From the Knife to the Endoscope —a History of Bariatric Surgery
ConclusionDespite the advances made in bariatric surgery, the criteria determining suitability of patients for bariatric surgery in most parts of the world are still based on a consensus agreed upon in the USA in 1991. There is a need to formulate some new consensus and guidelines that would allow for a significant expansion of the pool of patients that can be offered these procedures. (Source: Current Obesity Reports)
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 27, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Optimal Nutritional Programme for Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery
We present best practices for both the pre- and postoperative nutrition-related phases of a patient ’s journey.SummaryThe dietitian specialist is integral in the assessment and ongoing nutrition care of patients with bariatric surgery. Further consideration should be given to enable access for lifelong follow-up and monitoring. (Source: Current Obesity Reports)
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 26, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Treatment Options for Poor Responders to Bariatric Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to evaluate the latest evidence on the treatment options for perceived poor responders to bariatric surgery and provide practitioners with a guide on when to consider revisional surgery and when to consider alternatives.Recent FindingsThe use of adjuvant pharmacotherapy has been increasingly described in the literature as an adjunct to primary bariatric surgery, in order to attain more weight loss or better control of obesity-related complications. The newer anti-obesity and anti-diabetes drugs also have cardiorenal benefits, which are shown in recent cardiovascular outcome trials....
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 24, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Review of the Experience of Weight-Based Stigmatization in Romantic Relationships
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis narrative review summarizes literature on the stigma and prejudices experienced by individuals based on their weight in the context of romantic relationships.Recent FindingsIndividuals presenting with overweight or obesity, particularly women, are disadvantaged in the formation of romantic relationships compared with their normal-weight counterparts. They are also more prone to experience weight-based stigmatization towards their couple (from others), as well as among their couple (from their romantic partner). Currently available studies showed that weight-based stigmatization by a romantic p...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 22, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Community-Based Prevention Programs for Disordered Eating and Obesity: Updates and Current Limitations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the status of community-based disordered eating and obesity prevention programs from 2014 to 2019.Recent FindingsIn the last 5  years, prevention programs have found success in intervening with children and parental figures in wellness centers, physical activity centers, childcare centers, workplaces, online, and over-the-phone through directly reducing disordered eating and obesity or by targeting risk factors of disorder ed eating and obesity. Community-based prevention programs for disordered eating and programs targeting both disordered eating and obesity were scarce, highlightin...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 22, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

From the Knife to the Endoscope —a History of Bariatric Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCurrent bariatric surgical practice has developed from early procedures, some of which are no longer routinely performed. This review highlights how surgical practice in this area has developed over time.Recent FindingsThis review outlines early procedures including jejuno-colic and jejuno-ileal bypass, initial experience with gastric bypass, vertical banded gastroplasty and biliopancreatic diversion with or without duodenal switch. The role laparoscopy has played in the widespread utilization of surgery for treatment of obesity will be described, as will the development of procedures which form th...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 19, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Deciphering the Association Between Psoriasis and Obesity: Current Evidence and Treatment Considerations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity and psoriasis represent chronic inflammatory states that are interconnected in a vicious cycle, sharing also a degree of synergy. In this review, we aim to decipher the various lines of evidence supporting the bidirectional association between psoriasis and obesity highlighting their pathophysiologic connections as well as we attempt to strategize a therapeutic holistic approach for obese psoriatic patients.Recent FindingsRecent meta-analyses have shown that (1) genetically higher BMI increased the odds of psoriasis occurrence; (2) obesity is associated with higher incidence and prevalence ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 16, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Fight Against Obesity Escalates: New Drugs on the Horizon and Metabolic Implications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is currently a steep rise in the global prevalence of obesity. Pharmaceutical therapy is a valuable component of conservative obesity therapy. Herein, medications currently in the phase of preclinical or clinical testing are reviewed, along with an overview of the mechanisms that regulate energy intake and expenditure. In addition, the current and potential future directions of obesity drug therapy are discussed.Recent FindingsAlthough the current arsenal of obesity pharmacotherapy is limited, a considerable number of agents that exert their actions through a variety of pharmacodynamic target...