Expansion processes for cell-based therapies.
Abstract Living cells are emerging as therapeutic entities for the treatment of patients affected with severe and chronic diseases where no conventional drug can provide a definitive cure. At the same time, the promise of cell-based therapies comes with several biological, regulatory, economic, logistical, safety and engineering challenges that need to be addressed before translating into clinical practice. Among the complex operations required for their manufacturing, cell expansion occupies a significant part of the entire process and largely determines the number, the phenotype and several other critical qualit...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Scibona E, Morbidelli M Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Microbial production of vitamin K2: current status and future prospects.
Abstract Vitamin K2, also called menaquinone, is an essential lipid-soluble vitamin that plays a critical role in blood clotting and prevention of osteoporosis. It has become a focus of research in recent years and has been widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. This review will briefly introduce the functions and applications of vitamin K2 first, after which the biosynthesis pathways and enzymes will be analyzed in-depth to highlight the bottlenecks facing the microbial vitamin K2 production on the industrial scale. Then, various strategies, including strain mutagenesis and genetic modification, d...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - October 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ren L, Peng C, Hu X, Han Y, Huang H Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Towards manufacturing of human organoids.
Abstract Organoids are 3D miniature versions of organs produced from stem cells derived from either patient or healthy individuals in vitro that recapitulate the actual organ. Organoid technology has ensured an alternative to pre-clinical drug testing as well as being currently used for "personalized medicine" to modulate the treatment as they are uniquely identical to each patient's genetic makeup. Researchers have succeeded in producing different types of organoids and have demonstrated their efficient application in various fields such as disease modeling, pathogenesis, drug screening and regenerative...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - October 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ashok A, Choudhury D, Yu F, Hunziker W Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Combination of bioelectrochemical systems and electrochemical capacitors: Principles, analysis and opportunities.
jne A Abstract Bioelectrochemical systems combine electrodes and reactions driven by microorganisms for many different applications. The conversion of organic material in wastewater into electricity occurs in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The power densities produced by MFCs are still too low for application. One way of increasing their performance is to combine them with electrochemical capacitors, widely used for charge storage purposes. Capacitive MFCs, i.e. the combination of capacitors and MFCs, allow for energy harvesting and storage and has shown to result in improved power densities, which facilitates the u...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - October 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Caizán-Juanarena L, Borsje C, Sleutels T, Yntema D, Santoro C, Ieropoulos I, Soavi F, Ter Heijne A Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Starch-binding domains as CBM families-history, occurrence, structure, function and evolution.
son B Abstract The term "starch-binding domain" (SBD) has been applied to a domain within an amylolytic enzyme that gave the enzyme the ability to bind onto raw, i.e. thermally untreated, granular starch. An SBD is a special case of a carbohydrate-binding domain, which in general, is a structurally and functionally independent protein module exhibiting no enzymatic activity but possessing potential to target the catalytic domain to the carbohydrate substrate to accommodate it and process it at the active site. As so-called families, SBDs together with other carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) have become...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - September 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Janeček Š, Mareček F, MacGregor EA, Svensson B Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Application of next-generation sequencing for the identification of herbal products.
Abstract Conventional Sanger sequencing for authentication of herbal products is difficult since they are mixture of herbs with fragmented DNA. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques give massive parallelization of sequencing reaction to generate multiple reads with various read length, thus different components in herbal products with fragmented DNA can be identified. NGS is especially suitable for animal derived products with the lack of effective markers for chemical analysis. Currently, second generation sequencing such as Illumina Sequencing and Ion Torrent Sequencing, and third generation sequencing suc...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - September 12, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lo YT, Shaw PC Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Nonribosomal peptides in fungal cell factories: from genome mining to optimized heterologous production.
;re V Abstract Fungi are notoriously prolific producers of secondary metabolites including nonribosomal peptides (NRPs). The structural complexity of NRPs grants them interesting activities such as antibiotic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. The discovery of these compounds with attractive activities can be achieved by using two approaches: either by screening samples originating from various environments for their biological activities, or by identifying the related clusters in genomic sequences thanks to bioinformatics tools. This genome mining approach has grown tremendously due to recent advance...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - September 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vassaux A, Meunier L, Vandenbol M, Baurain D, Fickers P, Jacques P, Leclère V Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

The use of bacterial polysaccharides in bioprinting.
