Transferable Mechanisms of Quinolone Resistance from 1998 Onward.
Abstract SUMMARYWhile the description of resistance to quinolones is almost as old as these antimicrobial agents themselves, transferable mechanisms of quinolone resistance (TMQR) remained absent from the scenario for more than 36 years, appearing first as sporadic events and afterward as epidemics. In 1998, the first TMQR was soundly described, that is, QnrA. The presence of QnrA was almost anecdotal for years, but in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century, there was an explosion of TMQR descriptions, which definitively changed the epidemiology of quinolone resistance. Currently, 3 different cl...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ruiz J Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

The Use of Copper as an Antimicrobial Agent in Health Care, Including Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Abstract SUMMARYHealth care-associated infections (HAIs) are a global problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Controlling the spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a major public health challenge, and antimicrobial resistance has become one of the most important global problems in current times. The antimicrobial effect of copper has been known for centuries, and ongoing research is being conducted on the use of copper-coated hard and soft surfaces for reduction of microbial contamination and, subsequently, reduction of HAIs. This review provides an overview of the historical and curre...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Arendsen LP, Thakar R, Sultan AH Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

8-Aminoquinoline Therapy for Latent Malaria.
Abstract SUMMARYThe technical genesis and practice of 8-aminoquinoline therapy of latent malaria offer singular scientific, clinical, and public health insights. The 8-aminoquinolines brought revolutionary scientific discoveries, dogmatic practices, benign neglect, and, finally, enduring promise against endemic malaria. The clinical use of plasmochin-the first rationally synthesized blood schizontocide and the first gametocytocide, tissue schizontocide, and hypnozoitocide of any kind-commenced in 1926. Plasmochin became known to sometimes provoke fatal hemolytic crises. World War II delivered a newer 8-aminoquinol...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Baird JK Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Plasmodium Genomics and Genetics: New Insights into Malaria Pathogenesis, Drug Resistance, Epidemiology, and Evolution.
ms TE Abstract SUMMARYProtozoan Plasmodium parasites are the causative agents of malaria, a deadly disease that continues to afflict hundreds of millions of people every year. Infections with malaria parasites can be asymptomatic, with mild or severe symptoms, or fatal, depending on many factors such as parasite virulence and host immune status. Malaria can be treated with various drugs, with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) being the first-line choice. Recent advances in genetics and genomics of malaria parasites have contributed greatly to our understanding of parasite population dynamics, transmis...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Su XZ, Lane KD, Xia L, Sá JM, Wellems TE Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Organization of the Skin Immune System and Compartmentalized Immune Responses in Infectious Diseases.
Abstract SUMMARYThe skin is an organ harboring several types of immune cells that participate in innate and adaptive immune responses. The immune system of the skin comprises both skin cells and professional immune cells that together constitute what is designated skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT). In this review, I extensively discuss the organization of SALT and the mechanisms involved in its responses to infectious diseases of the skin and mucosa. The nature of these SALT responses, and the cellular mediators involved, often determines the clinical course of such infections. I list and describe the compone...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Quaresma JAS Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Consumer Safety Considerations of Skin and Oral Microbiome Perturbation.
This article is based on a 2-day workshop held at SEAC Unilever, Sharnbrook, United Kingdom, involving 31 specialists in microbial risk assessment, skin and oral microbiome research, microbial ecology, bioinformatics, mathematical modeling, and immunology. The first day focused on understanding the potential implications of skin and oral microbiome perturbation, while approaches to characterize those perturbations were discussed during the second day. This article discusses the factors that the panel recommends be considered for personal care products that target the microbiomes of the skin and the oral cavity. PMID: ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: McBain AJ, O'Neill CA, Amezquita A, Price LJ, Faust K, Tett A, Segata N, Swann JR, Smith AM, Murphy B, Hoptroff M, James G, Reddy Y, Dasgupta A, Ross T, Chapple IL, Wade WG, Fernandez-Piquer J Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Enterobacter spp.: Update on Taxonomy, Clinical Aspects, and Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance.