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 9, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Eating Disorders and Overweight/Obesity in Veterans: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment Considerations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEating disorders (EDs) and overweight/obesity (OW/OB) have a significant impact on veterans. This review highlights current research on EDs and OW/OB in this population.Recent FindingsPrevalence estimates for both EDs and OW/OB among veterans remain consistent with and possibly higher than those in the general population. Both diagnoses share multiple risk factors, including trauma history, and mental health comorbidities. Although weight loss treatments have been fairly well studied among veteran samples, there are no published investigations on psychotherapies for EDs in this population. The Vete...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 2, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Metabolically Healthy Obesity: Criteria, Epidemiology, Controversies, and Consequences
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo present a comprehensive overview regarding criteria, epidemiology, and controversies that have arisen in the literature about the existence and the natural course of the metabolic healthy phenotype.Recent FindingsThe concept of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) implies that a subgroup of obese individuals may be free of the cardio-metabolic risk factors that commonly accompany obese subjects with adipose tissue dysfunction and insulin resistance, known as having metabolic syndrome or the metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) phenotype. Individuals with MHO appear to have a better adipose tissu...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 16, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Impact of Physical Activity on Food Reward: Review and Conceptual Synthesis of Evidence from Observational, Acute, and Chronic Exercise Training Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review brings together current evidence from observational, acute, and chronic exercise training studies to inform public debate on the impact of physical activity and exercise on food reward.Recent FindingsLow levels of physical activity are associated with higher liking and wanting for high-energy food. Acute bouts of exercise tend to reduce behavioral indices of reward for high-energy food in inactive individuals. A dissociation in liking (increase) and wanting (decrease) may occur during chronic exercise training associated with loss of body fat. Habitual moderate-to-vigorous physical acti...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 15, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Application of an Evidence Framework for Obesity Prevention at the Population-Level
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review existing frameworks for assessing the evidence of effectiveness of obesity prevention interventions, and discuss the application of a custom-developed evidence framework to inform an obesity prevention priority-setting study in Australia.Recent FindingsThere are a wide range of frameworks for grading evidence. However, most frameworks are not well suited to assess the effectiveness of obesity prevention interventions because they do not include processes to synthesise evidence from multiple study designs and outcome measures. The key features of the Obesity Prevention Evidence Assessment ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 7, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Safety and Efficacy of Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBariatric surgery is the most effective and durable method for treating obesity. This review highlights the results and safety of bariatric surgery.Recent FindingsThe global prevalence of obesity and its related comorbidities including cancer are on the rise. Bariatric surgery has demonstrated more robust and durable weight loss than current medical treatment. Bariatric surgery also reduces significantly the risk of complications associated with obesity comorbidities, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and the risk of mortality in comparison with medical management. Due to accreditation e...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 6, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Metabolic Factors Determining the Susceptibility to Weight Gain: Current Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is substantial inter-individual variability in body weight change, which is not fully accounted by differences in daily energy intake and physical activity levels. The metabolic responses to short-term perturbations in energy intake can explain part of this variability by quantifying the degree of metabolic “thriftiness” that confers more susceptibility to weight gain and more resistance to weight loss. It is unclear which metabolic factors and pathways determine this human “thrifty” phenotype. This review will investigate and summarize emerging research in the field o...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 4, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Video Games, Obesity, and Children