Abstract Additive manufacturing or 3D printing has spearheaded a revolution in the biomedical sector allowing the rapid prototyping of medical devices. The recent advancements in bioprinting technology are enabling the development of potential new therapeutic options with respect to tissue engineering and regenerative medicines. Bacterial polysaccharides have been shown to be a central component of the inks used in a variety of bioprinting processes influencing their key features such as the mechanical and thermal properties, printability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. However, the implantation of any fo...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: McCarthy RR, Ullah MW, Booth P, Pei E, Yang G Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

CRISPR technologies for stem cell engineering and regenerative medicine.
Abstract CRISPR/Cas9 system exploits the concerted action of Cas9 nuclease and programmable single guide RNA (sgRNA), and has been widely used for genome editing. The Cas9 nuclease activity can be abolished by mutation to yield the catalytically deactivated Cas9 (dCas9). Coupling with the customizable sgRNA for targeting, dCas9 can be fused with transcription repressors to inhibit specific gene expression (CRISPR interference, CRISPRi) or fused with transcription activators to activate the expression of gene of interest (CRISPR activation, CRISPRa). Here we introduce the principles and recent advances of these CRI...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - September 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hsu MN, Chang YH, Truong VA, Lai PL, Nguyen TKN, Hu YC Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Synthetic biology approaches for targeted protein degradation.
Abstract Protein degradation is an effective native mechanism used in modulating intracellular information, and thus it plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Repurposing native protein degradation in a synthetic context is gaining attention as a new strategy to rapidly manipulate cellular behavior for a wide range of applications including disease detection and therapy. This review examines the native mechanisms and machineries by which mammalian cells degrade their own proteins including the sequence of events from identifying a candidate for degradation to the protein's destruction. Next, ...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - September 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chen RP, Gaynor AS, Chen W Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Inverse pharmacology: Approaches and tools for introducing druggability into engineered proteins.
Abstract A major feature of twenty-first century medical research is the development of therapeutic strategies that use 'biologics' (large molecules, usually engineered proteins) and living cells instead of, or as well as, the small molecules that were the basis of pharmacology in earlier eras. The high power of these techniques can bring correspondingly high risk, and therefore the need for the potential for external control. One way of exerting control on therapeutic proteins is to make them responsive to small molecules; in a clinical context, these small molecules themselves have to be safe. Conventional pharm...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - September 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Davies JA, Ireland S, Harding S, Sharman JL, Southan C, Dominguez-Monedero A Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

New advances in biotechnology of phytochemicals.
PMID: 31491468 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biotechnology Advances)
Source: Biotechnology Advances - September 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Daglia M Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Advances in direct interspecies electron transfer and conductive materials: Electron flux, organic degradation and microbial interaction.
Abstract Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) via electrically conductive pili (e-pili) and c-type cytochrome between acetogens and methanogens has been proposed as an essential pathway for methane production. Supplements of conductive materials have been extensively found to promote CH4 production in microbial anaerobic treatment systems. This review comprehensively presents recent findings of DIET and the addition of conductive materials for methanogenesis and summarizes important results through aspects of electron flux, organic degradation, and microbial interaction. Conductive materials improve DIET a...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - August 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Yin Q, Wu G Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Plasmonic-based platforms for diagnosis of infectious diseases at the point-of-care.
Abstract Infectious diseases such as HIV-1, TB, HBV and malaria still exert a tremendous health burden on the developing world, requiring rapid, simple and inexpensive diagnostics for on-site diagnosis and treatment monitoring. However, traditional diagnostic methods such as nucleic acid tests (NATs) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) cannot be readily implemented in point-of-care (POC) settings. Recently, plasmonic-based biosensors have emerged, offering an attractive solution to manage infectious diseases in the developing world since they can achieve rapid, real-time and label-free detection of vari...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - August 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li Z, Leustean L, Inci F, Zheng M, Demirci U, Wang S Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

How to optimise photosynthetic biogas upgrading: a perspective on system design and microalgae selection.
Abstract Photosynthetic biogas upgrading using microalgae provides a promising alternative to commercial upgrading processes as it allows for carbon capture and re-use, improving the sustainability of the process in a circular economy system. A two-step absorption column-photobioreactor system employing alkaline carbonate solution and flat plate photobioreactors is proposed. Together with process optimisation, the choice of microalgae species is vital to ensure continuous performance with optimal efficiency. In this paper, in addition to critically assessing the system design and operation conditions for optimisat...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - August 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bose A, Lin R, Rajendran K, O'Shea R, Xia A, Murphy JD Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Redox rebalance against genetic perturbations and modulation of central carbon metabolism by the oxidative stress regulation.
