The Echo of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Mechanisms of Clinical Symptoms and Other Disease-Induced Systemic Complications.
Abstract SUMMARYClinical symptoms of active tuberculosis (TB) can range from a simple cough to more severe reactions, such as irreversible lung damage and, eventually, death, depending on disease progression. In addition to its clinical presentation, TB has been associated with several other disease-induced systemic complications, such as hyponatremia and glucose intolerance. Here, we provide an overview of the known, although ill-described, underlying biochemical mechanisms responsible for the clinical and systemic presentations associated with this disease and discuss novel hypotheses recently generated by vario...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - July 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Luies L, du Preez I Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Coronavirus Disease 2019-COVID-19.
Abstract SUMMARYIn recent decades, several new diseases have emerged in different geographical areas, with pathogens including Ebola virus, Zika virus, Nipah virus, and coronaviruses (CoVs). Recently, a new type of viral infection emerged in Wuhan City, China, and initial genomic sequencing data of this virus do not match with previously sequenced CoVs, suggesting a novel CoV strain (2019-nCoV), which has now been termed severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is suspected to originate from an animal host (zoonotic origin) followed by human-to-human transm...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dhama K, Khan S, Tiwari R, Sircar S, Bhat S, Malik YS, Singh KP, Chaicumpa W, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Rodriguez-Morales AJ Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Infectious Complications of Biological and Small Molecule Targeted Immunomodulatory Therapies.
Abstract SUMMARYThe past 2 decades have seen a revolution in our approach to therapeutic immunosuppression. We have moved from relying on broadly active traditional medications, such as prednisolone or methotrexate, toward more specific agents that often target a single receptor, cytokine, or cell type, using monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, or targeted small molecules. This change has transformed the treatment of many conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, cancers, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease, but along with the benefits have come risks. Contrary to the hope that these more specific agents ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - June 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Davis JS, Ferreira D, Paige E, Gedye C, Boyle M Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Progress and Challenges in Eight South Asian and Southeast Asian Countries.
Abstract SUMMARYAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious global health threat and is predicted to cause significant health and economic impacts, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). AMR surveillance is critical in LMICs due to high burden of bacterial infections; however, conducting AMR surveillance in resource-limited settings is constrained by poorly functioning health systems, scarce financial resources, and lack of skilled personnel. In 2015, the United Nations World Health Assembly endorsed the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan to tackle AMR; thus, several countries are st...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - June 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gandra S, Alvarez-Uria G, Turner P, Joshi J, Limmathurotsakul D, van Doorn HR Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Device-Associated Menstrual Toxic Shock Syndrome.
Abstract SUMMARYIn the 1980s, menstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS) became a household topic, particularly among mothers and their daughters. The research performed at the time, and for the first time, exposed the American public as well as the biomedical community, in a major way, to understanding disease progression and investigation. Those studies led to the identification of the cause, Staphylococcus aureus and the pyrogenic toxin superantigen TSS toxin 1 (TSST-1), and many of the risk factors, for example, tampon use. Those studies in turn led to TSS warning labels on the outside and inside of tampon boxes an...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Schlievert PM, Davis CC Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Its Impact in Neurological Disease.
Abstract SUMMARYTaenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) is endemic in most of the world and contributes significantly to the burden of epilepsy and other neurological morbidity. Also present in developed countries because of immigration and travel, NCC is one of few diseases targeted for eradication. This paper reviews all aspects of its life cycle (taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis), with a focus on recent advances in its diagnosis, management, and control. Diagnosis of taeniasis is limited by poor availability of immunological or molecular assays. Diagnosis of NCC rests on neuroimaging finding...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, Gilman RH Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Host-Directed Antiviral Therapy.
Abstract SUMMARYAntiviral drugs have traditionally been developed by directly targeting essential viral components. However, this strategy often fails due to the rapid generation of drug-resistant viruses. Recent genome-wide approaches, such as those employing small interfering RNA (siRNA) or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) or those using small molecule chemical inhibitors targeting the cellular "kinome," have been used successfully to identify cellular factors that can support virus replication. Since some of these cellular factors are critical for virus replication, b...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kumar N, Sharma S, Kumar R, Tripathi BN, Barua S, Ly H, Rouse BT Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Resistance in ESKAPE Pathogens.