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo examine associations between video game play and obesity in children.Recent FindingsBased on a scoping review of 26 studies (25 cross-sectional; 1 longitudinal) published in 2013 –2018, 14 studies (53%) reported no association between video game play and obesity, and 12 studies reported positive associations. In a review of 8 systematic reviews, there was preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of exergame (physically active) play for weight reduction and to attenuate we ight gain but little indication that interventions effectively reduced video game play or general screen time.SummaryT...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - February 19, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Association Between Weight-Based Teasing from Peers and Family in Childhood and Depressive Symptoms in Childhood and Adulthood: A Systematic Review
AbstractRecent FindingsDepressive symptoms may be a psychological correlate of weight-based teasing from peers and/or family. However, it is unclear whether the association of weight-based teasing with depressive symptoms differs by time (short term vs. long term), sex (males vs. females), or source (family vs. peers).PurposeThe purpose of this systematic review was to (1) examine whether the frequency of weight-based teasing differs according to sex and source and; (2) examine whether the association of weight-based teasing with depressive symptoms varies according to time, sex, and source.MethodsOn February 16, 2018, a c...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 30, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Sleep Apnea, Obesity, and Disturbed Glucose Homeostasis: Epidemiologic Evidence, Biologic Insights, and Therapeutic Strategies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObstructive sleep apnea (OSA), obesity, and disturbed glucose homeostasis are usually considered distinct clinical condition, although they are tightly related to each other. The aim of our manuscript is to provide an overview of the current evidence on OSA, obesity, and disturbed glucose homeostasis providing epidemiologic evidence, biological insights, and therapeutic strategies.Recent FindingsThe mechanisms hypothesized to be involved in this complex interplay are the following: (1) “direct weight-dependent” mechanisms, according to which fat excess compromises respiratory mechanics,...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 22, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Feasting Periods and Weight Gain: a Systematic Scoping Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhilst evidence indicates that weight gain occurs over holidays, the contribution of specific festive periods and celebrations to eating behaviour and weight gain is unclear. We aimed to synthesise literature on how festive periods and celebrations contribute to population weight gain and weight-related outcomes.Recent FindingsThirty-nine studies examining (i) body weight changes, (ii) determinants of eating behaviour or (iii) weight-gain prevention interventions during festive periods were systematically reviewed. Of the 23 observational studies examining changes in body weight during festive peri...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - January 17, 2020 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Promoting Health-Enhancing Physical Activity: a State-of-the-art Review of Peer-Delivered Interventions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we critically examined recent evidence pertaining to the efficacy of peer-delivered physical activity interventions.Recent FindingsPeer-delivered interventions appear to represent an efficacious, although under-utilized, means of promoting health-enhancing physical activity, among diverse populations across the lifespan, and in different settings. Nevertheless, research has largely failed to identify the salient behaviors/strategies of peer leaders that can promote behavior change among target populations, as well as explanatory mechanisms (i.e., mediators) of intervention effects.S...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - November 21, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Factors Influencing Parents ’ and Children’s Misperception of Children’s Weight Status: a Systematic Review of Current Research
This study was conducted in order to provide a descriptive systematic review of research on factors influencing parents’ and children’s misperceptions of children’ s weight status published in the past 5 years.Recent FindingsFactors studied most often in relation to parents ’ and children’s misperception included children’s weight status, gender, and age, as well as parents’ weight status, parental education levels and socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Most determinants that were found to have a significant influence on misperception in parents also did in c hildren.SummaryThe l...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Remotely Delivered Interventions for Obesity Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review synthesizes recent research on remotely delivered interventions for obesity treatment, including summarizing outcomes and challenges to implementing these treatments as well as outlining recommendations for clinical implementation and future research.Recent FindingsThere are a wide range of technologies used for delivering obesity treatment remotely. Generally, these treatments appear to be acceptable and feasible, though weight loss outcomes are mixed. Engagement in these interventions, particularly in the long term, is a significant challenge. Newer technologies are rapidly developing...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Obesity and Eating Disturbance: the Role of TFEQ Restraint and Disinhibition