Abstract The micro-aerophilic organisms and aerobes as well as yeast and higher organisms have evolved to gain energy through respiration (via oxidative phosphorylation), thereby enabling them to grow much faster than anaerobes. However, during respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are inherently (inevitably) generated, and threaten the cell's survival. Therefore, living organisms (or cells) must furnish the potent defense systems to keep such ROSs at harmless level, where the cofactor balance plays crucial roles. Namely, NADH is the source of energy generation (catabolism) in the respiratory chain reactions...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shimizu K, Matsuoka Y Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Paper-based point-of-care immunoassays: Recent advances and emerging trends.
Abstract Immunoassay has been routinely used in hospitals and central labs. Nowadays, to further meet the requirement of widespread applications of immunoassays, it is urgently needed to produce a simplified, rapid and low-cost immunoassay to perform tests on site. To this end, paper-based point-of-care (POC) immunoassays have attracted intensive interests in recent years. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the recent advances and emerging trends of paper-based POC immunoassays, including the fundamental components and work principles, various detection mechanisms and applications, and existing co...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - August 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Li F, You M, Li S, Hu J, Liu C, Gong Y, Yang H, Xu F Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Evolution of multi-functional capillary electrophoresis for high-efficiency selection of aptamers.
Abstract Aptamers have drawn considerable attention as newly emerging molecular recognition elements in clinical diagnostics, drug delivery, therapeutics, environmental monitoring, and food safety analyses. As the in vitro screening antibody analogs, aptamers are enabled to recognize various types of targets with high affinity and specificity like or even superior to antibodies. However, the restrictions and inefficiency of selection have been hampering their wider application. Among various modified systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) methods, capillary electrophoresis (CE)-SELEX hol...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - August 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhu C, Yang G, Ghulam M, Li L, Qu F Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Recent advances in plasmid-based tools for establishing novel microbial chassis.
Abstract A key challenge for domesticating alternative cultivable microorganisms with biotechnological potential lies in the development of innovative technologies. Within this framework, a myriad of genetic tools has flourished, allowing the design and manipulation of complex synthetic circuits and genomes to become the general rule in many laboratories rather than the exception. More recently, with the development of novel technologies such as DNA automated synthesis/sequencing and powerful computational tools, molecular biology has entered the synthetic biology era. In the beginning, most of these technologies ...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - August 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nora LC, Westmann CA, Guazzaroni ME, Siddaiah C, Gupta VK, Silva-Rocha R Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Seed coating with beneficial microorganisms for precision agriculture.
Abstract Seed coating is a technique of covering seeds with adhesive agents to improve seed performance and plant establishment while reducing production cost. To meet the needs of development of precision agriculture, seed coating has been widely used in agriculture as an effective means to alleviate biotic and abiotic stresses, thus enhancing crop growth, yield, and health. Plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPM) are recognized as essential contributors to improving agricultural productivity via direct application to the rhizosphere and plant tissues, or seed inoculation. However, during conventional inocul...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - August 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ma Y Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Raw plant-based biorefinery: A new paradigm shift towards biotechnological approach to sustainable manufacturing of HMF.
Abstract Unlike petrorefinery, biorefinery uses carbon-based biomaterials, such as plant feedstocks, as the major feeding input materials in chemical manufacturing. To date, petroleum-based resources have been used for the production of wide spectrums of chemical products. However, petrorefinery is currently associated with a variety of issues, i.e., concerns over adverse impacts on the environment and human society. As an alternative technology, the sustainable biorefinery is a matter of great importance in industrial chemical manufacturing due primarily to its sustainability. As carbon-based resources, plants ar...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - August 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Heo JB, Lee YS, Chung CH Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Extracellular matrix-derived biomaterials in engineering cell function.