Abstract SUMMARYAntimicrobial-resistant ESKAPE ( Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens represent a global threat to human health. The acquisition of antimicrobial resistance genes by ESKAPE pathogens has reduced the treatment options for serious infections, increased the burden of disease, and increased death rates due to treatment failure and requires a coordinated global response for antimicrobial resistance surveillance. This looming health threat has restimulated interest in the development of new...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: De Oliveira DMP, Forde BM, Kidd TJ, Harris PNA, Schembri MA, Beatson SA, Paterson DL, Walker MJ Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Antifungal Susceptibility Testing: Current Approaches.
Abstract SUMMARYAlthough not as ubiquitous as antibacterial susceptibility testing, antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) is a tool of increasing importance in clinical microbiology laboratories. The goal of AFST is to reliably produce MIC values that may be used to guide patient therapy, inform epidemiological studies, and track rates of antifungal drug resistance. There are three methods that have been standardized by standards development organizations: broth dilution, disk diffusion, and azole agar screening for Aspergillus Other commonly used methods include gradient diffusion and the use of rapid automate...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Berkow EL, Lockhart SR, Ostrosky-Zeichner L Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Intrathecal Antibacterial and Antifungal Therapies.
Abstract SUMMARYIntrathecal administration of anti-infectives is indicated in central nervous system infections by multiresistant pathogens when drugs that can reach adequate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations by systemic therapy are not available. Antibiotics that readily pass the blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and/or that have low toxicity allowing an increase in the daily dosage should not be used for intrathecal therapy. Intrathecal therapy is accompanied by systemic treatment. Antibacterials indispensable for intrathecal therapy include aminoglycosides, colistin, daptomycin, tigecycline, and vancomy...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nau R, Blei C, Eiffert H Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Burkholderia cepacia Complex Bacteria: a Feared Contamination Risk in Water-Based Pharmaceutical Products.
eia I Abstract SUMMARYBurkholderia cepacia (formerly Pseudomonas cepacia) was once thought to be a single bacterial species but has expanded to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), comprising 24 closely related opportunistic pathogenic species. These bacteria have a widespread environmental distribution, an extraordinary metabolic versatility, a complex genome with three chromosomes, and a high capacity for rapid mutation and adaptation. Additionally, they present an inherent resistance to antibiotics and antiseptics, as well as the abilities to survive under nutrient-limited conditions and to metabolize the or...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - April 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tavares M, Kozak M, Balola A, Sá-Correia I Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Caseum: a Niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug-Tolerant Persisters.
Abstract SUMMARYCaseum, the central necrotic material of tuberculous lesions, is a reservoir of drug-recalcitrant persisting mycobacteria. Caseum is found in closed nodules and in open cavities connecting with an airway. Several commonly accepted characteristics of caseum were established during the preantibiotic era, when autopsies of deceased tuberculosis (TB) patients were common but methodologies were limited. These pioneering studies generated concepts such as acidic pH, low oxygen tension, and paucity of nutrients being the drivers of nonreplication and persistence in caseum. Here we review widely accepted b...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - April 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sarathy JP, Dartois V Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Human Melioidosis.
Abstract SUMMARYThe causative agent of melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, a tier 1 select agent, is endemic in Southeast Asia and northern Australia, with increased incidence associated with high levels of rainfall. Increasing reports of this condition have occurred worldwide, with estimates of up to 165,000 cases and 89,000 deaths per year. The ecological niche of the organism has yet to be clearly defined, although the organism is associated with soil and water. The culture of appropriate clinical material remains the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis. Identification is best done by phenotypic methods, altho...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - March 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gassiep I, Armstrong M, Norton R Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Imported Malaria in Countries where Malaria Is Not Endemic: a Comparison of Semi-immune and Nonimmune Travelers.