;s JM Abstract SUMMARYThe genus Enterobacter is a member of the ESKAPE group, which contains the major resistant bacterial pathogens. First described in 1960, this group member has proven to be more complex as a result of the exponential evolution of phenotypic and genotypic methods. Today, 22 species belong to the Enterobacter genus. These species are described in the environment and have been reported as opportunistic pathogens in plants, animals, and humans. The pathogenicity/virulence of this bacterium remains rather unclear due to the limited amount of work performed to date in this field. In contrast, its re...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - July 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Davin-Regli A, Lavigne JP, Pagès JM Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Translating Recent Microbiome Insights in Otitis Media into Probiotic Strategies.
Abstract SUMMARYThe microbiota of the upper respiratory tract (URT) protects the host from bacterial pathogenic colonization by competing for adherence to epithelial cells and by immune response regulation that includes the activation of antimicrobial and (anti-)inflammatory components. However, environmental or host factors can modify the microbiota to an unstable community that predisposes the host to infection or inflammation. One of the URT diseases most often encountered in children is otitis media (OM). The role of pathogenic bacteria like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catar...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - July 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: van den Broek MFL, De Boeck I, Kiekens F, Boudewyns A, Vanderveken OM, Lebeer S Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Pathogenomics of Emerging Campylobacter Species.
Abstract SUMMARYCampylobacter is among the four main causes of gastroenteritis worldwide and has increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The vast majority of reported Campylobacter infections are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and, to a lesser extent, C. coli; however, the increasing recognition of other emerging Campylobacter pathogens is urgently demanding a better understanding of how these underestimated species cause disease, transmit, and evolve. In parallel to the enhanced clinical awareness of campylobacteriosis due to improved diagnostic protocols, the applicati...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - July 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Costa D, Iraola G Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

The Role of Ureaplasma spp. in the Development of Nongonococcal Urethritis and Infertility among Men.
Abstract SUMMARYUreaplasma spp. are a genus of bacteria for which two human-associated species exist: Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum Their definition as a pathogen in the context of nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) and infertility among males remains highly controversial, largely due to historically high rates of isolation of these bacteria from the urethra of seemingly healthy men. This review summarizes the emerging evidence suggesting a true pathogenic role of these bacteria under specific conditions, which we term risk factors. We examine the historical, clinical, and experimental studies which sup...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - July 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Beeton ML, Payne MS, Jones L Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Global Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) Lineages.
Abstract SUMMARYExtraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains are responsible for a majority of human extraintestinal infections globally, resulting in enormous direct medical and social costs. ExPEC strains are comprised of many lineages, but only a subset is responsible for the vast majority of infections. Few systematic surveillance systems exist for ExPEC. To address this gap, we systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed 217 studies (1995 to 2018) that performed multilocus sequence typing or whole-genome sequencing to genotype E. coli recovered from extraintestinal infections or the gut. Twenty m...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - June 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Manges AR, Geum HM, Guo A, Edens TJ, Fibke CD, Pitout JDD Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

A Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) and Algorithms Including NAATs for the Diagnosis of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile in Adults.
ichter SS, Gilligan P, Snyder JW Abstract SUMMARYThe evidence base for the optimal laboratory diagnosis of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile in adults is currently unresolved due to the uncertain performance characteristics and various combinations of tests. This systematic review evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of laboratory testing algorithms that include nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) to detect the presence of C. difficile The systematic review and meta-analysis included eligible studies (those that had PICO [population, intervention, comparison, outcome] elements) that assessed the diagnostic ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kraft CS, Parrott JS, Cornish NE, Rubinstein ML, Weissfeld AS, McNult P, Nachamkin I, Humphries RM, Kirn TJ, Dien Bard J, Lutgring JD, Gullett JC, Bittencourt CE, Benson S, Bobenchik AM, Sautter RL, Baselski V, Atlas MC, Marlowe EM, Miller NS, Fischer M, Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Host-Pathogen Interactions in Gram-Positive Bacterial Pneumonia.