Abstract Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived components are emerging sources for the engineering of biomaterials that are capable of inducing desirable cell-specific responses. This review explores the use of biomaterials derived from naturally occurring ECM proteins and their derivatives in approaches that aim to regulate cell function. Biomaterials addressed are grouped into six categories: purified single ECM proteins, combinations of purified ECM proteins, cell-derived ECM, tissue-derived ECM, diseased and modified ECM, and ECM-polymer coupled biomaterials. Purified ECM proteins serve as a material coating for ...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - August 2, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xing H, Lee H, Luo L, Kyriakides TR Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Biofouling effects on the performance of microbial fuel cells and recent advances in biotechnological and chemical strategies for mitigation.
This article will help to enhance understanding of the severity of MFC biofouling issues and provides up-to-date solutions. It will be beneficial for scientific communities for further strengthening MFC research and will also help in progressing this cutting-edge technology to scale-up, using the most efficient methods as described here. PMID: 31344446 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biotechnology Advances)
Source: Biotechnology Advances - July 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Noori MT, Ghangrekar MM, Mukherjee CK, Min B Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

The potential of microalgae and their biopolymers as structuring ingredients in food: A review.
Abstract Microalgae are considered promising functional food ingredients due to their balanced composition, containing multiple nutritional and health-beneficial components. However, their functionality in food products is not limited to health aspects, since microalgae can also play a structuring role in food, for instance as a texturizing ingredient. Photoautotrophic microalgae are actually rich in structural biopolymers such as proteins, storage polysaccharides, and cell wall related polysaccharides, and their presence might possibly alter the rheological properties of the enriched food product. A first approac...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - July 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bernaerts TMM, Gheysen L, Foubert I, Hendrickx ME, Van Loey AM Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Biocatalysis in ionic liquids for lignin valorization: Opportunities and recent developments.
Abstract Lignin holds tremendous potential as a renewable feedstock for upgrading to a number of high-value chemicals and products that are derived from the petroleum industry at present. Since lignin makes up a significant fraction of lignocellulosic biomass, co-utilization of lignin in addition to cellulose and hemicelluloses is vital to the economic viability of cellulosic biorefineries. The recalcitrant nature of lignin, originated from the molecule's compositional and structural heterogeneity, however, poses great challenges toward effective and selective lignin depolymerization and valorization. Ionic liquid...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - July 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Stevens JC, Shi J Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Diatom isoprenoids: Advances and biotechnological potential.
Abstract Diatoms are among the most productive and ecologically important groups of microalgae in contemporary oceans. Due to their distinctive metabolic and physiological features, they offer exciting opportunities for a broad range of commercial and industrial applications. One such feature is their ability to synthesize a wide diversity of isoprenoid compounds. However, limited understanding of how these molecules are synthesized have until recently hindered their exploitation. Following comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic analysis of various diatom species, the biosynthetic mechanisms and regulation of th...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - July 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Athanasakoglou A, Kampranis SC Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Artificial humification of lignin architecture: Top-down and bottom-up approaches.
Abstract Humic substances readily identifiable in the environment are involved in several biotic and abiotic reactions affecting carbon turnover, soil fertility, plant nutrition and stimulation, xenobiotic transformation and microbial respiration. Inspired by natural roles of humic substances, several applications of these substances, including organic fertilizers, redox mediators, anti-oxidants, human medicines, environmental remediation and fish feeding, have been developed. The annual market for humic substances has grown rapidly for these reasons and due to eco-conscious features, but there is a limited supply...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - July 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lee JG, Yoon HY, Cha JY, Kim WY, Kim PJ, Jeon JR Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Vector-related stratagems for enhanced monoclonal antibody production in mammalian cells.
Abstract Provision of effective monoclonal antibody (mAb) based therapeutics requires careful combination of expression, selection and screening, in a suitable cell culture platform. The cell culture platform, in turn, requires high performance expression vectors for consistent and high production of mAb-based therapeutics. Further, the components of the vector need to be optimized via genetic engineering approaches, to exclude non-productive clones, reduce low secretion levels, eliminate improper functioning that affect mAb heavy chain and light chain ratio, glycosylation and aggregation, which in turn may lead t...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - July 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gupta K, Parasnis M, Jain R, Dandekar P Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

The state-of-the-art strategies of protein engineering for enzyme stabilization.