rsen E, Ramharter M Abstract SUMMARYThe continuous increase in long-distance travel and recent large migratory movements have changed the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria in countries where malaria is not endemic (here termed non-malaria-endemic countries). While malaria was primarily imported to nonendemic countries by returning travelers, the proportion of immigrants from malaria-endemic regions and travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) in malaria-endemic countries has continued to increase. VFRs and immigrants from malaria-endemic countries now make up the majority of malaria patien...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - March 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mischlinger J, Rönnberg C, Álvarez-Martínez MJ, Bühler S, Paul M, Schlagenhauf P, Petersen E, Ramharter M Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Hepatitis B Virus: Advances in Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy.
Abstract SUMMARYCurrently, despite the use of a preventive vaccine for several decades as well as the use of effective and well-tolerated viral suppressive medications since 1998, approximately 250 million people remain infected with the virus that causes hepatitis B worldwide. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the leading causes of liver cancer and overall mortality globally, surpassing malaria and tuberculosis. Linkage to care is estimated to be very poor both in developing countries and in high-income countries, such as the United States, countries in Western Europe, and Japan. In the Unit...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - February 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nguyen MH, Wong G, Gane E, Kao JH, Dusheiko G Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Epidemiology of β-Lactamase-Producing Pathogens.
Epidemiology of β-Lactamase-Producing Pathogens. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2020 Mar 18;33(2): Authors: Bush K, Bradford PA Abstract SUMMARYβ-Lactam antibiotics have been widely used as therapeutic agents for the past 70 years, resulting in emergence of an abundance of β-lactam-inactivating β-lactamases. Although penicillinases in Staphylococcus aureus challenged the initial uses of penicillin, β-lactamases are most important in Gram-negative bacteria, particularly in enteric and nonfermentative pathogens, where collectively they confer resistance to all β-lactam-containi...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - February 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bush K, Bradford PA Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Consolidation of Clinical Microbiology Laboratories and Introduction of Transformative Technologies.
We describe why consolidation of clinical microbiology laboratories will generate quality benefits for many, if not most, aspects of the services separate institutions already provided individually. We also define the important role of innovative and large-scale diagnostic platforms. Such platforms lend themselves particularly well to computational (AI)-driven genomics and bioinformatics applications. These and other diagnostic innovations will allow for better infectious disease detection, surveillance, and prevention with novel translational research and optimized (diagnostic) product and service development opportunitie...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - February 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vandenberg O, Durand G, Hallin M, Diefenbach A, Gant V, Murray P, Kozlakidis Z, van Belkum A Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Mumps: an Update on Outbreaks, Vaccine Efficacy, and Genomic Diversity.
Abstract SUMMARYMumps is an acute viral infection characterized by inflammation of the parotid and other salivary glands. Persons with mumps are infectious from 2 days before through 5 days after parotitis onset, and transmission is through respiratory droplets. Despite the success of mumps vaccination programs in the United States and parts of Europe, a recent increase in outbreaks of mumps virus infections among fully vaccinated populations has been reported. Although the effectiveness of the mumps virus component of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is suboptimal, a range of contributing factors has led t...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - February 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lam E, Rosen JB, Zucker JR Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory Strategies in Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.
Abstract SUMMARYHerpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can be responsible for life-threatening HSV encephalitis (HSE). The mortality rate of patients with HSE who do not receive antiviral treatment is 70%, with most survivors suffering from permanent neurological sequelae. The use of intravenous acyclovir together with improved diagnostic technologies such as PCR and magnetic resonance imaging has resulted in a reduction in the mortality rate to close to 20%. However, 70% of surviving patients still do not recover complete neurological functions. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop more effective treatments for a bet...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - February 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Piret J, Boivin G Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Emerging Tick-Borne Diseases.