Abstract SUMMARYCommunity-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite broad literature including basic and translational scientific studies, many gaps in our understanding of host-pathogen interactions remain. In this review, pathogen virulence factors that drive lung infection and injury are discussed in relation to their associated host immune pathways. CAP epidemiology is considered, with a focus on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae as primary pathogens. Bacterial factors involved in nasal colonization and subsequent virulence are illuminated. A par...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Grousd JA, Rich HE, Alcorn JF Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Cystic Fibrosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the Host-Microbe Interface.
Abstract SUMMARYIn human pathophysiology, the clash between microbial infection and host immunity contributes to multiple diseases. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a classical example of this phenomenon, wherein a dysfunctional, hyperinflammatory immune response combined with chronic pulmonary infections wreak havoc upon the airway, leading to a disease course of substantial morbidity and shortened life span. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that commonly infects the CF lung, promoting an accelerated decline of pulmonary function. Importantly, P. aeruginosa exhibits significant resistance to innate immu...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Malhotra S, Hayes D, Wozniak DJ Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Abstract SUMMARYHypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKp) is an evolving pathotype that is more virulent than classical K. pneumoniae (cKp). hvKp usually infects individuals from the community, who are often healthy. Infections are more common in the Asian Pacific Rim but are occurring globally. hvKp infection frequently presents at multiple sites or subsequently metastatically spreads, often requiring source control. hvKp has an increased ability to cause central nervous system infection and endophthalmitis, which require rapid recognition and site-specific treatment. The genetic factors that confer hvKp's hypervirulent...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Russo TA, Marr CM Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Extended Dosing Regimens for Fungal Prophylaxis.
Abstract SUMMARYInvasive fungal diseases carry high morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancies or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In order to prevent these life-threatening infections, antifungal chemoprophylaxis plays an important role in daily clinical practice. Broad-spectrum antifungal triazoles are widely used but exhibit disadvantages such as relevant drug-drug interactions. Therefore, amphotericin B products or echinocandins can be an alternative in selected patient populations. As these compounds are available as intravenous formulations o...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lehrnbecher T, Bochennek K, Klingebiel T, Gastine S, Hempel G, Groll AH Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Point-of-Care HIV Viral Load Testing: an Essential Tool for a Sustainable Global HIV/AIDS Response.
In this report, we review the current and emerging technology, the evidence for decentralized viral load monitoring by non-laboratory health care workers, and the additional considerations for expanding point-of-care HIV viral load testing. PMID: 31092508 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews)
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Drain PK, Dorward J, Bender A, Lillis L, Marinucci F, Sacks J, Bershteyn A, Boyle DS, Posner JD, Garrett N Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Microorganisms in the Placenta: Links to Early-Life Inflammation and Neurodevelopment in Children.
Abstract SUMMARYPrenatal exposure to various stressors can influence both early and later life childhood health. Microbial infection of the intrauterine environment, specifically within the placenta, has been associated with deleterious birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, as well as adverse neurological outcomes later in life. The relationships among microorganisms in the placenta, placental function, and fetal development are not well understood. Microorganisms have been associated with perinatal inflammatory responses that have the potential for disrupting fetal brain development. Microbial presence has also ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tomlinson MS, Lu K, Stewart JR, Marsit CJ, O'Shea TM, Fry RC Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Phage Therapy in the Postantibiotic Era.
Abstract SUMMARYAntibiotic resistance is arguably the biggest current threat to global health. An increasing number of infections are becoming harder or almost impossible to treat, carrying high morbidity, mortality, and financial cost. The therapeutic use of bacteriophages, viruses that infect and kill bacteria, is well suited to be part of the multidimensional strategies to combat antibiotic resistance. Although phage therapy was first implemented almost a century ago, it was brought to a standstill after the successful introduction of antibiotics. Now, with the rise of antibiotic resistance, phage therapy is ex...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - January 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gordillo Altamirano FL, Barr JJ Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Treating Polymicrobial Infections in Chronic Diabetic Wounds.