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLiterature from the past five years exploring roles of Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) Restraint and Disinhibition in relation to adult obesity and eating disturbance (ED) was reviewed.Recent FindingsRestraint has a mixed impact on weight regulation, diet quality, and vulnerability to ED, where it is related detrimentally to weight regulation, diet, and psychopathology, yet can serve as a protective factor. The impact of Disinhibition is potently related to increased obesity, poorer diet, hedonically driven food choices, and a higher susceptibility to ED.SummaryRestraint and Disinhibition ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Diagnostic Criteria, Therapeutic Options and Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes our current understanding of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and adolescents. Special emphasis is given towards diagnostic criteria and therapeutic options.Recent FindingsConsistent diagnostic criteria to define MetS in childhood and adolescence are not available to date. There is common agreement that the main features defining MetS include (1) disturbed glucose metabolism, (2) arterial hypertension, (3) dyslipidemia, and (4) abdominal obesity. However, settings of cut-off values are still heterogeneous in the pediatric population. Additional features that may defi...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - November 5, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Sports Sponsorship as a Cause of Obesity
This article investigates the role of food and beverage sponsorship of sports in influencing dietary behaviour, and ultimately obesity, focusing on research published in the past 5 years. A systematic strategy was used to search the health science, social science and marketing databases to identify peer-reviewed literature on food and non-alcoholic beverage company sponsorship of sport published in English from 2015 to 2019.Recent FindingsSixteen discrete studies were identified: six content analyses, two qualitative studies, four cross-sectional surveys and four experimental studies. Findings indicate sports sponsorship i...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 31, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Global Implementation of Obesity Prevention Policies: a Review of Progress, Politics, and the Path Forward
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review describes policy and regulatory strategies to prevent obesity and summarizes worldwide progress and impediments to scaling up strategies globally.Recent FindingsWhile there is considerable variation in the breadth and depth of uptake of recommended strategies, the adoption of effective obesity prevention policies has been slow and inconsistent. There is broad consensus that strong government, corporate, and consumer actions, including regulatory measures, are needed to advance obesity prevention policies. Governments have lacked sufficient will to take necessary action, the food industr...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 31, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Sarcopenic Obesity: Epidemiologic Evidence, Pathophysiology, and Therapeutic Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides a comprehensive update on the definition, assessment, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical implications, and therapeutic approach of sarcopenic obesity (SO) and highlights the challenges, limitations, and knowledge gaps in SO research.Recent FindingsThe confluence of a rapidly aging population with rising obesity rates has led to the phenotype of SO, defined as the concurrent presence of sarcopenia and obesity. Despite efforts, a standardized definition of SO is still lacking. Its prevalence varies widely between studies, depending on population characteristics and different...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 25, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Can Diets Be Healthy, Sustainable, and Equitable?
AbstractPurposeThe purpose of this study was to review the evidence on global dietary intake and trends in dietary patterns over time and to examine associations between diets and health, environment, and equity.Recent FindingsDiets now serve as a significant risk factor for the global burden of disease and death. Diet-related non-communicable disease and rising obesity are increasingly prevalent, affecting much of the global population. At the same time, the food system is producing food in ways that are not aligned with planetary health. Inequity restricts access to healthy diets and is associated with broad social deter...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 25, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Role of Adipokines in Breast Cancer: Current Evidence and Perspectives
AbstractPurposeThe current review shows evidence for the role of adipokines in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis summarizing the mechanisms underlying the association between adipokines and breast malignancy. Special emphasis is given also on intriguing insights into the relationship between obesity and BC as well as on the role of novel adipokines in BC development.Recent FindingsRecent evidence has underscored the role of the triad of obesity, insulin resistance, and adipokines in postmenopausal BC. Adipokines exert independent and joint effects on activation of major intracellular signal networks implicated in BC cell pro...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 21, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Role of Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Sepsis: Inflammatory and Metabolic Considerations, and the Obesity Paradox