Abstract SUMMARYIncreases in tick-borne disease prevalence and transmission are important public health issues. Efforts to control these emerging diseases are frustrated by the struggle to control tick populations and to detect and treat infections caused by the pathogens that they transmit. This review covers tick-borne infectious diseases of nonrickettsial bacterial, parasitic, and viral origins. While tick surveillance and tracking inform our understanding of the importance of the spread and ecology of ticks and help identify areas of risk for disease transmission, the vectors are not the focus of this document...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - January 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Madison-Antenucci S, Kramer LD, Gebhardt LL, Kauffman E Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Performance of Zika Assays in the Context of Toxoplasma gondii, Parvovirus B19, Rubella Virus, and Cytomegalovirus (TORCH) Diagnostic Assays.
Abstract SUMMARYInfections during pregnancy that may cause congenital abnormalities have been recognized for decades, but their diagnosis is challenging. This was again illustrated with the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV), highlighting the inherent difficulties in estimating the extent of pre- and postnatal ZIKV complications because of the difficulties in establishing definitive diagnoses. We reviewed the epidemiology, infection kinetics, and diagnostic methods used for Toxoplasma gondii, parvovirus B19, rubella virus, and cytomegalovirus (TORCH) infections and compared the results with current knowledge of ZIKV d...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - December 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Voordouw B, Rockx B, Jaenisch T, Fraaij P, Mayaud P, Vossen A, Koopmans M Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Chagas Disease in the United States: a Public Health Approach.
Abstract SUMMARYTrypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, usually transmitted by triatomine vectors. An estimated 20 to 30% of infected individuals develop potentially lethal cardiac or gastrointestinal disease. Sylvatic transmission cycles exist in the southern United States, involving 11 triatomine vector species and infected mammals such as rodents, opossums, and dogs. Nevertheless, imported chronic T. cruzi infections in migrants from Latin America vastly outnumber locally acquired human cases. Benznidazole is now FDA approved, and clinical and public health efforts are under way by researc...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - December 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bern C, Messenger LA, Whitman JD, Maguire JH Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis.
Abstract SUMMARYThe clinical presentation of brucellosis in humans is variable and unspecific, and thus, laboratory corroboration of the diagnosis is essential for the patient's proper treatment. The diagnosis of brucellar infections can be made by culture, serological tests, and nucleic acid amplification assays. Modern automated blood culture systems enable detection of acute cases of brucellosis within the routine 5- to 7-day incubation protocol employed in clinical microbiology laboratories, although a longer incubation and performance of blind subcultures may be needed for protracted cases. Serological tests,...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - November 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yagupsky P, Morata P, Colmenero JD Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

The Global Ascendency of OXA-48-Type Carbapenemases.
Abstract SUMMARYSurveillance studies have shown that OXA-48-like carbapenemases are the most common carbapenemases in Enterobacterales in certain regions of the world and are being introduced on a regular basis into regions of nonendemicity, where they are responsible for nosocomial outbreaks. OXA-48, OXA-181, OXA-232, OXA-204, OXA-162, and OXA-244, in that order, are the most common enzymes identified among the OXA-48-like carbapenemase group. OXA-48 is associated with different Tn1999 variants on IncL plasmids and is endemic in North Africa and the Middle East. OXA-162 and OXA-244 are derivatives of OXA-48 and a...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - November 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pitout JDD, Peirano G, Kock MM, Strydom KA, Matsumura Y Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis in 2019.
los G Abstract SUMMARYAspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic fungus; its primary habitat is the soil. In its ecological niche, the fungus has learned how to adapt and proliferate in hostile environments. This capacity has helped the fungus to resist and survive against human host defenses and, further, to be responsible for one of the most devastating lung infections in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this review, we will provide (i) a description of the biological cycle of A. fumigatus; (ii) a historical perspective of the spectrum of aspergillus disease and the current epidemiological status of these infec...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - November 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Latgé JP, Chamilos G Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

The Role of the BCL-2 Family of Proteins in HIV-1 Pathogenesis and Persistence.