We present a unifying perspective on how the field is evolving and the need for an early amalgamation of engineering principles and a biological understanding of underlying phenomena in order to develop a therapy that is translatable to the clinic in a shorter time. PMID: 30651226 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews)
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - January 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Buch PJ, Chai Y, Goluch ED Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology Laboratories: Viruses Causing Acute Respiratory Tract Infections.
This article is an American Society for Microbiology (ASM)-sponsored Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology (PGCM) document identifying best practices for diagnosis and characterization of viruses that cause acute respiratory infections and replaces the most recent prior version of the ASM-sponsored Cumitech 21 document, Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Respiratory Disease, published in 1986. The scope of the original document was quite broad, with an emphasis on clinical diagnosis of a wide variety of infectious agents and laboratory focus on antigen detection and viral culture. The new PGCM document is designed to be ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Charlton CL, Babady E, Ginocchio CC, Hatchette TF, Jerris RC, Li Y, Loeffelholz M, McCarter YS, Miller MB, Novak-Weekley S, Schuetz AN, Tang YW, Widen R, Drews SJ Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Tick-Borne Flaviviruses, with a Focus on Powassan Virus.
yai K Abstract SUMMARYThe tick-borne pathogen Powassan virus is a rare cause of encephalitis in North America and the Russian Far East. The number of documented cases described since the discovery of Powassan virus in 1958 may be 50% of survivors make Powassan virus a medical concern requiring the attention of public health authorities and clinicians. The medical importance of Powassan virus justifies more research on developing specific and effective treatments and prevention and control measures. PMID: 30541872 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews)
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kemenesi G, Bányai K Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for the Rapid Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms and Beyond.
Bou G Abstract SUMMARYMatrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been successfully applied in recent years for first-line identification of pathogens in clinical microbiology because it is simple to use, rapid, and accurate and has economic benefits in hospital management. The range of clinical applications of MALDI-TOF MS for bacterial isolates is increasing constantly, from species identification to the two most promising applications in the near future: detection of antimicrobial resistance and strain typing for epidemiological studies. The aim of this review...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - November 30, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Oviaño M, Bou G Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.
Abstract SUMMARYHIV diagnostics have played a central role in the remarkable progress in identifying, staging, initiating, and monitoring infected individuals on life-saving antiretroviral therapy. They are also useful in surveillance and outbreak responses, allowing for assessment of disease burden and identification of vulnerable populations and transmission "hot spots," thus enabling planning, appropriate interventions, and allocation of appropriate funding. HIV diagnostics are critical in achieving epidemic control and require a hybrid of conventional laboratory-based diagnostic tests and new technol...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - November 30, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Parekh BS, Ou CY, Fonjungo PN, Kalou MB, Rottinghaus E, Puren A, Alexander H, Hurlston Cox M, Nkengasong JN Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Persistent Infection and Long-Term Carriage of Typhoidal and Nontyphoidal Salmonellae.
Abstract SUMMARYThe ability of pathogenic bacteria to affect higher organisms and cause disease is one of the most dramatic properties of microorganisms. Some pathogens can establish transient colonization only, but others are capable of infecting their host for many years or even for a lifetime. Long-term infection is called persistence, and this phenotype is fundamental for the biology of important human pathogens, including Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Salmonella enterica Both typhoidal and nontyphoidal serovars of the species Salmonella enterica can cause persistent infection in humans;...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - November 30, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gal-Mor O Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Molecular Characterization, Evolution, and Epidemiology.