AbstractPurposeSepsis has become a global health problem with rising incidence and high mortality, creating a substantial social and economic burden. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcome, but reliable sepsis biomarkers are lacking. This review summarizes current evidence of the pathophysiological mechanisms linking adipose tissue to sepsis and presents experimental and clinical data on adipokines and sepsis along with important insights into the obesity paradox in sepsis survival.Recent findingsSepsis is characterized by significant alterations in circulating cytokines and adipokines, biologically active molec...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - October 21, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Oxytocin and Vasopressin Systems in Obesity and Metabolic Health: Mechanisms and Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe neurohypophysial endocrine system is identified here as a potential target for therapeutic interventions toward improving obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, given its coinciding pleiotropic effects on psychological, neurological and metabolic systems that are disrupted in obesity.Recent FindingsCopeptin, the C-terminal portion of the precursor of arginine-vasopressin, is positively associated with body mass index and risk of type 2 diabetes. Plasma oxytocin is decreased in obesity and several other conditions of abnormal glucose homeostasis. Recent data also show non-classical tissues, such...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 25, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy on Food Preferences and Potential Mechanisms Involved
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBariatric surgery leads to a substantial decrease in energy intake. It is unclear whether this decrease in energy intake is simply due to eating smaller portions of the same food items or a shift in food preference towards less energy-dense foods. This review evaluates the existing literature on changes in food preferences after bariatric surgery and the potential mechanisms involved.Recent FindingsChanges in food preferences have been reported; however, the evidence is mainly based on indirect measurements, such as self-reporting. When changes in food preferences are directly assessed, results con...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 21, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Lessons Learned from the POUNDS Lost Study: Genetic, Metabolic, and Behavioral Factors Affecting Changes in Body Weight, Body Composition, and Cardiometabolic Risk
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper reviews the genetic and non-genetic factors that provided predictions of, or were associated with, weight loss and other metabolic changes in the POUNDS Lost clinical trial of weight loss. This trial randomized 811 individuals who were overweight or obese to one of four diets that contained either 15% or 25% protein and 20% or 40% fat in a 2  × 2 factorial design. A standard behavioral weight loss program was available for all participants who were followed for 2 years with an 80% completion rate.Recent FindingsNineteen genes and five genetic risk scores were used ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 18, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Human Obesity: Impact of Bariatric Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we summarize what is currently described in terms of gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis modification post-bariatric surgery (BS) and their link with BS-induced clinical improvement. We also discuss how the major inter-individual variability in terms of GM changes could impact the clinical improvements seen in patients.Recent FindingsThe persisting increase in severe obesity prevalence has led to the subsequent burst in BS number. Indeed, it is to date the best treatment option to induce major and sustainable weight loss and metabolic improvement in these patients. During obesity, the gut...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 13, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Understanding the Role of the Gut Microbiome and Microbial Metabolites in Obesity and Obesity-Associated Metabolic Disorders: Current Evidence and Perspectives
AbstractPurposeIn this review, we summarize current evidence on the gut microbiome and microbial metabolites in relation to obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Special emphasis is given on mechanisms interconnecting gut microbiome and microbial metabolites with metabolic disorders as well as on potential preventive and therapeutic perspectives with a “bench to bedside” approach.Recent FindingsRecent data have highlighted the role of gut dysbiosis in the etiology and pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and non-alcoholic fatty liver...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - June 7, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Ethnic Disparities in Adiposity: Focus on Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Visceral, and Generalized Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewExcessive adiposity has become a public health problem worldwide, contributing to the rise in obesity-related diseases and associated morbidity and mortality. This review details the relative significance of race/ethnicity as it pertains to adiposity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).Recent FindingsFat distribution remains a more reliable measure of adiposity than anthropometric measures, with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. While obesity is the most common risk factor for NAFLD, the racial/ethnic prevalence of obesity does not co...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 29, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Mechanism of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Improvements in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to emphasize the pivotal role of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in tackling the parallel epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM).Recent FindingsGLP-1-based therapies and in particular GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) have proven to be effective in lowering blood glucose and decreasing weight. GLP-1 RA not only mitigate these significant medical burdens but also result in weight loss and weight loss independent factors that decrease cardiovascular disease (CVD) and microvascular complications of T2DM, such as diabetic nephropathy.SummaryGLP-1-based therapies ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

