Google Scholar databases were searched on December 2019 for article...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - August 31, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Obesity: a Review of Literature from the Past Decade to Inform Intervention Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis is a review of the patterns, conceptualization, and suggested mechanisms underlying the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES) to obesity in childhood and the implications of these data for interventions going forward.Recent FindingsAdiposity and SES are negatively associated in high-income countries and positively associated in medium to low-income countries. Several mechanisms, such as early introduction of solid food and parental behaviors, which may explain the association of SES and adiposity, have been identified. Parental education and adiposity and early pediatric nutrition appear ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - August 11, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Retail Food Environment, Store Foods, and Diet and Health among Indigenous Populations: a Scoping Review
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewDescribe the state of knowledge on how the retail food environment contributes to diet-related health and obesity among Indigenous populations, and assess how the literature incorporates Indigenous perspectives, methodologies and engagement throughout the research process. Outcomes included dietary behaviour (purchasing, intakes and diet quality) and diet-related health outcomes (weight-related outcomes, non-communicable diseases and holistic health or definitions of health as defined by Indigenous populations involved in the study).Recent FindingsOf fifty included articles (1996 –2019), ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - August 10, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Implication of Gut Hormones in the Regulation of Energy Homeostasis and Their Role in the Pathophysiology of Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an update on the role of gut hormones and their interactions in the regulation of energy homeostasis, describes gut hormone adaptations in obesity and in response to weight loss, and summarizes the current evidence on the role of gut hormone-based therapies for obesity treatment.Recent FindingsGut hormones play a key role in regulating eating behaviour, energy and glucose homeostasis. Dysregulated gut hormone responses have been proposed to be pathogenetically involved in the development and perpetuation of obesity. Summarizing the major gut hormone changes in obesity, obese in...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - July 8, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Autoantibody Production in Obesity: Is There Evidence for a Link Between Obesity and Autoimmunity?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDuring the last decades, obesity and autoimmune disorders have shown a parallel significant rise in industrialized countries. This review aims at providing a comprehensive update of the relationship between the adipose tissue in obesity and autoimmune disorders, highlighting the underlying mechanisms with a particular emphasis on adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the impaired B cell activity, and the production of natural and pathogenic autoantibody repertoire in the context of obesity.Recent FindingsObesity is related to a higher risk of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthr...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - July 5, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Socioeconomics of Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to evaluate and emphasize important findings in the recent literature regarding the socioeconomics of obesity. It is important to evaluate trends of this global epidemic and elucidate its impact on different demographic groups and across socioeconomic strata.Recent FindingsObesity rates continue to increase domestically and globally which is associated with a concomitant rise in medical and economic costs. There are disparities in obesity rates based on race/ethnicity, sex, gender and sexual identity, and socioeconomic status, yet these disparities are not explained fu...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - July 5, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Outcomes in Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery: an Updated 5-Year Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewKnowledge regarding postoperative outcomes after bariatric and metabolic surgery continues to evolve. This review highlights key findings in outcomes research over the last 5  years related to weight loss, remission of obesity-related disease, reflux, revisional surgery, robotic-assisted surgical platforms, and adolescent populations.Recent FindingsSleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) produce similar weight loss patterns at 5  years, while duodenal switch (BPD/DS) and related procedures are associated with maximal weight loss overall and optimal resolution of obesit...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 29, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Omics Biomarkers in Obesity: Novel Etiological Insights and Targets for Precision Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOmics-based technologies were suggested to provide an advanced understanding of obesity etiology and its metabolic consequences. This review highlights the recent developments in “omics”-based research aimed to identify obesity-related biomarkers.Recent FindingsRecent advances in obesity and metabolism research increasingly rely on new technologies to identify mechanisms in the development of obesity using various “omics” platforms. Genetic and epigenetic biomarkers that translate into changes in transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome could serve as targets for obesity prev...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 26, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Is There an Obesity Paradox in Critical Illness? Epidemiologic and Metabolic Considerations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity represents a global epidemic with serious implications in public health due to its increasing prevalence and its known association with a high morbidity and mortality burden. However, a growing number of data support a survival benefit of obesity in critical illness. This review summarizes current evidence regarding the obesity paradox in critical illness, discusses methodological issues and metabolic implications, and presents potential pathophysiologic mechanisms.Recent FindingsData from meta-analyses and recent studies corroborate the obesity-related survival benefit in critically ill pa...