Abstract SUMMARYStaphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen, has a collection of virulence factors and the ability to acquire resistance to most antibiotics. This ability is further augmented by constant emergence of new clones, making S. aureus a "superbug." Clinical use of methicillin has led to the appearance of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The past few decades have witnessed the existence of new MRSA clones. Unlike traditional MRSA residing in hospitals, the new clones can invade community settings and infect people without predisposing risk factors. This evolution continues with the bui...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - September 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lakhundi S, Zhang K Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Treatment of Toxoplasmosis: Historical Perspective, Animal Models, and Current Clinical Practice.
Abstract SUMMARYPrimary Toxoplasma gondii infection is usually subclinical, but cervical lymphadenopathy or ocular disease can be present in some patients. Active infection is characterized by tachyzoites, while tissue cysts characterize latent disease. Infection in the fetus and in immunocompromised patients can cause devastating disease. The combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine (pyr-sulf), targeting the active stage of the infection, is the current gold standard for treating toxoplasmosis, but failure rates remain significant. Although other regimens are available, including pyrimethamine in combination...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - September 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dunay IR, Gajurel K, Dhakal R, Liesenfeld O, Montoya JG Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Human Pathogenic Entomophthorales.
Abstract SUMMARYThe pathogenic entomophthoralean fungi cause infection in insects and mammalian hosts. Basidiobolus and Conidiobolus species can be found in soil and insect, reptile, and amphibian droppings in tropical and subtropical areas. The life cycles of these fungi occur in these environments where infecting sticky conidia are developed. The infection is acquired by insect bite or contact with contaminated environments through open skin. Conidiobolus coronatus typically causes chronic rhinofacial disease in immunocompetent hosts, whereas some Conidiobolus species can be found in immunocompromised patients. ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 31, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vilela R, Mendoza L Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Epidemiology, Biology, and Impact of Clonal Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections in Cystic Fibrosis.
Abstract SUMMARYChronic lower airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in individuals suffering from the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Whereas it was long presumed that each patient independently acquired unique strains of P. aeruginosa present in their living environment, multiple studies have since demonstrated that shared strains of P. aeruginosa exist among individuals with CF. Many of these shared strains, often referred to as clonal or epidemic strains, can be transmitted from one CF individual to another, potentially reaching epidemic status. Num...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 31, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Parkins MD, Somayaji R, Waters VJ Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Nonsuppurative (Aseptic) Meningoencephalomyelitis Associated with Neurovirulent Astrovirus Infections in Humans and Animals.
cute; Abstract SUMMARYAstroviruses are thought to be enteric pathogens. Since 2010, a certain group of astroviruses has increasingly been recognized, using up-to-date random amplification and high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, as potential neurovirulent (Ni) pathogens of severe central nervous system (CNS) infections, causing encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, and meningoencephalomyelitis. To date, neurovirulent astrovirus cases or epidemics have been reported for humans and domesticated mammals, including mink, bovines, ovines, and swine. This comprehensive review summarizes the virology, e...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 31, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Reuter G, Pankovics P, Boros Á Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Recent Development of Visceral Leishmaniasis Treatments: Successes, Pitfalls, and Perspectives.
var J Abstract SUMMARYResearch in visceral leishmaniasis in the last decade has been focused on how better to use the existing medicines as monotherapy or in combination. Systematic research by geographical regions has shown that a universal treatment is far from today's reality. Substantial progress has been made in the elimination of kala-azar in South Asia, with a clear strategy on first- and second-line therapy options of single-dose liposomal amphotericin B and a combination of paromomycin and miltefosine, respectively, among other interventions. In Eastern Africa, sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and paromomycin ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 31, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alves F, Bilbe G, Blesson S, Goyal V, Monnerat S, Mowbray C, Muthoni Ouattara G, Pécoul B, Rijal S, Rode J, Solomos A, Strub-Wourgaft N, Wasunna M, Wells S, Zijlstra EE, Arana B, Alvar J Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Perinatal Streptococcus agalactiae Epidemiology and Surveillance Targets.