Abstract SUMMARYAdvances in HIV-1 therapy have transformed the once fatal infection into a manageable, chronic condition, yet the search for a widely applicable approach to cure remains elusive. The ineffectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in reducing the size of the HIV-1 latent reservoir has prompted investigation into the mechanisms of HIV-1 latency and immune escape. One of the major regulators of apoptosis, the BCL-2 protein, alongside its homologous family members, is a major target of HIV-1-induced change. Recent studies have now demonstrated the association of this protein with cells that support pr...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - November 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chandrasekar AP, Cummins NW, Badley AD Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Update on the Problem of Blood Culture Contamination and a Discussion of Methods for Addressing the Problem.
Discussion of Methods for Addressing the Problem. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2019 Dec 18;33(1): Authors: Doern GV, Carroll KC, Diekema DJ, Garey KW, Rupp ME, Weinstein MP, Sexton DJ Abstract SUMMARYIn this review, we present a comprehensive discussion of matters related to the problem of blood culture contamination. Issues addressed include the scope and magnitude of the problem, the bacteria most often recognized as contaminants, the impact of blood culture contamination on clinical microbiology laboratory function, the economic and clinical ramifications of contamination, and, perhaps most importantly, a s...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - November 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Doern GV, Carroll KC, Diekema DJ, Garey KW, Rupp ME, Weinstein MP, Sexton DJ Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Tuberculosis Vaccine Development: Progress in Clinical Evaluation.
Abstract SUMMARYTuberculosis (TB) is the leading killer among all infectious diseases worldwide despite extensive use of the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. A safer and more effective vaccine than BCG is urgently required. More than a dozen TB vaccine candidates are under active evaluation in clinical trials aimed to prevent infection, disease, and recurrence. After decades of extensive research, renewed promise of an effective vaccine against this ancient airborne disease has recently emerged. In two innovative phase 2b vaccine clinical trials, one for the prevention of Mycobacte...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - November 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sable SB, Posey JE, Scriba TJ Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Rapid Growth and Metabolism of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Relation to Urine Composition.
Abstract SUMMARYUropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains cause a majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Since UPEC strains can become antibiotic resistant, adjunct or alternate therapies are urgently needed. UPEC strains grow extremely rapidly in patients with UTIs. Thus, this review focuses on the relation between urine composition and UPEC growth and metabolism. Compilation of urinary components from two major data sources suggests the presence of sufficient amino acids and carbohydrates as energy sources and abundant phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen sources. In a mouse UTI model, mutants lacking enzy...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - October 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Reitzer L, Zimmern P Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Early Events in Coccidioidomycosis.
Abstract SUMMARYSince its description nearly 130 years ago, hundreds of studies have deepened our understanding of coccidioidomycosis, also known as valley fever (VF), and provided useful diagnostic tests and treatments for the disease caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides spp. In general, most of the literature has addressed well-established infections and has described patients who have experienced major complications. In contrast, little attention has been given to the earliest consequences of the pathogen-host interaction and its implications for disease manifestation, progression, and resolution. ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - October 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Donovan FM, Shubitz L, Powell D, Orbach M, Frelinger J, Galgiani JN Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Community-Acquired Respiratory Viruses in Transplant Patients: Diversity, Impact, Unmet Clinical Needs.
Abstract SUMMARYPatients undergoing solid-organ transplantation (SOT) or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at increased risk for infectious complications. Community-acquired respiratory viruses (CARVs) pose a particular challenge due to the frequent exposure pre-, peri-, and posttransplantation. Although influenza A and B viruses have a top priority regarding prevention and treatment, recent molecular diagnostic tests detecting an array of other CARVs in real time have dramatically expanded our knowledge about the epidemiology, diversity, and impact of CARV infections in the general populatio...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - September 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ison MG, Hirsch HH Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Epidemiology and Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections.
This article reviews their mechanisms of resistance, epidemiology, and clinical impact and current and upcoming therapeutic options. In vitro and in vivo treatment studies and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models are discussed. Polymyxins are reviewed as an important therapeutic option, outlining dosage, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and their clinical efficacy against MDR/XDR P. aeruginosa infections. Their narrow therapeutic window and potential for combination therapy are also discussed. Other "old" antimicrobials, such as certain β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fosfomycin, are revi...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Horcajada JP, Montero M, Oliver A, Sorlí L, Luque S, Gómez-Zorrilla S, Benito N, Grau S Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Correction for Kraft et al., "A Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) and Algorithms Including NAATs for the Diagnosis of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile in Adults".