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 19, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Health-Related Quality of Life in Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review describes the latest evidence for the impact of bariatric surgery on health-related quality of life (HRQL).Recent FindingsThe impact of bariatric surgery on HRQL is less well-understood than its clinical effectiveness on weight and co-morbidities. Poor-quality study design and different HRQL measures challenge systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Available limited evidence suggests that physical aspects of HRQL may improve more than mental health aspects of HRQL after bariatric surgery, reaching maximal benefits 1 –2 years post-surgery. Comparative HRQL analyses between bari...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 17, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Predicting Responses to Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBariatric surgery is today the most effective therapy for weight loss and reduction of comorbidity burden in patients with severe obesity. However, bariatric surgery does not benefit equally all the patients. A consistent variability in outcomes has been observed. Predicting responses to bariatric surgery could be an important tool in clinical practice, by improving patients ’ selection or by identifying patients in which more aggressive follow-up and post-operative intervention should be applied. Predictive factors for weight loss, weight regain, diabetes remission and recurrence are briefly...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 15, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Protein-Rich Diets for Weight Loss Maintenance
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHigh-protein diets in the management of obesity have been around for many years and have been rigorously tested for their ability to induce weight loss. Comparably less is known about their effects on the maintenance of lost weight.Recent FindingsSeveral small and a few large randomized trials have evaluated the efficacy of high-protein diets (20 –35% of calories from protein; 1.2–1.9 g/kg∙day) compared with normal-protein diets (10–20% of calories from protein; 0.8–1.3 g/kg∙day), consumed mostly ad libitum during weight loss maintenance, i.e., after clinically...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 14, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Childhood Obesity and Cancer Risk in Adulthood
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the association between childhood obesity and cancer risk later in life.Recent FindingsAdipose tissue secrets a variety of adipocytokines, and expression and/or secretion rate of most of them seems to be increased or dysregulated in obesity. In addition, obesity leads to increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as interferon- γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which promotes an infiltration of inflammatory immune cells into adipose tissue. This process may ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 8, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Polycystic ovary Syndrome in Adolescents: Pitfalls in Diagnosis and Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder during a woman ’s reproductive lifespan, with well-documented diagnostic criteria and therapeutic strategies in adults; the same is not necessarily true for adolescents. The purpose of this review was to identify frequent pitfalls in PCOS diagnosis and management during adolescence.Recent FindingsAlthough there is no global consensus on the definition, most experts converge to the presence of both oligo/amenorrhea and (clinical and/or biochemical) hyperandrogenism, as a prerequisite for diagnosis in adolescents. The former c...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 5, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Endoscopic Management of Clinically Severe Obesity: Primary and Secondary Therapeutic Procedures
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn the treatment of epidemic obesity and metabolic disorders, conservative approaches often fail to achieve the treatment goal in patients with very high BMI. To date, bariatric surgery accomplishes the most sustainable results in patients with morbid obesity. This leads to a treatment gap for lower and middle classes of obesity defined by BMI. Primary endoscopic procedures, which are less invasive than surgery, may be able to sufficiently fill this gap. Furthermore, secondary endoscopic procedures have developed into an essential addition regarding complication management of bariatric surgeries. T...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 2, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Probiotics, Prebiotics, Synbiotics, Postbiotics, and Obesity: Current Evidence, Controversies, and Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we summarize current evidence on gut microbiome and obesity; we discuss the role of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and postbiotics in obesity prevention and management; and we highlight and analyze main limitations, challenges, and controversies of their use.Recent FindingsOverall, the majority of animal studies and meta-analyses of human studies examining the use of probiotics and synbiotics in obesity has shown their beneficial effects on weight reduction and other metabolic parameters via their involvement in gut microbiota modulation.Bifidobacterium andLactobacillus strains...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 28, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

From the Knife to the Endoscope —a History of Bariatric Surgery
ConclusionDespite the advances made in bariatric surgery, the criteria determining suitability of patients for bariatric surgery in most parts of the world are still based on a consensus agreed upon in the USA in 1991. There is a need to formulate some new consensus and guidelines that would allow for a significant expansion of the pool of patients that can be offered these procedures. (Source: Current Obesity Reports)
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 26, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Optimal Nutritional Programme for Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery
We present best practices for both the pre- and postoperative nutrition-related phases of a patient ’s journey.SummaryThe dietitian specialist is integral in the assessment and ongoing nutrition care of patients with bariatric surgery. Further consideration should be given to enable access for lifelong follow-up and monitoring. (Source: Current Obesity Reports)
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 25, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Treatment Options for Poor Responders to Bariatric Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to evaluate the latest evidence on the treatment options for perceived poor responders to bariatric surgery and provide practitioners with a guide on when to consider revisional surgery and when to consider alternatives.Recent FindingsThe use of adjuvant pharmacotherapy has been increasingly described in the literature as an adjunct to primary bariatric surgery, in order to attain more weight loss or better control of obesity-related complications. The newer anti-obesity and anti-diabetes drugs also have cardiorenal benefits, which are shown in recent cardiovascular outcome trials....