Abstract SUMMARYStreptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococcus (GBS), is a major neonatal pathogen. Recent data have elucidated the global prevalence of maternal and neonatal colonization, but gaps still remain in the epidemiology of this species. A number of phenotypic and genotypic classifications can be used to identify the diversity of GBS strains, and some are more discriminatory than others. This review explores the main schemes used for GBS epidemiology and further details the targets for epidemiological surveillance. Current screening practices across the world provide a unique opportunity to gain deta...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Furfaro LL, Chang BJ, Payne MS Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Bacterial Tolerance and Persistence in the Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Environments.
as R, Wood TK, Tomás M Abstract SUMMARYPathogens that infect the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are subjected to intense pressure due to the environmental conditions of the surroundings. This pressure has led to the development of mechanisms of bacterial tolerance or persistence which enable microorganisms to survive in these locations. In this review, we analyze the general stress response (RpoS mediated), reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance, energy metabolism, drug efflux pumps, SOS response, quorum sensing (QS) bacterial communication, (p)ppGpp signaling, and toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems of ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Trastoy R, Manso T, Fernández-García L, Blasco L, Ambroa A, Pérez Del Molino ML, Bou G, García-Contreras R, Wood TK, Tomás M Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Mobile Genetic Elements Associated with Antimicrobial Resistance.
Abstract SUMMARYStrains of bacteria resistant to antibiotics, particularly those that are multiresistant, are an increasing major health care problem around the world. It is now abundantly clear that both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria are able to meet the evolutionary challenge of combating antimicrobial chemotherapy, often by acquiring preexisting resistance determinants from the bacterial gene pool. This is achieved through the concerted activities of mobile genetic elements able to move within or between DNA molecules, which include insertion sequences, transposons, and gene cassettes/integrons, and ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - August 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Partridge SR, Kwong SM, Firth N, Jensen SO Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Incipient and Subclinical Tuberculosis: a Clinical Review of Early Stages and Progression of Infection.
In this report, we review the current understanding of the pathogenesis, immunology, clinical epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of both incipient and subclinical TB, two emerging clinical states of an ancient bacterium. PMID: 30021818 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews)
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - July 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Drain PK, Bajema KL, Dowdy D, Dheda K, Naidoo K, Schumacher SG, Ma S, Meermeier E, Lewinsohn DM, Sherman DR Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Virological and Immunological Outcomes of Coinfections.
Abstract SUMMARYCoinfections involving viruses are being recognized to influence the disease pattern that occurs relative to that with single infection. Classically, we usually think of a clinical syndrome as the consequence of infection by a single virus that is isolated from clinical specimens. However, this biased laboratory approach omits detection of additional agents that could be contributing to the clinical outcome, including novel agents not usually considered pathogens. The presence of an additional agent may also interfere with the targeted isolation of a known virus. Viral interference, a phenomenon wh...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - July 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kumar N, Sharma S, Barua S, Tripathi BN, Rouse BT Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

A Molecular Window into the Biology and Epidemiology of Pneumocystis spp.
cs JA Abstract Pneumocystis, a unique atypical fungus with an elusive lifestyle, has had an important medical history. It came to prominence as an opportunistic pathogen that not only can cause life-threatening pneumonia in patients with HIV infection and other immunodeficiencies but also can colonize the lungs of healthy individuals from a very early age. The genus Pneumocystis includes a group of closely related but heterogeneous organisms that have a worldwide distribution, have been detected in multiple mammalian species, are highly host species specific, inhabit the lungs almost exclusively, and have never co...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - June 15, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ma L, Cissé OH, Kovacs JA Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Proteus spp. as Putative Gastrointestinal Pathogens.