How Group-Based Interventions Can Improve Services for People with Severe Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRising demand for specialised “Tier 3” weight management services in England is exceeding capacity, leading many services to offer group-based care programmes. This review considers the organisation of current provision, exploring how group programmes may enhance services and how these could be scaled up for wider implementa tion.Recent FindingsExisting group-based programmes mainly focus on providing patients with information and education about their condition. Evidence suggests that groups themselves offer therapeutic benefits beyond this, by underpinning patients ’ engagement ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 6, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Severe Obesity in the Pediatric Population: Current Concepts in Clinical Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review describes (1) the clinical assessment of pediatric patients with severe obesity, including a summary of salient biological, psychological, and social factors that may be contributing to the patient ’s obesity and (2) the current state of treatment strategies for pediatric severe obesity, including lifestyle modification therapy, pharmacotherapy, and metabolic and bariatric surgery.Recent FindingsLifestyle modification therapy alone is insufficient for achieving clinically significant BMI reduction for most youth with severe obesity and metabolic and bariatric surgery, though effec...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - May 3, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Issues in Measuring and Interpreting Human Appetite (Satiety/Satiation) and Its Contribution to Obesity
This report assesses the validity of a homeostatic toolkit to measure subjectively perceived hunger and its relationship to the developing processes of satiation (control of meal size) and satiety (control of the post-eating period). The capacity of a procedure to measure the influence of hedonic processes on food intake is also evaluated. A major issue is the relationship between the pattern of eating behaviour (influenced by the underlying drive to eat and the inhibition induced by the act of eating itself) and the parallel underlying profile of hormonal and other metabolic biomarkers.SummaryIncreasing recognition is bei...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 29, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Obesity Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most prevalent cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, is strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance.Recent FindingsSignificant weight loss can improve NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Diet and exercise that result in a sustained body weight reduction of 7 –10% can improve liver fat content, NASH, and fibrosis. Vitamin E can be considered in patients with biopsy-proven NASH without diabetes, though caution must be used in those with prostate cancer. Pioglitazone improves liver histology, including fibrosis, and can be ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - April 3, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Immunometabolism Converge: Perspectives on Future Research and Therapeutic Development for Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewResearch over the past decade has shown that immunologic and metabolic pathways are intricately linked. This burgeoning field of immunometabolism includes intrinsic and extrinsic pathways and is known to be associated with obesity-accelerated metabolic disease. Intrinsic immunometabolism includes the study of fuel utilization and bioenergetic pathways that influence immune cell function. Extrinsic immunometabolism includes the study of immune cells and products that influence systemic metabolism.Recent FindingsTh2 immunity, macrophage iron handling, adaptive immune memory, and epigenetic regulation...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 27, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

FSP27 and Links to Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is a pandemic, yet preventable healthcare problem. Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular complications are core manifestation of obesity. While adipose tissue is a primary site of energy storage, it is also an endocrine organ, secreting a large number of adipokines and cytokines. Nonetheless in obesity, the secretion of cytokines and free fatty acids increases significantly and is associated with the degree of adiposity and insulin resistance. Fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) has emerged as one of the major proteins that promote physiological storage of fat ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 27, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Physical Activity in the Prevention of Weight Gain: the Impact of Measurement and Interpretation of Associations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo what extent do different methods of physical activity measurement and statistical analysis influence the reported associations between physical activity and weight gain?Recent FindingsThe obesity epidemic has led to a focus on lifestyle approaches to the prevention of weight gain. Physical activity is one such approach. A number of studies have reported beneficial associations between higher levels of physical activity and weight gain at the population level. However, limitations of physical activity measurement and analytical models in some of these studies are likely to have resulted in overes...