Abstract Enzymes generated by natural recruitment and protein engineering have greatly contribute in various sets of applications. However, their insufficient stability is a bottleneck that limit the rapid development of biocatalysis. Novel approaches based on precise and global structural dissection, advanced gene manipulation, and combination with the multidisciplinary techniques open a new horizon to generate stable enzymes efficiently. Here, we comprehensively introduced emerging advances of protein engineering strategies for enzyme stabilization. Then, we highlighted practical cases to show importance of enzy...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - May 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Liu Q, Xun G, Feng Y Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Multi-faceted strategy based on enzyme immobilization with reactant adsorption and membrane technology for biocatalytic removal of pollutants: A critical review.
Abstract In the modern era, the use of sustainable, environmentally friendly alternatives for removal of recalcitrant pollutants in streams resulting from industrial processes is of key importance. In this context, biodegradation of phenolic compounds, pharmaceuticals and dyes in wastewater by using oxidoreductases offers numerous benefits. Tremendous research efforts have been made to develop novel, hybrid strategies for simultaneous immobilization of oxidoreductase and removal of toxic compounds. The use of support materials with the options for combining enzyme immobilization with adsorption technology focused ...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - May 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zdarta J, Meyer AS, Jesionowski T, Pinelo M Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Microbial production of cyanophycin: From enzymes to biopolymers.
Abstract Cyanophycin is an attractive biopolymer with chemical and material properties that are suitable for industrial applications in the fields of food, medicine, cosmetics, nutrition, and agriculture. For efficient production of cyanophycin, considerable efforts have been exerted to characterize cyanophycin synthetases (CphAs) and optimize fermentations and downstream processes. In this paper, we review the characteristics of diverse CphAs from cyanobacteria and non-cyanobacteria. Furthermore, strategies for cyanophycin production in microbial strains, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Ralstonia ...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - May 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Du J, Li L, Zhou S Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Microbial engineering biotechnologies.
PMID: 31095968 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biotechnology Advances)
Source: Biotechnology Advances - May 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Singh BN, Raghubanshi AS, Koffas M, Gupta VK Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Triterpenoid-biosynthetic UDP-glycosyltransferases from plants.
Abstract Triterpenoid saponins are naturally occurring structurally diverse glycosides of triterpenes that are widely distributed among plant species. Great interest has been expressed by pharmaceutical and agriculture industries for the glycosylation of triterpenes. Such modifications alter their taste and bio-absorbability, affect their intra-/extracellular transport and storage in plants, and induce novel biological activities in the human body. Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze glycosylation using UDP sugar donors. These enzymes belong to a multigene family and recognize diverse na...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - May 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rahimi S, Kim J, Mijakovic I, Jung K, Choi G, Kim SC, Kim YJ Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

A comparison between the homocyclic aromatic metabolic pathways from plant-derived compounds by bacteria and fungi.
, de Vries RP Abstract Aromatic compounds derived from lignin are of great interest for renewable biotechnical applications. They can serve in many industries e.g. as biochemical building blocks for bioplastics or biofuels, or as antioxidants, flavor agents or food preservatives. In nature, lignin is degraded by microorganisms, which results in the release of homocyclic aromatic compounds. Homocyclic aromatic compounds can also be linked to polysaccharides, tannins and even found freely in plant biomass. As these compounds are often toxic to microbes already at low concentrations, they need to be degraded or conve...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - May 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lubbers RJM, Dilokpimol A, Visser J, Mäkelä MR, Hildén KS, de Vries RP Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

From lignocellulosic residues to market: Production and commercial potential of xylooligosaccharides.
es LR Abstract The updated definition of prebiotic expands the range of potential applications in which emerging xylooligosaccharides (XOS) can be used. It has been demonstrated that XOS exhibit prebiotic effects at lower amounts compared to others, making them competitively priced prebiotics. As a result, the industry is focused on developing alternative approaches to improve processes efficiency that can meet the increasing demand while reducing costs. Recent advances have been made towards greener and more efficient processes, by applying process integration strategies to produce XOS from costless lignocellulos...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - May 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Amorim C, Silvério SC, Prather KLJ, Rodrigues LR Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Spotlight on biodiversity of microbial cell factories for glycerol conversion.
Abstract Plant oil based industrial oleochemistry leads to a large side stream of crude glycerol, which offers itself as a low price carbon source for microbial chemical production. Compared to sugar, glycerol is more reduced and less microorganisms are able to use it as carbon source. An interesting feature of glycerol conversion is that many organisms cannot use it as carbon source at all, but they readily use it as electron sink under anaerobic conditions. In any case the number of pathways by which glycerol enters the microbial metabolism is quite limited. Having said this, an interesting variety of products o...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - May 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Russmayer H, Egermeier M, Kalemasi D, Sauer M Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Soft and flexible material-based affinity sensors.