Abstract Proteus species, members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, are usually considered commensals in the gut and are most commonly recognized clinically as a cause of urinary tract infections. However, the recent identification of Proteus spp. as potential pathogens in Crohn's disease recurrence after intestinal resection serves as a stimulus to examine their potential role as gut pathogens. Proteus species possess many virulence factors potentially relevant to gastrointestinal pathogenicity, including motility; adherence; the production of urease, hemolysins, and IgA proteases; and the ability to acquire anti...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - June 15, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hamilton AL, Kamm MA, Ng SC, Morrison M Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Clinical and Biological Features of Cutibacterium (Formerly Propionibacterium) avidum, an Underrecognized Microorganism.
Abstract The recent description of the genus Cutibacterium has altered the taxonomy of Propionibacterium species. These organisms still belong to the genera of the skin coryneform group, and the most-studied species remains Cutibacterium acnes. Cutibacterium avidum is also a known skin commensal. This underrecognized microorganism can, however, act as a pathogen after bacterial seeding and can be considered opportunistic, causing either superficial or deep/invasive infections. It can cause numerous infections, including but not limited to breast infections, skin abscesses, infective endocarditis, and device-relate...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - June 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Corvec S Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

The Cost-Effectiveness of Rapid Diagnostic Testing for the Diagnosis of Bloodstream Infections with or without Antimicrobial Stewardship.
In conclusion, our findings suggest that mRDTs are cost-effective for the diagnosis of patients with suspected bloodstream infection and can reduce health care expenditures. Notably, the combination of mRDT and an ASP can result in substantial health care savings. PMID: 29848775 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews)
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - June 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pliakos EE, Andreatos N, Shehadeh F, Ziakas PD, Mylonakis E Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Implementing a Quality Management System in the Medical Microbiology Laboratory.
Abstract This document outlines a comprehensive practical approach to a laboratory quality management system (QMS) by describing how to operationalize the management and technical requirements described in the ISO 15189 international standard. It provides a crosswalk of the ISO requirements for quality and competence for medical laboratories to the 12 quality system essentials delineated by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The quality principles are organized under three main categories: quality infrastructure, laboratory operations, and quality assurance and continual improvement. The roles and re...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 5, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Carey RB, Bhattacharyya S, Kehl SC, Matukas LM, Pentella MA, Salfinger M, Schuetz AN Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Options and Limitations in Clinical Investigation of Bacterial Biofilms.
In this report, we (i) summarize current methodologies for biofilm characterization, monitoring, and quantification; (ii) discuss advances in the discovery of effective imaging and sensing tools and modalities; (iii) provide an overview of tailored animal models that assess features of biofilm infections; and (iv) make recommendations defining the most appropriate methodological tools for clinical settings. PMID: 29618576 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews)
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - April 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Magana M, Sereti C, Ioannidis A, Mitchell CA, Ball AR, Magiorkinis E, Chatzipanagiotou S, Hamblin MR, Hadjifrangiskou M, Tegos GP Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Understanding Clostridium difficile Colonization.
Kuijper EJ Abstract Clostridium difficile is the main causative agent of antibiotic-associated and health care-associated infective diarrhea. Recently, there has been growing interest in alternative sources of C. difficile other than patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the hospital environment. Notably, the role of C. difficile-colonized patients as a possible source of transmission has received attention. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of C. difficile colonization. Findings from gut microbiota studies yield more insights into determinants that...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - March 19, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Crobach MJT, Vernon JJ, Loo VG, Kong LY, Péchiné S, Wilcox MH, Kuijper EJ Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Antibiotic Hybrids: the Next Generation of Agents and Adjuvants against Gram-Negative Pathogens?
Abstract The global incidence of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacillary infections has been increasing, and there is a dire need to develop novel strategies to overcome this problem. Intrinsic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, such as their protective outer membrane and constitutively overexpressed efflux pumps, is a major survival weapon that renders them refractory to current antibiotics. Several potential avenues to overcome this problem have been at the heart of antibiotic drug discovery in the past few decades. We review some of these strategies, with emphasis on antibiotic hybrids either as stand-alone a...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - March 19, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Domalaon R, Idowu T, Zhanel GG, Schweizer F Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Emerging Technologies for Molecular Diagnosis of Sepsis.