Correction for Kraft et al., "A Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) and Algorithms Including NAATs for the Diagnosis of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile in Adults". Clin Microbiol Rev. 2019 Sep 18;32(4): Authors: Kraft CS, Parrott JS, Cornish NE, Rubinstein ML, Weissfeld AS, McNult P, Nachamkin I, Humphries RM, Kirn TJ, Dien Bard J, Lutgring JD, Gullett JC, Bittencourt CE, Benson S, Bobenchik AM, Sautter RL, Baselski V, Atlas MC, Marlowe EM, Miller NS, Fischer M, Richter SS, Gilligan P, Snyder JW PMID: 31462404 [...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kraft CS, Parrott JS, Cornish NE, Rubinstein ML, Weissfeld AS, McNult P, Nachamkin I, Humphries RM, Kirn TJ, Dien Bard J, Lutgring JD, Gullett JC, Bittencourt CE, Benson S, Bobenchik AM, Sautter RL, Baselski V, Atlas MC, Marlowe EM, Miller NS, Fischer M, Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Transferable Mechanisms of Quinolone Resistance from 1998 Onward.
Abstract SUMMARYWhile the description of resistance to quinolones is almost as old as these antimicrobial agents themselves, transferable mechanisms of quinolone resistance (TMQR) remained absent from the scenario for more than 36 years, appearing first as sporadic events and afterward as epidemics. In 1998, the first TMQR was soundly described, that is, QnrA. The presence of QnrA was almost anecdotal for years, but in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century, there was an explosion of TMQR descriptions, which definitively changed the epidemiology of quinolone resistance. Currently, 3 different cl...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ruiz J Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

The Use of Copper as an Antimicrobial Agent in Health Care, Including Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Abstract SUMMARYHealth care-associated infections (HAIs) are a global problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Controlling the spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a major public health challenge, and antimicrobial resistance has become one of the most important global problems in current times. The antimicrobial effect of copper has been known for centuries, and ongoing research is being conducted on the use of copper-coated hard and soft surfaces for reduction of microbial contamination and, subsequently, reduction of HAIs. This review provides an overview of the historical and curre...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Arendsen LP, Thakar R, Sultan AH Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

8-Aminoquinoline Therapy for Latent Malaria.
Abstract SUMMARYThe technical genesis and practice of 8-aminoquinoline therapy of latent malaria offer singular scientific, clinical, and public health insights. The 8-aminoquinolines brought revolutionary scientific discoveries, dogmatic practices, benign neglect, and, finally, enduring promise against endemic malaria. The clinical use of plasmochin-the first rationally synthesized blood schizontocide and the first gametocytocide, tissue schizontocide, and hypnozoitocide of any kind-commenced in 1926. Plasmochin became known to sometimes provoke fatal hemolytic crises. World War II delivered a newer 8-aminoquinol...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Baird JK Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Plasmodium Genomics and Genetics: New Insights into Malaria Pathogenesis, Drug Resistance, Epidemiology, and Evolution.
ms TE Abstract SUMMARYProtozoan Plasmodium parasites are the causative agents of malaria, a deadly disease that continues to afflict hundreds of millions of people every year. Infections with malaria parasites can be asymptomatic, with mild or severe symptoms, or fatal, depending on many factors such as parasite virulence and host immune status. Malaria can be treated with various drugs, with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) being the first-line choice. Recent advances in genetics and genomics of malaria parasites have contributed greatly to our understanding of parasite population dynamics, transmis...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Su XZ, Lane KD, Xia L, Sá JM, Wellems TE Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Organization of the Skin Immune System and Compartmentalized Immune Responses in Infectious Diseases.