Abstract Recent advances in biosensors and point-of-care (PoC) devices are poised to change and expand the delivery of diagnostics from conventional lateral-flow assays and test strips that dominate the market currently, to newly emerging wearable and implantable devices that can provide continuous monitoring. Soft and flexible materials are playing a key role in propelling these trends towards real-time and remote health monitoring. Affinity biosensors have the capability to provide for diagnosis and monitoring of cancerous, cardiovascular, infectious and genetic diseases by the detection of biomarkers using affi...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - May 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Meng L, Turner APF, Mak WC Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Synthetic genetic circuits for programmable biological functionalities.
Abstract Living organisms evolve complex genetic networks to interact with the environment. Due to the rapid development of synthetic biology, various modularized genetic parts and units have been identified from these networks. They have been employed to construct synthetic genetic circuits, including toggle switches, oscillators, feedback loops and Boolean logic gates. Building on these circuits, complex genetic machines with capabilities in programmable decision-making could be created. Consequently, these accomplishments have led to novel applications, such as dynamic and autonomous modulation of metabolic net...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - April 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xia PF, Ling H, Foo JL, Chang MW Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

RNAi therapeutic and its innovative biotechnological evolution.
Abstract Recently, United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Commission (EC) approved Alnylam Pharmaceuticals' RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutic, ONPATTRO™ (Patisiran), for the treatment of the polyneuropathy of hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis in adults. This is the first RNAi therapeutic all over the world, as well as the first FDA-approved treatment for this indication. As a milestone event in RNAi pharmaceutical industry, it means, for the first time, people have broken through all development processes for RNAi drugs from research to clinic. With this achieveme...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - April 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Weng Y, Xiao H, Zhang J, Liang XJ, Huang Y Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Sensing and transduction of nutritional and chemical signals in filamentous fungi: Impact on cell development and secondary metabolites biosynthesis.
ras P Abstract Filamentous fungi respond to hundreds of nutritional, chemical and environmental signals that affect expression of primary metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. These signals are sensed at the membrane level by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs contain usually seven transmembrane domains, an external amino terminal fragment that interacts with the ligand, and an internal carboxy terminal end interacting with the intracellular G protein. There is a great variety of GPCRs in filamentous fungi involved in sensing of sugars, amino acids, cellulose, cell-wall components, sex pher...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - April 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Martín JF, van den Berg MA, Ver Loren van Themaat E, Liras P Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Microbial production of sialic acid and sialylated human milk oligosaccharides: Advances and perspectives.
Abstract Sialic acids (SAs) are important functional sugars, and monomers of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (sialylated HMOs or sialyllactoses), which are crucial for improving infant development and can facilitate infant brain development, maintain brain health, and enhance immunity. The most common form of SA is N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), and the main forms of sialyllactoses are 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) and 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL). As functional food additive, the demand for NeuAc and sialyllactoses will continuously increase due to their wide and important fields of application. However, NeuAc an...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - April 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang X, Liu Y, Liu L, Li J, Du G, Chen J Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Editorial for special issue of biorefinery.
Authors: PMID: 31028788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biotechnology Advances)
Source: Biotechnology Advances - April 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Engineering enzyme access tunnels.
Abstract Enzymes are efficient and specific catalysts for many essential reactions in biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. Many times, the natural enzymes do not display the catalytic efficiency, stability or specificity required for these industrial processes. The current enzyme engineering methods offer solutions to this problem, but they mainly target the buried active site where the chemical reaction takes place. Despite being many times ignored, the tunnels and channels connecting the environment with the active site are equally important for the catalytic properties of enzymes. Changes in the enzy...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - April 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kokkonen P, Bednar D, Pinto G, Prokop Z, Damborsky J Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Biotechnological potential of engineering pathogen effector proteins for use in plant disease management.
Abstract A key component in the management of many diseases of crops is the use of plant disease resistance genes. However, the discovery and then sequence identification of these plant genes is challenging, whereas the characterization of the molecules that they recognize, the effector/avirulence products in pathogens, is often considerably more straight forward. Effectors are small proteins secreted by pathogens that can play major roles in modulating a plant's defense against attack. Effectors can be used to guide breeding of resistance genes, to trigger defense responses, and are part of integrated disease man...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - April 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Van de Wouw AP, Idnurm A Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Nanoengineered cellulosic biohydrogen production via dark fermentation: A novel approach.