Abstract Rapid and accurate profiling of infection-causing pathogens remains a significant challenge in modern health care. Despite advances in molecular diagnostic techniques, blood culture analysis remains the gold standard for diagnosing sepsis. However, this method is too slow and cumbersome to significantly influence the initial management of patients. The swift initiation of precise and targeted antibiotic therapies depends on the ability of a sepsis diagnostic test to capture clinically relevant organisms along with antimicrobial resistance within 1 to 3 h. The administration of appropriate, narrow-spectrum...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - March 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sinha M, Jupe J, Mack H, Coleman TP, Lawrence SM, Fraley SI Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Treatment of Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-, AmpC-, and Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae.
B, Machuca I, Pascual A Abstract Therapy of invasive infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E) is challenging, and some of the few active drugs are not available in many countries. For extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC producers, carbapenems are the drugs of choice, but alternatives are needed because the rate of carbapenem resistance is rising. Potential active drugs include classic and newer β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephamycins, temocillin, aminoglycosides, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and, rarely, fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. These...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - February 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rodríguez-Baño J, Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez B, Machuca I, Pascual A Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Staphylococcal Osteomyelitis: Disease Progression, Treatment Challenges, and Future Directions.
Abstract Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory bone disease that is caused by an infecting microorganism and leads to progressive bone destruction and loss. The most common causative species are the usually commensal staphylococci, with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis responsible for the majority of cases. Staphylococcal infections are becoming an increasing global concern, partially due to the resistance mechanisms developed by staphylococci to evade the host immune system and antibiotic treatment. In addition to the ability of staphylococci to withstand treatment, surgical intervention in an effo...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - February 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kavanagh N, Ryan EJ, Widaa A, Sexton G, Fennell J, O'Rourke S, Cahill KC, Kearney CJ, O'Brien FJ, Kerrigan SW Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Practice Guidelines for Clinical Microbiology Laboratories: Mycobacteria.
ML Abstract Mycobacteria are the causative organisms for diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, Buruli ulcer, and pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, to name the most important ones. In 2015, globally, almost 10 million people developed TB, and almost half a million patients suffered from its multidrug-resistant form. In 2016, a total of 9,287 new TB cases were reported in the United States. In 2015, there were 174,608 new case of leprosy worldwide. India, Brazil, and Indonesia reported the most leprosy cases. In 2015, the World Health Organization reported 2,037 new cases of Buruli ulcer, with ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - February 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Forbes BA, Hall GS, Miller MB, Novak SM, Rowlinson MC, Salfinger M, Somoskövi A, Warshauer DM, Wilson ML Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

An Update on Host-Pathogen Interplay and Modulation of Immune Responses during Orientia tsutsugamushi Infection.
is AM Abstract The obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus in humans, a serious mite-borne disease present in a widespread area of endemicity, which affects an estimated 1 million people every year. This disease may exhibit a broad range of presentations, ranging from asymptomatic to fatal conditions, with the latter being due to disseminated endothelial infection and organ injury. Unique characteristics of the biology and host-pathogen interactions of O. tsutsugamushi, including the high antigenic diversity among strains and the highly variable, short-lived m...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - February 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Díaz FE, Abarca K, Kalergis AM Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Buruli Ulcer, a Prototype for Ecosystem-Related Infection, Caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans.
Abstract Buruli ulcer is a noncontagious disabling cutaneous and subcutaneous mycobacteriosis reported by 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. The causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, derives from Mycobacterium marinum by genomic reduction and acquisition of a plasmid-borne, nonribosomal cytotoxin mycolactone, the major virulence factor. M. ulcerans-specific sequences have been readily detected in aquatic environments in food chains involving small mammals. Skin contamination combined with any type of puncture, including insect bites, is the most plausible route of transmission, and skin temperature of
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - December 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zingue D, Bouam A, Tian RBD, Drancourt M Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research