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 23, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Review of the Experience of Weight-Based Stigmatization in Romantic Relationships
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis narrative review summarizes literature on the stigma and prejudices experienced by individuals based on their weight in the context of romantic relationships.Recent FindingsIndividuals presenting with overweight or obesity, particularly women, are disadvantaged in the formation of romantic relationships compared with their normal-weight counterparts. They are also more prone to experience weight-based stigmatization towards their couple (from others), as well as among their couple (from their romantic partner). Currently available studies showed that weight-based stigmatization by a romantic p...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Community-Based Prevention Programs for Disordered Eating and Obesity: Updates and Current Limitations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the status of community-based disordered eating and obesity prevention programs from 2014 to 2019.Recent FindingsIn the last 5  years, prevention programs have found success in intervening with children and parental figures in wellness centers, physical activity centers, childcare centers, workplaces, online, and over-the-phone through directly reducing disordered eating and obesity or by targeting risk factors of disorder ed eating and obesity. Community-based prevention programs for disordered eating and programs targeting both disordered eating and obesity were scarce, highlightin...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

From the Knife to the Endoscope —a History of Bariatric Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCurrent bariatric surgical practice has developed from early procedures, some of which are no longer routinely performed. This review highlights how surgical practice in this area has developed over time.Recent FindingsThis review outlines early procedures including jejuno-colic and jejuno-ileal bypass, initial experience with gastric bypass, vertical banded gastroplasty and biliopancreatic diversion with or without duodenal switch. The role laparoscopy has played in the widespread utilization of surgery for treatment of obesity will be described, as will the development of procedures which form th...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 18, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Deciphering the Association Between Psoriasis and Obesity: Current Evidence and Treatment Considerations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity and psoriasis represent chronic inflammatory states that are interconnected in a vicious cycle, sharing also a degree of synergy. In this review, we aim to decipher the various lines of evidence supporting the bidirectional association between psoriasis and obesity highlighting their pathophysiologic connections as well as we attempt to strategize a therapeutic holistic approach for obese psoriatic patients.Recent FindingsRecent meta-analyses have shown that (1) genetically higher BMI increased the odds of psoriasis occurrence; (2) obesity is associated with higher incidence and prevalence ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 15, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Fight Against Obesity Escalates: New Drugs on the Horizon and Metabolic Implications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is currently a steep rise in the global prevalence of obesity. Pharmaceutical therapy is a valuable component of conservative obesity therapy. Herein, medications currently in the phase of preclinical or clinical testing are reviewed, along with an overview of the mechanisms that regulate energy intake and expenditure. In addition, the current and potential future directions of obesity drug therapy are discussed.Recent FindingsAlthough the current arsenal of obesity pharmacotherapy is limited, a considerable number of agents that exert their actions through a variety of pharmacodynamic target...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 8, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Eating Disorders and Overweight/Obesity in Veterans: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment Considerations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEating disorders (EDs) and overweight/obesity (OW/OB) have a significant impact on veterans. This review highlights current research on EDs and OW/OB in this population.Recent FindingsPrevalence estimates for both EDs and OW/OB among veterans remain consistent with and possibly higher than those in the general population. Both diagnoses share multiple risk factors, including trauma history, and mental health comorbidities. Although weight loss treatments have been fairly well studied among veteran samples, there are no published investigations on psychotherapies for EDs in this population. The Vete...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 1, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Metabolically Healthy Obesity: Criteria, Epidemiology, Controversies, and Consequences
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo present a comprehensive overview regarding criteria, epidemiology, and controversies that have arisen in the literature about the existence and the natural course of the metabolic healthy phenotype.Recent FindingsThe concept of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) implies that a subgroup of obese individuals may be free of the cardio-metabolic risk factors that commonly accompany obese subjects with adipose tissue dysfunction and insulin resistance, known as having metabolic syndrome or the metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) phenotype. Individuals with MHO appear to have a better adipose tissu...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 15, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Impact of Physical Activity on Food Reward: Review and Conceptual Synthesis of Evidence from Observational, Acute, and Chronic Exercise Training Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review brings together current evidence from observational, acute, and chronic exercise training studies to inform public debate on the impact of physical activity and exercise on food reward.Recent FindingsLow levels of physical activity are associated with higher liking and wanting for high-energy food. Acute bouts of exercise tend to reduce behavioral indices of reward for high-energy food in inactive individuals. A dissociation in liking (increase) and wanting (decrease) may occur during chronic exercise training associated with loss of body fat. Habitual moderate-to-vigorous physical acti...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 14, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Application of an Evidence Framework for Obesity Prevention at the Population-Level
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review existing frameworks for assessing the evidence of effectiveness of obesity prevention interventions, and discuss the application of a custom-developed evidence framework to inform an obesity prevention priority-setting study in Australia.Recent FindingsThere are a wide range of frameworks for grading evidence. However, most frameworks are not well suited to assess the effectiveness of obesity prevention interventions because they do not include processes to synthesise evidence from multiple study designs and outcome measures. The key features of the Obesity Prevention Evidence Assessment ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 6, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Safety and Efficacy of Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBariatric surgery is the most effective and durable method for treating obesity. This review highlights the results and safety of bariatric surgery.Recent FindingsThe global prevalence of obesity and its related comorbidities including cancer are on the rise. Bariatric surgery has demonstrated more robust and durable weight loss than current medical treatment. Bariatric surgery also reduces significantly the risk of complications associated with obesity comorbidities, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and the risk of mortality in comparison with medical management. Due to accreditation e...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 5, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research