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 23, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Issues in Measuring and Interpreting Energy Balance and Its Contribution to Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesogenic environment challenges individuals ’ ability to preserve energy homeostasis, leading to weight gain. To understand how this energy imbalance proceeds, several methods and analytical procedures to determine energy intake and expenditure are currently available. However, these methods and procedures are not exempt from issues that ma y lead to equivocal conclusions. Our purpose herein is to discuss major issues involved in energy balance assessment.Recent FindingsMeasurement of energy intake mostly relies on self-report methods that provide inaccurate data. In contrast, determination...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 22, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Primary Care Interventions for Obesity: Review of the Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review describes the results of randomized controlled trials that have evaluated the efficacy of behavioral interventions for obesity in primary care settings.Recent FindingsMost studies have found that high-intensity behavioral counseling (providing 12 or more sessions per year, as defined by the US Preventative Services Task Force), when delivered in-person, by phone, or electronically, produced clinically meaningful weight loss (4 to 7  kg). Low- to moderate-intensity behavioral counseling and counseling that did not include behavioral strategies (e.g., motivational interviewing) produ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 19, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Issues in Measuring the Healthiness of Food Environments and Interpreting Relationships with Diet, Obesity and Related Health Outcomes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is a broad consensus that policies to create healthier food environments are needed to address obesity. However, previous reviews of the relationships between the healthiness of food environments and diet/obesity-related outcomes have typically reported either mixed associations or none at all. This paper aimed to synthesise measurement and interpretation issues in this field, based on findings from previous reviews.Recent FindingsKey issues, drawn from 14 previous reviews in the last decade, included: (1) the use of measures of the food environments that are too narrow in scope; (2) inadequa...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 16, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Issues in Measuring and Interpreting Diet and Its Contribution to Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarises the issues related to the measurement and interpretation of dietary intake in individuals with overweight and obesity, as well as identifies future research priorities.Recent FindingsSome aspects of the assessment of dietary intake have improved through the application of technology-based methods and the use of dietary biomarkers. In populations with overweight and obesity, misreporting bias related to social desirability is a prominent issue. Future efforts should focus on combining technology-based dietary methods with the use of dietary biomarkers to help reduce and accoun...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 15, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Metformin: Mechanisms in Human Obesity and Weight Loss
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMetformin has multiple benefits for health beyond its anti-hyperglycemic properties. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the mechanisms that underlie metformin ’s effects on obesity.Recent FindingsMetformin is a first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes. Large cohort studies have shown weight loss benefits associated with metformin therapy. Metabolic consequences were traditionally thought to underlie this effect, including reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis and reduction in insulin production. Emerging evidence suggests that metformin-associated weight loss is due to modulation of hyp...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 14, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

The Influence of Parental Dieting Behavior on Child Dieting Behavior and Weight Status
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo explore the relationship that parental dieting behavior (e.g., dieting, encouragement to diet, weight-teasing) has on child dieting behavior and weight status.Recent FindingsEncouragement to diet and weight-teasing are both strong predictors of child dieting behavior in both childhood and adolescence. The impact of parent modeling of dieting behavior on child dieting behavior is mixed, but there is enough evidence to suggest that modeling is more impactful on daughters than sons and when parents are modeling unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors (e.g., skipping meals).SummaryParental di...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 7, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Barrier Breakdown and Adipose Tissue Inflammation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is a state of chronic inflammation. This review aims to summarize recent data supporting the role of the intestinal mucosal barrier and the microbiome in causing adipose tissue inflammation as well as metabolic factors that can affect the intestinal barrier.Recent FindingsObesity and its metabolic consequences, such as diabetes mellitus, are associated with disruption of the intestinal barrier function. Intestinal microbiota and diet play a key role in the maintenance of a healthy intestinal epithelium. Intestinal barrier dysfunction can lead to heightened inflammation, which in turn can fu...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - March 7, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research