Abstract The insights of nanotechnology for cellulosic biohydrogen production through dark fermentation are reviewed. Lignocellulosic biomass to sugar generation is a complex process and covers the most expensive part of cellulose to sugar production technology. In this context, the impacts of nanomaterial on lignocellulosic biomass to biohydrogen production process have been reviewed. In addition, the feasibility of nanomaterials to implement in each step of the cellulosic biohydrogen production is discussed for economic viability of the process. Numerous aspects such as possible replacement of chemical pretreatm...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - April 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Srivastava N, Srivastava M, Malhotra BD, Gupta VK, Ramteke PW, Silva RN, Shukla P, Dubey KK, Mishra PK Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Anti-cancer effects of polyphenols via targeting p53 signaling pathway: updates and future directions.
Abstract The anticancer effects of polyphenols are ascribed to several signaling pathways including the tumor suppressor gene tumor protein 53 (p53). Expression of endogenous p53 is silent in various types of cancers. A number of polyphenols from a wide variety of dietary sources could upregulate p53 expression in several cancer cell lines through distinct mechanisms of action. The aim of this review is to focus the significance of p53 signaling pathways and to provide molecular intuitions of dietary polyphenols in chemoprevention by monitoring p53 expression that have a prominent role in tumor suppression. P...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - April 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Khan H, Reale M, Ullah H, Sureda A, Tejada S, Wang Y, Zhang ZJ, Xiao J Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Advances in phytochemical delivery systems for improved anticancer activity.
Abstract Natural compounds have significant anticancer pharmacological activities, but often suffer from low bioavailability and selectivity that limit therapeutic use. The present work critically analyzes the latest advances on drug delivery systems designed to enhance pharmacokinetics, targeting, cellular uptake and efficacy of anticancer phytoconstituents. Various phytochemicals, including flavonoids, resveratrol, celastrol, curcumin, berberine and camptothecins, carried by liposomes, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions and films showed promising results. Strategies to avoid drug metabolism, overcome physiological bar...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - April 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lagoa R, Silva J, Rodrigues JR, Bishayee A Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Progress and perspective on cyanobacterial glycogen metabolism engineering.
Abstract As important oxygenic photoautotrophs, cyanobacteria are also generally considered as one of the most promising microbial chassis for photosynthetic biomanufacturing. Diverse synthetic biology and metabolic engineering approaches have been developed to enable the efficient harnessing of carbon and energy flow toward the synthesis of desired metabolites in cyanobacterial cell factories. Glycogen metabolism works as the most important natural carbon sink mechanism and reserve carbon source, storing a large portion of carbon and energy from the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle, and thus is traditionally rec...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - April 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Luan G, Zhang S, Wang M, Lu X Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

Immobilization of lipases on hydrophobic supports: immobilization mechanism, advantages, problems, and solutions.
-Lafuente R Abstract Lipases are the most widely used enzymes in biocatalysis, and the most utilized method for enzyme immobilization is using hydrophobic supports at low ionic strength. This method allows the one step immobilization, purification, stabilization, and hyperactivation of lipases, and that is the main cause of their popularity. This review focuses on these lipase immobilization supports. First, the advantages of these supports for lipase immobilization will be presented and the likeliest immobilization mechanism (interfacial activation on the support surface) will be revised. Then, its main shortcomi...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - April 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rodrigues RC, Virgen-Ortíz JJ, Dos Santos JCS, Berenguer-Murcia Á, Alcantara AR, Barbosa O, Ortiz C, Fernandez-Lafuente R Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

A field of dreams: Lignin valorization into chemicals, materials, fuels, and health-care products.
Abstract Lignin is one of the most abundant renewable resources on earth and is readily produced as a sidestream during biomass fractioning. So far, these large quantities of lignin have been severely underutilized, thereby wasting this valuable renewable. Recent technological advances in lignin recovery, breakdown, and conversion have now started forming the first sustainable value chains to take advantage of lignin. Microbial cell factories, inspired by nature's miscellaneous set of lignin-degrading microbes, are at the heart of these novel processes. Recent success stories in which the enzymes and pathways of t...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - April 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Becker J, Wittmann C Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research