Abstract SUMMARYThe skin is an organ harboring several types of immune cells that participate in innate and adaptive immune responses. The immune system of the skin comprises both skin cells and professional immune cells that together constitute what is designated skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT). In this review, I extensively discuss the organization of SALT and the mechanisms involved in its responses to infectious diseases of the skin and mucosa. The nature of these SALT responses, and the cellular mediators involved, often determines the clinical course of such infections. I list and describe the compone...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Quaresma JAS Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Consumer Safety Considerations of Skin and Oral Microbiome Perturbation.
This article is based on a 2-day workshop held at SEAC Unilever, Sharnbrook, United Kingdom, involving 31 specialists in microbial risk assessment, skin and oral microbiome research, microbial ecology, bioinformatics, mathematical modeling, and immunology. The first day focused on understanding the potential implications of skin and oral microbiome perturbation, while approaches to characterize those perturbations were discussed during the second day. This article discusses the factors that the panel recommends be considered for personal care products that target the microbiomes of the skin and the oral cavity. PMID: ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: McBain AJ, O'Neill CA, Amezquita A, Price LJ, Faust K, Tett A, Segata N, Swann JR, Smith AM, Murphy B, Hoptroff M, James G, Reddy Y, Dasgupta A, Ross T, Chapple IL, Wade WG, Fernandez-Piquer J Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Enterobacter spp.: Update on Taxonomy, Clinical Aspects, and Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance.
;s JM Abstract SUMMARYThe genus Enterobacter is a member of the ESKAPE group, which contains the major resistant bacterial pathogens. First described in 1960, this group member has proven to be more complex as a result of the exponential evolution of phenotypic and genotypic methods. Today, 22 species belong to the Enterobacter genus. These species are described in the environment and have been reported as opportunistic pathogens in plants, animals, and humans. The pathogenicity/virulence of this bacterium remains rather unclear due to the limited amount of work performed to date in this field. In contrast, its re...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - July 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Davin-Regli A, Lavigne JP, Pagès JM Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Translating Recent Microbiome Insights in Otitis Media into Probiotic Strategies.
Abstract SUMMARYThe microbiota of the upper respiratory tract (URT) protects the host from bacterial pathogenic colonization by competing for adherence to epithelial cells and by immune response regulation that includes the activation of antimicrobial and (anti-)inflammatory components. However, environmental or host factors can modify the microbiota to an unstable community that predisposes the host to infection or inflammation. One of the URT diseases most often encountered in children is otitis media (OM). The role of pathogenic bacteria like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catar...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - July 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: van den Broek MFL, De Boeck I, Kiekens F, Boudewyns A, Vanderveken OM, Lebeer S Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Pathogenomics of Emerging Campylobacter Species.
Abstract SUMMARYCampylobacter is among the four main causes of gastroenteritis worldwide and has increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The vast majority of reported Campylobacter infections are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and, to a lesser extent, C. coli; however, the increasing recognition of other emerging Campylobacter pathogens is urgently demanding a better understanding of how these underestimated species cause disease, transmit, and evolve. In parallel to the enhanced clinical awareness of campylobacteriosis due to improved diagnostic protocols, the applicati...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - July 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Costa D, Iraola G Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

The Role of Ureaplasma spp. in the Development of Nongonococcal Urethritis and Infertility among Men.
Abstract SUMMARYUreaplasma spp. are a genus of bacteria for which two human-associated species exist: Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum Their definition as a pathogen in the context of nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) and infertility among males remains highly controversial, largely due to historically high rates of isolation of these bacteria from the urethra of seemingly healthy men. This review summarizes the emerging evidence suggesting a true pathogenic role of these bacteria under specific conditions, which we term risk factors. We examine the historical, clinical, and experimental studies which sup...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - July 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Beeton ML, Payne MS, Jones L Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Global Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) Lineages.
Abstract SUMMARYExtraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains are responsible for a majority of human extraintestinal infections globally, resulting in enormous direct medical and social costs. ExPEC strains are comprised of many lineages, but only a subset is responsible for the vast majority of infections. Few systematic surveillance systems exist for ExPEC. To address this gap, we systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed 217 studies (1995 to 2018) that performed multilocus sequence typing or whole-genome sequencing to genotype E. coli recovered from extraintestinal infections or the gut. Twenty m...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - June 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Manges AR, Geum HM, Guo A, Edens TJ, Fibke CD, Pitout JDD Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

A Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) and Algorithms Including NAATs for the Diagnosis of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile in Adults.
ichter SS, Gilligan P, Snyder JW Abstract SUMMARYThe evidence base for the optimal laboratory diagnosis of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile in adults is currently unresolved due to the uncertain performance characteristics and various combinations of tests. This systematic review evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of laboratory testing algorithms that include nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) to detect the presence of C. difficile The systematic review and meta-analysis included eligible studies (those that had PICO [population, intervention, comparison, outcome] elements) that assessed the diagnostic ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kraft CS, Parrott JS, Cornish NE, Rubinstein ML, Weissfeld AS, McNult P, Nachamkin I, Humphries RM, Kirn TJ, Dien Bard J, Lutgring JD, Gullett JC, Bittencourt CE, Benson S, Bobenchik AM, Sautter RL, Baselski V, Atlas MC, Marlowe EM, Miller NS, Fischer M, Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Host-Pathogen Interactions in Gram-Positive Bacterial Pneumonia.
Abstract SUMMARYCommunity-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite broad literature including basic and translational scientific studies, many gaps in our understanding of host-pathogen interactions remain. In this review, pathogen virulence factors that drive lung infection and injury are discussed in relation to their associated host immune pathways. CAP epidemiology is considered, with a focus on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae as primary pathogens. Bacterial factors involved in nasal colonization and subsequent virulence are illuminated. A par...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Grousd JA, Rich HE, Alcorn JF Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Cystic Fibrosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the Host-Microbe Interface.
Abstract SUMMARYIn human pathophysiology, the clash between microbial infection and host immunity contributes to multiple diseases. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a classical example of this phenomenon, wherein a dysfunctional, hyperinflammatory immune response combined with chronic pulmonary infections wreak havoc upon the airway, leading to a disease course of substantial morbidity and shortened life span. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that commonly infects the CF lung, promoting an accelerated decline of pulmonary function. Importantly, P. aeruginosa exhibits significant resistance to innate immu...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Malhotra S, Hayes D, Wozniak DJ Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Abstract SUMMARYHypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKp) is an evolving pathotype that is more virulent than classical K. pneumoniae (cKp). hvKp usually infects individuals from the community, who are often healthy. Infections are more common in the Asian Pacific Rim but are occurring globally. hvKp infection frequently presents at multiple sites or subsequently metastatically spreads, often requiring source control. hvKp has an increased ability to cause central nervous system infection and endophthalmitis, which require rapid recognition and site-specific treatment. The genetic factors that confer hvKp's hypervirulent...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Russo TA, Marr CM Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Extended Dosing Regimens for Fungal Prophylaxis.
Abstract SUMMARYInvasive fungal diseases carry high morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancies or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In order to prevent these life-threatening infections, antifungal chemoprophylaxis plays an important role in daily clinical practice. Broad-spectrum antifungal triazoles are widely used but exhibit disadvantages such as relevant drug-drug interactions. Therefore, amphotericin B products or echinocandins can be an alternative in selected patient populations. As these compounds are available as intravenous formulations o...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lehrnbecher T, Bochennek K, Klingebiel T, Gastine S, Hempel G, Groll AH Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Point-of-Care HIV Viral Load Testing: an Essential Tool for a Sustainable Global HIV/AIDS Response.
In this report, we review the current and emerging technology, the evidence for decentralized viral load monitoring by non-laboratory health care workers, and the additional considerations for expanding point-of-care HIV viral load testing. PMID: 31092508 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews)
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Drain PK, Dorward J, Bender A, Lillis L, Marinucci F, Sacks J, Bershteyn A, Boyle DS, Posner JD, Garrett N Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research